chapter  8
28 Pages

The Pompidou Centre: A Counter-Model Which Ends Up Imitating MoMA

Student revolts and other social unrest of the late 1960s and early 1970s challenged the supreme model of MoMA, to which the whole of the western  ˜›•ȱ ‘Šȱ ž›—Žȱ Šœȱ ‘Žȱ ĚŠœ‘’™ȱ ™›˜“ŽŒȱ ˜ȱ –Ž›’ŒŠ—ȱ Œž•ž›Žǯȱ Š›’œȱ  Šœȱ the main centre for the rebellious spirit of a new era; this is why particular ŠĴŽ—’˜—ȱ œ‘˜ž•ȱ ‹Žȱ ™Š’ȱ ˜ȱ ‘Žȱ ˜–™’˜žȱ Ž—›Žǰȱ  ‘’Œ‘ȱ  Šœȱ Œ›ŽŠŽȱ ’—ȱ ›Žœ™˜—œŽȱ ˜ȱ ‘ŽœŽȱ œ˜Œ’Š•ȱ–˜ŸŽ–Ž—œǯȱ žȱ ‘Žȱ–Š—¢ȱ Ž¡™ŽŒŠ’˜—œȱ ™•ŠŒŽȱ ˜—ȱ ‘’œȱ›˜ž—‹›ŽŠ”’—ȱ Œž•ž›Š•ȱ ŒŽ—›Žȱ Ž›Žȱ˜—•¢ȱ–Žȱ ˜›ȱ Šȱ ‘’•Žǯȱ˜˜”’—ȱŠȱ what has happened since the inauguration in 1977; one could argue that while the centre constitutes a landmark in the history of museums of modern and Œ˜—Ž–™˜›Š›¢ȱŠ›ǰȱ ’ȱ’ȱ—˜ȱœžŒŒŽŽȱ’—ȱŒ›ŽŠ’—ȱŠȱ›Ž—ǯȱ–’ĴŽ•¢ȱ ’ȱ Šœȱ ‘Žȱę›œȱ™›˜“ŽŒȱ˜ȱ‹ŽȱœŽŽ›Žȱ‹¢ȱŠȱž••¢ȱ˜›–Žȱ™˜œ–˜Ž›—ȱŒž•ž›Š•ȱ™˜•’Œ¢ǰȱ alongside the regeneration of historical quarters and the search for a greater ’—Ÿ˜•ŸŽ–Ž—ȱ˜—ȱ‘Žȱ™Š›ȱ˜ȱ ‘ŽȱŠž’Ž—ŒŽǯȱžȱ‘’œȱ ’—œ’ž’˜—ǰȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱœ˜ž‘ȱ ˜ȱ™›ŽœŽ—ȱŠ—ȱŠ•Ž›—Š’ŸŽȱ–˜Ž•ȱ˜ȱ˜ǰȱŽ—Žȱž™ȱ’–’Š’—ȱ’ǯȱ‘žœǰȱŠȱ‘Žȱ ›’œ”ȱ˜ȱŠ•’Ž—Š’—ȱ‘Žȱ›ŽŠŽ›ǰȱ‘Žȱ˜–™’˜žȱŽ—›Žȱ–žœȱ‹Žȱ™›ŽœŽ—Žȱ‘Ž›ŽȱŠœȱ the last chapter in the waning international position of New York’s MoMA,  ‘˜œŽȱ’—ĚžŽ—ŒŽȱŽ—Žȱž™ȱŠěŽŒ’—ȱ ‘Šȱ Šœȱ’—’’Š••¢ȱ™›ŽœŽ—ŽȱŠœȱŠȱ›Ž—Œ‘ȱ Œ˜ž—Ž›ȱ–˜Ž•ǯ

