Services as key to effective government
Chapter 3 positioned policy making and policy implementation as connected design activities and deﬁned policies as products that delineate and guide the development of any future public service. Policy making emerged as a design activity that establishes the criteria for the kinds of services that are possible and encouraged within a human system. It showed that policy and design have much in common but also that designing is not new to policy making or policy implementation. At the same time, we could see that neither design research nor policy studies have made the case for design in policy making and in policy implementation just yet. This chapter turns our attention to services. It explains what makes services central to policy intent, policy making and policy implementation.