ADHD, Comorbid Disorders, and Criminal Behavior
Attention de¿cit hyperactivity disorder is the most commonly diagnosed behavioral disorder of childhood and adolescence (Young et al., 2009). It is de¿ned clinically in the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) as a disruptive behavior disorder characterized by ongoing inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity occurring in several settings more frequently and severely than is typical for persons in the same stage of development. Three major types of ADHD have been recognized. The ¿rst is the predominately inattentive type (unorganized, dif¿culty following instructions or conversations, easily distracted and forgetful). The second type is the predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type (constantly in motion, restless, impulsive, dif¿culty in following directions). The third type is the combined type, in which the symptoms of the ¿rst two types are equally in evidence, which requires at least six of nine symptoms of each of the inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive for diagnosis. Most people with ADHD ¿t the criteria for combined ADHD, thus we concern ourselves with this type.