The rebirth of Paris as a modern and international capital for the arts

ȱ’œȱŒ•ŽŠ›ȱ‘Šȱ‘Žȱ‘’œ˜›¢ȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ˜–™’˜žȱŽ—›ŽȱŽœŽ›ŸŽœȱŠȱ™Š›’Œž•Š›ȱ™•ŠŒŽȱ in any book on museums of modern and contemporary art, but it is not certain  ‘Šȱ ’œȱ ™˜œ’’˜—ȱ œ‘˜ž•ȱ ‹ŽDZȱ ‘Žȱ Œ•’–Š¡ȱ ˜ȱ ˜—Žȱ Ž›Šȱ ˜›ȱ ‘Žȱ œŠ›’—ȱ ™˜’—ȱ ˜ȱ Š—˜‘Ž›ǯȱ›˜–ȱŠ—ȱŽŠ›•¢ȱ Ž—¢ȱę›œȬŒŽ—ž›¢ȱŸ’Ž ™˜’—ǰȱŒ›’’ŒœȱŠ›ŽȱŒ˜—›˜—Žȱ by this either-or scenario when trying to measure the impact that the artistic ›ŽŸ˜•ž’˜—ȱŠ—ȱœ˜Œ’˜ȬŒž•ž›Š•ȱŠ’Š’˜—ȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ•ŠŽȱŗşŜŖœȱŠ—ȱŽŠ›•¢ȱŗşŝŖœȱ–’‘ȱ ‘ŠŸŽȱ ‘Šǯȱ —ȱ Šȱ —ž–‹Ž›ȱ ˜ȱ Š›ȱ ‘’œ˜›¢ȱ ‹˜˜”œǰȱ ‘’œȱ avant-gardeȱ Ž¡™Ž›’–Ž—Š•ȱ ™‘ŠœŽȱ’œȱ›ŽŠ›ŽȱŠœȱŠ—ȱŽ—™˜’—ȱȮȱ¢ŽȱŠ—˜‘Ž›ȱŽ¡Š–™•Žȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ˜‹œŽœœ’˜—ȱ ’‘ȱ ‘Žȱ—Ž ȱŠ—ȱŠ••ȱ’œȱȁ’œ–œȂȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱŒ‘Š›ŠŒŽ›’£Žȱ‘Žȱę›œȱ‘’›ȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ Ž—’Ž‘ȱ ŒŽ—ž›¢ǰȱ›Š‘Ž›ȱ‘Š—ȱŠ—¢‘’—ȱ•’—”Žȱ˜ȱ›ŽŒŽ—ȱ‘’œ˜›¢ǯȱ‘Ž›Ž˜›Žǰȱ˜›ȱ‘Š›•Žœȱ Ž—Œ”œǰȱ‘ŽȱŒ›’’Œȱ ‘˜ȱ‘ŠœȱŽ–‹›ŠŒŽȱ‘ŽȱŽŽ—ŒŽȱŠ—ȱŽę—’’˜—ȱ˜ȱ™˜œ–˜Ž›—ȱ Š›Œ‘’ŽŒž›Žǰȱ ‘Žȱ˜–™’˜žȱŽ—›Žȱ˜Žœȱ—˜ȱ‹Ž•˜—ȱ˜ȱ ‘’œȱŒŠŽ˜›¢ǯȱ Ž—Œ”œȱ sees it instead as a ‘late modern’ building, the swan song of radicalism which ‘Žȱę›œȱavant-garde movements of modern art had introduced (Jencks, 1989,

™ǯȱřŖǼǯȱž›—’—ȱ—˜ ȱ˜ȱ’œȱ˜›Š—’£Š’˜—ȱŠ—ȱŠŒ’Ÿ’’Žœǰȱ‘Žȱ˜–™’˜žȱŽ—›Žȱ ’ȱ —˜ȱ œžŒŒŽŽȱ ‘Ž›Žȱ Ž’‘Ž›ȱ ’—ȱ œŽĴ’—ȱ ’œŽ•ȱ ž™ȱ Šœȱ Šȱ ™˜œ–˜Ž›—ȱ Ž¡Š–™•Žǯȱ However, there is one area where it was a precursor: during the mandate of Ž˜›Žœȱ˜–™’˜žǰȱ’ȱœ™ŽŠ›‘ŽŠŽȱ™›Žœ’Ž—’Š•ȱ ȁ ›Š—ȱ›˜“ŽŒœȂǰȱŒ›ŽŠ’—ȱŠȱ ™›ŽŒŽŽ—ȱ ˜›ȱ žž›ŽȱŽ—Ž›Š’˜—œȱ˜ȱ›Ž—Œ‘ȱ™›Žœ’Ž—œǯȱŽ›ȱ ‘Žȱ˜–™’˜žȱ Ž—›Žȱ‘Ž¢ȱŠ••ȱ Š—Žȱ˜ȱ‹ŽšžŽŠ‘ȱ‘Ž’›ȱŒž•ž›Š•ȱȁ–˜—ž–Ž—Ȃȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ—Š’˜—ǯ1 ‘Žȱ›Ž—Œ‘ȱ’‘ȱŽ™ž‹•’ŒȂœȱŠœŽȱ˜›ȱ›Š—Žž›ȱŠ—ȱ–˜Ž›—’¢ǰȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱœŠ›Žȱ

