Force Deployment and Field Experience from Afghanistan to Libya
This chapter analyses major military missions undertaken by Italy as the second set of empirical references with which to interpret defence transformation. The sections examine force deployment in the principal operations carried out since 2001: Afghanistan, Iraq, Lebanon and Libya. The focus is on the type of forces deployed and the approach adopted. Rather than providing a complete account of the missions, the sections empirically observe the coherence of force deployment with the type of mission, the process of adaptation to the environment based on existing doctrines and on learning in the field (which will be further developed in Chapter 5), and the crucial equipment deployed on the ground. For each mission, the sections focus on Italy and provide comparative references when appropriate. Each section contains references to French and British experiences in the same scenario. This chapter is based on a comprehensive analysis of secondary sources as well as on extensive primary ones, such as official documents and in-depth and semi-structured interviews with experts and military officers who participated in planning, missions and training.