chapter  7
The Reversal of Societal Development
Pages 14

Along with the shift from pre-modern to modern societies a ‘modern process of liberating and enhancing human creative potentials’ was actualised (Chapter 2). The less work was tied to the production of necessities (food and shelter), the more people were able to redirect their creative abilities and potentials towards selfchosen ends. At the same time, however, important constraints remained. Modern societal impulses, such as ideas of the modern polity and universal education had to ‘penetrate through’ pre-modern societal constraints that divided citizens into different classes of people.