‘’œȱŒ˜–™Ž’’ŸŽȱ›ŠŒŽǰȱ™›˜‹Š‹•¢ȱ˜›’’—ŠŽȱ ’‘ȱ’œȱ˜ž—Ž›ǰȱ›Žœ’Ž—ȱ‘Š›•Žœȱ Žȱ Šž••Žǯȱ žǰȱ ž—•’”Žȱ ‘’œȱ œžŒŒŽœœ˜›œǰȱ ‘Žȱ ˜•ȱ Ž—Ž›Š•ȱ ’ȱ —˜ȱ ™Ž›œ˜—Š••¢ȱ ™Š›˜—’£ŽȱŠȱ’Š—’ŒȱŒž•ž›Š•ȱ ’—›Šœ›žŒž›Žȱ™›˜“ŽŒǯȱ —ȱŠŒǰȱ‘ŽȱŽ—›žœŽȱ‘Žȱ •ŽŠ’—ȱ›˜•Žȱ’—ȱŒž•ž›Š•ȱ™˜•’Œ¢ȱ˜ȱ—›·ȱŠ•›Šž¡ǰȱ ‘˜ȱœ™Ž—ȱŠȱŒ˜—œ’Ž›Š‹•Žȱ amount of his time on museums without being able to construct the Museum ˜›ȱ ‘Žȱ›œȱ˜ȱ ‘Žȱ Ž—’Ž‘ȱŽ—ž›¢ȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱ‘Šȱ‹ŽŽ—ȱŒ˜––’œœ’˜—Žȱ ›˜–ȱ Žȱ˜›‹žœ’Ž›ȱ˜›ȱ‘Žȱ‹žœ’—ŽœœȱšžŠ›Ž›ȱ˜ȱŠȱ·Ž—œŽǯ2ȱ‘’œȱ›˜ž™ȱ˜ȱ‘’‘ȱ›’œŽȱ ˜ĜŒŽȱ‹•˜Œ”œȱ˜—ȱ‘Žȱ˜žœ”’›œȱ˜ȱŠ›’œȱœ˜˜ǰȱŠ•˜—ȱ ’‘ȱœž™Ž›œ˜—’Œȱ˜—Œ˜›ȱ Š—ȱ—žŒ•ŽŠ›ȱŽ—Ž›¢ǰȱŠœȱ˜—Žȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱœ¢–‹˜•œȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ›Ž—Œ‘ȱ›ŠŒŽȱ˜ȱ–˜Ž›—’£Š’˜—ȱ  ‘’Œ‘ȱ Žȱ Šž••Žȱ  ’œ‘Žȱ ˜ȱ ›ž—ȱ ’—ȱ Œ˜–™Ž’’˜—ȱ  ’‘ȱ ‘Žȱ ǯȱ•˜—œ’Žȱ these, both the president and his minister for culture were looking at ways of ›ŽŽ—Ž›Š’—ȱ‘ŽȱŒŽ—›Žȱ˜ȱŠ›’œDZȱŠ•›Šž¡ȱŠŸ˜ž›Žȱ‘ŽȱœŽĴ’—ȱž™ȱ˜ȱ–žœŽž–œȱ and the encouragement of artists in the Marais – a neighbourhood in the centre of the capital which had escaped urban renovation in the previous century and  ‘’Œ‘ȱ‘Šȱ‘Ž›Ž˜›Žȱ›ŽŠ’—Žȱ–žŒ‘ȱ˜ȱ’œȱ™Ž›’˜ȱŒ‘Š›–ǯȱ‘ŽȱŠ›Š’œȱŒ˜—ŒŽ™ǰȱ ˜ŸŽ›ȱ Š—ȱ Š‹˜ŸŽȱ Š••ȱŠ•›Šž¡Ȃœȱ ˜‘Ž›ȱ ™›˜“ŽŒœǰȱ ’—Œ•ž’—ȱ ‘Žȱ ›ŽŽ—Ž›Š’˜—ȱ ˜ȱ ‘Žȱ Š••Žœǰȱ–Š¢ȱ‹Žȱ›ŽŠ›ŽȱŠœȱ‘Žȱ’––Ž’ŠŽȱŠ—ŽŒŽŽ—ȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ˜–™’˜žȱ Ž—›Žǯȱȱ Šœȱœ’Žȱ’—ȱ‘ŽȱœŠ–ŽȱŠ›ŽŠȱŠ—ȱ Šœȱ˜ȱ‹ŽŒ˜–Žȱ‘Žȱ™›’–Žȱœ¢–‹˜•ȱ˜ȱ ‘Žȱ›’œŽȱ˜ȱŠ›’œȱŠœȱ‘Žȱ’—Ž›—Š’˜—Š•ȱŒŠ™’Š•ȱ˜›ȱ‘ŽȱŠ›œǯ

1 Giscard d’Estaing delivered the Orsay Museum – although it was not completed  ‘Ž—ȱ‘’œȱ–Š—ŠŽȱŽ—Žǰȱ›Š—³˜’œȱ’ĴŽ›Š—ǰȱȱ‘Žȱ˜žŸ›ŽȱŽ¡Ž—œ’˜—ȱŠ—ȱ‘Žȱ‹ž’•’—ȱ˜ȱŠȱ —Ž ȱŠ’˜—Š•ȱ’‹›Š›¢ȱ ‘’•ŽȱŠŒšžŽœȱ‘’›ŠŒȱ‘Ž•™Žȱ˜ž—ȱ‘ŽȱžŠ’ȱ›Š—•¢ȱžœŽž–ǯ

2ȱ ȱ‘ŽȱŠ’˜—Š•ȱžœŽž–ȱ˜ȱ˜Ž›—ȱ›ǰȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱ›Ž˜™Ž—ŽȱŠŽ›ȱ‘Žȱ Ž›–Š—ȱ˜ŒŒž™Š’˜—ȱ ž—Ž›ȱ‘Žȱ’›ŽŒ˜›œ‘’™ȱ˜ȱŽŠ—ȱŠœœ˜žǰȱ ŠœȱœŒ›Š™’—ȱ‘›˜ž‘ȱŠ›˜ž—ȱŗŖŖǰŖŖŖȱŸ’œ’˜›œȱŠȱ¢ŽŠ›ǰȱ Š™Š›ȱ›˜–ȱŠȱŽ ȱŽ¡ŒŽ™’˜—Š•ȱŽŸŽ—œȱœžŒ‘ȱŠœȱ‘ŽȱŠ–˜žœȱŽ¡‘’‹’’˜—ȱLes Sources du XXème siècle, ˜›Š—’£Žȱ ‹¢ȱ ŽŠ—ȱŠœœ˜žȱ Š—ȱ Š–Žœȱ ˜‘—œ˜—ȱ  ŽŽ—Ž¢ǯȱ —ȱ Ÿ’Ž ȱ ˜ȱ ‘’œȱ œžŒŒŽœœǰȱŠ•›Šž¡ȱ ‘Š—Žȱ˜ŸŽ›ȱ˜ȱŽŠ—ȱŠœœ˜žȱ‘ŽȱŒ›ŽŠ’˜—ȱ˜ȱŠȱžœŽž–ȱ˜›ȱ‘Žȱ Ž—’Ž‘ȱŽ—ž›¢ǯȱ‘’œȱ™›˜“ŽŒȱ  Šœȱ—˜ȱ •’–’Žȱ ˜ȱę—Žȱ Š›ǰȱ Š—ȱ ˜ž•ȱ‘ŠŸŽȱ˜ŸŽ›Š”Ž—ȱ˜ȱ ’‘ȱ ’œȱ–ž•’Ȭ’œŒ’™•’—Š›¢ȱ content which included architecture, decorative arts, philosophy and music alongside the ę—ŽȱŠ›œǯȱŠ•›Šž¡ȱŒ˜––’œœ’˜—Žȱ‘Žȱ‹ž’•’—ȱ›˜–ȱŽȱ˜›‹žœ’Ž›ȱȮȱ ‘˜ȱ‘ŠȱŠ• Š¢œȱ Š—Žȱ to design a universal museum dedicated to philosophy, material culture and the arts – and the ™›˜“ŽŒȱ ŠœȱŽŸŽ•˜™Žȱ›˜–ȱŗşŜřȱž—’•ȱ‘ŽȱŠ›Œ‘’ŽŒȂœȱœžŽ—ȱŽŠ‘ȱ’—ȱŗşŜśȱ™žȱŠȱœ˜™ȱ˜ȱ’ǯ

