Military Transformation: The Quest for Coherence and Adjustment
The explanation of how and why military organizations change has long been a core theme of inquiry in international relations and strategic studies, and over time studies in these disciplines have been enriched by contributions from organizational theory and policy analysis. This chapter has two purposes. The first is to reconstruct the drivers of change in military organizations, and to assess the literature on European armed forces. Starting from what we perceive to be the weaknesses of existing analyses, we show what aspects warrant closer attention and provide a framework within which it is possible to plot an analytical narrative of how the process of change has evolved. Our key argument – which closely mirrors the ‘frustration’ with grand theories of military innovation expressed in the most recent major book on the subject by Theo Farrell, Terry Terriff and Sten Rynning (2013) – is that understanding change requires looking into the ‘black box’ of what change actually is, and that an accurate analysis of the process of change is a first essential step that (at least in the case of Italy) has not yet been made.