Box 8.1 Urban regeneration of the centre of Paris in the political limelight

With the rising level of rents and real estate speculation on building land in ‘ŽȱŗşśŖœȱŠ—ȱŗşŜŖœǰȱ‘ŽȱŒŽ—›Žȱ˜ȱŠ›’œȱ‘Šȱ•˜œȱ ˜ȱ‘’›œȱ˜ȱ’œȱ’—‘Š‹’Š—œǰȱ ™Š›’Œž•Š›•¢ȱ‘˜œŽȱ ’‘ȱ–˜Žœȱ–ŽŠ—œǯȱ‘ŽȱŒž•–’—Š’˜—ȱ˜ȱ‘’œȱ™›˜ŒŽœœȱ Šœȱ the demolition of the Halles, which, or so the rumour went, was the outcome of a 1963 political decision after Madame de Gaulle had gone for a walk ‘Ž›ŽȱŠ—ȱ ŠœȱŠ™™Š••Žȱ˜ȱœŽŽȱœ˜ȱ–Š—¢ȱ›˜™Ȭ˜žœȱ’—ȱ‘ŽȱŒŽ—›Žȱ˜ȱŠ›’œǯȱ‘Žȱ –Š›”Žȱ Šœȱ–˜ŸŽȱ˜ȱž—’œȱ˜—ȱ‘Žȱœ˜ž‘Ž›—ȱ˜žœ”’›œȱ˜ȱŠ›’œȱŠ—ȱ ’‘ȱ’ȱ went the shops, the night transporters who delivered the goods, the bars, popular restaurants and the cafés, the small businesses linked to the market, the prostitutes and the rats – who were never seen but whose presence went  ’‘˜žȱœŠ¢’—ǰȱ›ŽŸ’Ÿ’—ȱ‘ŽȱŠŽȬ˜•ȱbourgeois ŽŠ›œȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ–Ž’ŽŸŠ•ȱ™•ŠžŽǯȱ —ȱœ˜ǰȱ˜—Žȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ–˜œȱ™˜™ž•Š›ȱŠ—ȱ—˜’œ¢ȱŠ›ŽŠœȱ˜ȱŠ›’œȱ Šœȱ›Š—œ˜›–Žȱ ’—˜ȱ˜—Žȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ–˜œȱŽ¡™Ž—œ’ŸŽȱšžŠ›Ž›œȱ’—ȱ‘Žȱ ˜›•ǯȱ Ž—¢ȬęŸŽȱœ›ŽŽœȱŽ••ȱ Ÿ’Œ’–ȱ˜ȱ ‘Žȱ™’Œ”ȱŠ¡Žǰȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱŽŸŽ—žŠ••¢ȱŒ•Š’–Žȱ‘Žȱ Š••Žœȱ‹ž’•’—ȱ ’œŽ•ǰȱ Žœ™’Žȱ™›˜Žœœȱ›˜–ȱ‘˜œŽȱ ‘˜ȱ›ŽŠ›Žȱ’ȱŠœȱŠȱ–ŠœŽ›™’ŽŒŽȱ˜ȱ—’—ŽŽŽ—‘Ȭ ŒŽ—ž›¢ȱ ›˜ž‘ȱ’›˜—ȱŠ›Œ‘’ŽŒž›Žǯȱ—ȱ‘Žȱ Š”Žȱ˜ȱŠ¢ȱŗşŜŞǰȱ‘Žȱ˜•ȱ–Š›”Žȱ had been taken over by orators, troupes of popular theatre, magic shows and ‘Š™™Ž—’—œǯȱ ‘’œȱ ž™œŽȱ ‘Žȱ ™˜•’’ŒŠ•ȱ ›’‘ǰȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱ œ›Ž—‘Ž—Žȱ ’œȱ ™˜œ’’˜—ȱ ’—ȱ ž—Žȱ  ‘Ž—ȱ Ž˜›Žœȱ ˜–™’˜žȱ Ž–Ž›Žȱ Ÿ’Œ˜›’˜žœȱ ’—ȱ ‘Žȱ ™›Žœ’Ž—’Š•ȱ Ž•ŽŒ’˜—ǯȱŽœ™’ŽȱŒŠ–™Š’—œȱ˜›Š—’£Žȱ‹¢ȱ‘ŽȱŒ˜—œŽ›ŸŠ’˜—’œœǰȱ ‘Šȱ Šœȱ•Žȱ ˜ȱ‘Žȱ–Š›”Žȱ Šœȱ™ž••Žȱ˜ —ȱ’—ȱŗşŝŗǯȱ‘Žȱ˜™’˜—ȱ˜ȱž›—’—ȱ‘ŽȱŠ›ŽŠȱ’—˜ȱ a green oasis was put forward, since there were no parks or gardens in the —Ž’‘‹˜ž›‘˜˜ǯȱ ˜ ŽŸŽ›ǰȱ˜–™’˜žȱ‘ŠȱŸ’œ’˜—œȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ›Šœœȱ‹Ž’—ȱ’—ŸŠŽȱ by hippies, so he opted instead for the construction of the Forum des Halles, a labyrinth of shops arranged on four underground levels, focused around the ȱ’—Ž›Œ‘Š—ŽǰȱŠȱŽȱ Šž••Žȱ™›˜“ŽŒȱŠ—ȱ‘Žȱ–Ž›˜ǯ

•˜œŽȱ‹¢ǰȱŠ—˜‘Ž›ȱž›‹Š—ȱŒ‘Š••Ž—ŽȱŠ Š’Žȱ›Žœ˜•ž’˜—DZȱ ’—ȱ ‘Žȱ ˜›”’—ȬŒ•Šœœȱ —Ž’‘‹˜ž›‘˜˜ȱ˜ȱŽŠž‹˜ž›ǰȱŠȱŸŠœȱ™’ŽŒŽȱ˜ȱ•Š—ȱ›Ž–Š’—ŽȱŽ–™¢ǰȱřŖȱ¢ŽŠ›œȱ ŠŽ›ȱ ‘ŽȱŽ–˜•’’˜—ȱ˜ȱ ‘Žȱ™˜˜›ȱ‘˜žœ’—ȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱ‘Šȱ˜ŒŒž™’Žȱ ’ǯȱ‘’•Žȱ ‘Žȱ –Š›”ŽȱŽœȱ Š••Žœȱ Šœȱœ’••ȱ’—ȱ˜™Ž›Š’˜—ǰȱ‘’œȱŽœ™•Š—ŠŽȱ ŠœȱžœŽȱ˜›ȱ™Š›”’—ȱ ŒŠ›œȱŠ—ȱŽ•’ŸŽ›¢ȱŸŠ—œǯȱ‘’œȱ Šœȱ ‘Ž›Žȱ •Š‹˜ž›Ž›œȱŠ‘Ž›Žȱ ˜ȱ‹Žȱ‘’›Žȱ ˜›ȱ •˜Š’—ȱ ˜›ȱ ž—•˜Š’—ǯȱ ‘’œȱ •Š—ȱ œž‹œŽšžŽ—•¢ȱ ‹ŽŒŠ–Žȱ Šȱ Š‘Ž›’—ȱ ™˜’—ȱ ˜›ȱŽ–˜—œ›Š’˜—œȱ˜—ȱ ‘Ž’›ȱ Š¢ȱ ˜ȱ•ŠŒŽȱŽȱ •Šȱ·™ž‹•’šžŽǯȱ —ȱŗşŜŞǰȱ ’ȱ Šœȱ Œ˜—ę›–Žȱ‘Šȱ‘Žȱœ’Žȱ ˜ž•ȱ‘˜žœŽȱŠȱ•Š›Žȱ™ž‹•’Œȱ•’‹›Š›¢ǰȱ•’”Ž•¢ȱ˜ȱ‹Žȱ‘ŽŠŽȱ ‹¢ȱŽŠ—Ȭ’Ž››ŽȱŽž’—ǰȱ ‘˜ȱ ŠœȱŒ˜—œ’Ž›’—ȱ‘Žȱ—•˜ȬŠ¡˜—ȱœ¢œŽ–ȱ˜ȱ›ŽŽȱ ŠŒŒŽœœȱ˜ȱžœŽ›œǯȱ‘Ž—ǰȱ‘Žȱ˜••˜ ’—ȱ¢ŽŠ›ǰȱ˜–™’˜žȱŽŒ’Žȱ‘Šȱ‘Žȱ›Ž—Œ‘ȱ ŒŠ™’Š•ȱ œ‘˜ž•ȱ ‘ŠŸŽȱ Šȱ —Ž ȱ —Š’˜—Š•ȱ Š›œȱ ŒŽ—›Žǰȱ ŽŠž‹˜ž›ȱ  Šœȱ ‘Žȱ ˜—•¢ȱ available site, so he immediately brought books and art together, because he  Š—Žȱ˜ȱŠŒȱšž’Œ”•¢ǯȱ•‘˜ž‘ȱ‘ŽȱŠ›’œȱŠ’›’Žȱ‘ŠȱŽŠ›–Š›”Žȱ‘Žȱœ’Žȱ˜›ȱŠȱ •’‹›Š›¢ǰȱ‘Ž¢ȱ‘Š—Žȱ‘Žȱ•Š—ȱ˜ŸŽ›ȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱŠŽǰȱ›ŽŽȱ˜ȱŒ‘Š›Žǰȱ˜—ȱŘřȱŽŒŽ–‹Ž›ȱ ŗşŜşȱ˜ȱ‹ŽŒ˜–Žȱ‘Žȱœ’Žȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ—Ž ȱ–ž•’Ȭž—Œ’˜—Š•ȱŽ—›Žǯ

—ȱ ŗşŜşǰȱ ›Žœ’Ž—ȱ ˜–™’˜žȱ Š——˜ž—ŒŽ3 his intention to create a new Œž•ž›Š•ȱŒŽ—›Žȱ’—ȱŠ›’œȱ ‘’Œ‘ǰȱ˜—ȱŠȱœ’—•Žȱœ’Žǰȱ ˜ž•ȱŒ˜–™›’œŽȱŠȱ•Š›Žȱ™ž‹•’Œȱ library with free access, a museum with its national collection of modern art, Ž’ŒŠŽȱœ™ŠŒŽœȱ˜›ȱŽœ’—ǰȱ–žœ’Œȱ›ŽœŽŠ›Œ‘ǰȱŽ–™˜›Š›¢ȱŽ¡‘’‹’’˜—œȱŠ••Ž›’Žœǰȱ Šž’˜›’ž–œȱ˜›ȱ‘ŽŠ›Žǰȱ•ŽŒž›ŽœǰȱŒ˜—ŒŽ›œȱŠ—ȱŒ’—Ž–Šǯȱȱ Šœȱ‘’œȱ›Žœ™˜—œŽȱ˜ȱ May 1968, since he was convinced that a cultural impetus of this magnitude Œ˜ž•ȱ ‘Ž•™ȱ ›Š—ŒŽȱ ˜ŸŽ›Œ˜–Žȱ ‘Žȱ Ž—œ’˜—œȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱ ‘Šȱ ’Ÿ’Žȱ ‘Žȱ Œ˜ž—›¢ǰȱ –˜›Žȱ ŽěŽŒ’ŸŽ•¢ȱ ‘Š—ȱ Š—¢‘’—ȱ Ž•œŽǯȱ ȱ  ˜ž•ȱ Š•œ˜ȱ ‘Ž•™ȱ Š›’œȱ ›ŽŠ’—ȱ ’œȱ supremacy on the international art scene, particularly as its intellectuals were ˜—ŒŽȱŠŠ’—ȱ•ŽŠ’—ȱ‘Žȱ ˜›•ȱǻ•Žž›¢ǰȱŘŖŖŝǼǯȱ˜ ȱ‘ŠȱŠ›œȱŠ—ȱŒž•ž›Žȱ‘Šȱ ‹ŽŽ—ȱ ›ŽŽę—Žȱ ˜ȱ ‹Žȱ ’ŽȬ›Š—’—ȱ Š—ȱ ’—Œ•žœ’ŸŽǰȱ —Ž ȱŠ›ŽŠœȱ ˜ȱ ”—˜ •ŽŽȱ and creativity could develop, not in isolation as formerly, but in a symbiotic ›Ž•Š’˜—œ‘’™ȱ  ’‘ȱ œ˜Œ’Ž¢ǯȱ ‘Šȱ  Šœȱ —ŽŽŽȱ  Šœȱ Šȱ Œž•ž›Š•ȱ ’—›Šœ›žŒž›Žȱ ‹ŠœŽȱ˜—ȱ’ŸŽ›œ’¢ǰȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱ˜••˜ Žȱ‘ŽȱŽ¡Š–™•Žȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱŠ’œ˜—œȱŽȱ•Šȱž•ž›Žȱ ˜™Ž—Žȱ‹¢ȱ’—’œŽ›ȱŠ•›Šž¡ȱ’—ȱ‘ŽȱŗşŜŖœǰ4 but the aim now was not to make

3ȱ ȱ‘Žȱ’ŽŠȱ˜ȱ‹ž’•’—ȱŠȱŒž•ž›Š•ȱŒŽ—›Žȱ’—ȱŽŠž‹˜ž›ȱ Šœȱ’ŸŽ—ȱ‘Žȱ˜ĜŒ’Š•ȱ˜ȱŠ‘ŽŠȱ Šȱ‘Žȱ–ŽŽ’—ȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱŠ‹’—ŽȱĜŒŽȱ˜—ȱŗŗȱŽŒŽ–‹Ž›ȱŗşŜşǰȱŠ—ȱ Šœȱœž‹œŽšžŽ—•¢ȱŽę—Žȱ‹¢ȱ ˜–™’˜žȱ‘’–œŽ•ǰȱ’—ȱŠ—ȱ’—Ž›Ÿ’Ž ȱ’ŸŽ—ȱ˜ȱLe Monde newspaper on the same day: ‘I would ™Šœœ’˜—ŠŽ•¢ȱ•˜ŸŽȱŠ›’œȱ˜ȱ‘ŠŸŽȱŠȱŒž•ž›Š•ȱŒŽ—›ŽȱȮȱ“žœȱŠœȱ‘˜œŽȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱ‘ŠŸŽȱ‹ŽŽ—ȱŒ›ŽŠŽȱ’—ȱ ‘ŽȱŠŽœǰȱœ˜ȱŠ›ȱ ’‘ȱ–’¡Žȱ›Žœž•œȱȮȱŠȱ™•ŠŒŽȱ‹•Ž—’—ȱ–žœŽž–ȱ ’‘ȱŒ›ŽŠ’ŸŽȱŒž•ž›Š•ȱŒŽ—›Žȱ  ‘Ž›Žȱ‘Žȱę—ŽȱŠ›œȱ ˜ž•ȱ›ž‹ȱœ‘˜ž•Ž›œȱ ’‘ȱ–žœ’ŒǰȱŒ’—Ž–Šǰȱ‹˜˜”œǰȱ›ŽœŽŠ›Œ‘ȱ’—˜ȱ‘ŽȱŠž’˜Ȭ Ÿ’œžŠ•ǰȱŽŒǯȂȱǻšž˜Žȱ‹¢ȱ–Ž•’—ŽǰȱŗşşŖǰȱ™ǯȱřŜŚDzȱŠ—ȱž›¹—ŽǰȱŘŖŖŖǰȱ™ǯȱřŚǼǯ

4 Inspired by the realizations of Jean Vilar, the great cultural missionary who founded ‘ŽȱŸ’—˜—ȱŽœ’ŸŠ•ȱŠ—ȱ‘ŽȱŠ’˜—Š•ȱ˜™ž•Š›ȱ‘ŽŠ›ŽȱǻǼǰȱŠ•›Šž¡ȱœŽȱž™ȱȁŠ’œ˜—œȱŽȱ •Šȱž•ž›ŽȂȱ˜ȱ™›˜–˜ŽȱŒž•ž›Š•ȱŽŒŽ—›Š•’£Š’˜—DZȱ‘ŽȱŒ›ŽŠŽȱ‘Žȱę›œȱ˜—Žȱ’—ȱŗşŜŗȱ’—ȱ‘’œȱ—Š’ŸŽȱ Œ’¢ȱ˜ȱŽȱ ŠŸ›Žǰȱ ‘Ž›ŽǰȱŽ¡ŒŽ™’˜—Š••¢ǰȱ‘Žȱ›Š—Žȱ‘Žȱ•ŽŠ’—ȱ›˜•Žȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱŸ’œžŠ•ȱŠ›œǰȱ ‘Ž›ŽŠœȱ ‘ŽŠ›Žȱ ˜ž•ȱ‹Žȱ‘Žȱ–Š’—ȱŠĴ›ŠŒ’˜—ȱ’—ȱ‘Žȱ˜—Žœȱ‘Šȱ˜••˜ ŽDZȱŠŽ—ǰȱ‘Žȱ‘·¦›ŽȱŽȱ•Ȃœȱ Š›’œ’Ž—ǰȱ ˜ž›Žœǰȱ–’Ž—œǰȱ ‘˜—˜—Ȭ•ŽœȬŠ’—œǰȱ ’›–’—¢ǰȱ Š—ȱ ›Ž—˜‹•Žȱ ǻ˜’››’Ž›ǰȱ ŘŖŖŖǰȱ ™™ǯȱ şşȮŗŖŘǼǯ

‘Žȱ–˜ŸŽȱ™›˜Ÿ˜”ŽȱŠ—ȱ’––Ž’ŠŽȱ™˜•’’ŒŠ•ȱŽ‹ŠŽǯȱ‘Žȱ›’‘ǰȱ‘Ž—ȱ’—ȱ™˜ Ž›ǰȱ argued that it was championing the regeneration of the area’s historical centre, Šȱ‘˜•¢ȱŽ‹ŠŽȱ’œœžŽǰȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱ‘Šȱ‹ŽŽ—ȱœ’ŽȬ•’—Žȱ‹¢ȱ‘Žȱž›‹Š—ȱŽŸŽ•˜™–Ž—ȱ ŠȱŠȱ·Ž—œŽȱȮȱ˜—ȱ‘Žȱ™Ž›’™‘Ž›¢ȱ˜ȱŠ›’œǯȱ‘Žȱ•ŽȱŽ™•˜›Žȱ‘Žȱ™Ž›–Š—Ž—ȱ Ž™Š›ž›Žȱ ˜ȱ ŽŠž‹˜ž›ȱ  ˜›”Ž›œȱ ‹žȱ ‘Žȱ ˜–™’˜žȱ Ž—›Žȱ œ˜˜—ȱ ›Ž ȱ crowds of visitors, a host of tourist establishments, restaurants and shops, •ŽŠ’—ȱ˜ȱŽ—›’ęŒŠ’˜—ǰȱ–’››˜›’—ȱ ‘Šȱ‘Šȱ‘Š™™Ž—Žȱ’—ȱ‘ŽȱŒŽ—›Žȱ˜ȱŽ ȱ ˜›”ǯȱ ˜ ŽŸŽ›ǰȱŽœ™’Žȱ™˜•’’ŒŠ•ȱ’—›’žŽœǰȱ’ȱ’œȱ ˜›‘ȱ›Ž–Ž–‹Ž›’—ȱ‘Šȱ‘Žȱ National Museum of Modern Art had made no impact on its surrounding Š›ŽŠȱ ‘Ž—ȱ ’ȱ Šœȱ œ’ŽȱŠȱ ‘ŽȱŠ•Š’œȱŽȱ˜”¢˜ǯȱ¢ȱ Œ˜—›Šœǰȱ ‘ŽȱŠ›ŽŠȱ ’—ȱ ‘Žȱ ’––Ž’ŠŽȱŸ’Œ’—’¢ȱ˜ȱŽŠž‹˜ž›ȱœŠ ȱŠȱ›Š™’ȱ’—Œ›ŽŠœŽȱ’—ȱ‘Žȱ—ž–‹Ž›ȱ˜ȱŠ›ȱ Š••Ž›’Žœǰȱ‹˜ž’šžŽœȱœŽ••’—ȱŽœ’—Ž›ȱ˜‹“ŽŒœǰȱœ‘˜™œȱ ’‘ȱ™˜œŒŠ›œȱŠ—ȱ™˜œŽ›œǰȱ Š—ȱ–ŽŽ’—œȱ™•ŠŒŽœȱ ˜›ȱŠ›’œœǯȱ ›ŠžŠ••¢ȱŠ—ȱŠ›’œœȂȱšžŠ›Ž›ȱŽŸŽ•˜™ŽǰȱŠœȱ ™’Œž›ŽœšžŽȱŠœȱ ‘ŽȱŠ’—ȱžŠ›Ž›ȱ˜›ȱ˜—–Š››Žǰȱ‹žȱ ‘’Œ‘ǰȱ ‘’œȱ ’–Žǰȱ Šœȱ Œ›ŽŠŽȱ›˜–ȱ‘Žȱ˜™ȱ˜ —ǰȱ˜••˜ ’—ȱ‘ŽȱŠ››’ŸŠ•ȱ˜ȱŠȱ–žœŽž–ȱŠ—ȱŠ›ȱŒŽ—›Žǯ

™Š›’Œž•Š›ȱ ˜›–œȱ˜ȱŽ¡™›Žœœ’˜—ȱŠŒŒŽœœ’‹•Žȱ ˜ȱ ‘Žȱ™ž‹•’Œǯȱ—ȱ ‘ŽȱŒ˜—›Š›¢ǰȱ‹¢ȱ concentrating what was new in culture on a single site it would encourage the ŠŸŽ›ŠŽȱŒ’’£Ž—ȱ˜ȱŠœœ’–’•ŠŽȱ ‘Šȱ Šœȱ˜—ȱ˜ěŽ›ȱ˜—ȱ‘’œȱ˜ —ȱŽ›–œȱȮȱ‹žȱ ’‘˜žȱ Ž™›’Ÿ’—ȱ‘’–ȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱŠœœ’œŠ—ŒŽȱ‘Žȱ–’‘ȱ—ŽŽȱ˜ȱ˜ȱœ˜ǯȱ Ž—ŒŽǰȱ‘ŽȱŒŽ—›Š•ȱ›˜•Žȱ of the library, conceived to provide general information rather than specialist advice, since the latest periodicals, magazines and books would be freely ŠŒŒŽœœ’‹•Žȱ˜ȱŽ—Š‹•ŽȱŽŠŒ‘ȱŸ’œ’˜›ȱ˜ȱœŠ’œ¢ȱ‘Ž’›ȱ˜ —ȱŒž›’˜œ’¢ǯȱ‘’œȱ’œȱ ‘¢ȱ‘Žȱ —Ž ȱ’—œ’ž’˜—ȱ Šœȱ—Š–Žȱ’‹•’˜‘¸šžŽȱž‹•’šžŽȱȂ—˜›–Š’˜—ȱǻǼDZȱ’ȱ Šœȱ –ŽŠ—ȱ˜ȱ™›˜Ÿ’Žȱ›ŽŠŽ›œȱ ’‘ȱ‘Žȱ–˜œȱž™Ȭ˜ȬŠŽȱ’—˜›–Š’˜—ȱ˜—ȱŠ—¢ȱ˜™’Œȱ Š—ȱ’—ȱŠ—¢ȱ’ŸŽ—ȱ–Ž’ŠȱȮȱ™›’—ǰȱę•–ǰȱ›ŽŒ˜›’—ǰȱŠ—ȱŒ˜–™žŽ›ȱŽ›–’—Š•œǯ ‘Žȱ—Ž ȱŒž•ž›Š•ȱŒŽ—›Žȱ Šœȱ–ŠŽȱž™ȱ˜ȱ˜ž›ȱ’쎛Ž—ȱŽ™Š›–Ž—œǯȱ™Š›ȱ

›˜–ȱŽŠ—ȱ’Ž››ŽȱŽž’—Ȃœȱǰȱ’——˜ŸŠ’˜—ȱŒŠ–Žȱ’—ȱ‘Žȱ˜›–ȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ—œ’žȱŽȱ ŽŒ‘Ž›Œ‘ŽȱŽȱŽȱ˜˜›’—Š’˜—ȱŒ˜žœ’šžŽȱžœ’ŒŠ•ŽȱǻǼȱ‘ŽŠŽȱ‹¢ȱ’Ž››Žȱ ˜ž•Ž£ȱȮȱ ‘˜ȱ•Žȱ‘’œȱ™˜œȱŠœȱ’›ŽŒ˜›ȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱŽ ȱ˜›”ȱ‘’•‘Š›–˜—’Œȱ›Œ‘Žœ›ŠDzȱ ‘ŽȱŽ—›ŽȱŽȱ›·Š’˜—ȱ—žœ›’Ž••ŽȱǻǼȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱŽ¡’œŽȱŠ•›ŽŠ¢ǰȱ‘ŽŠŽȱ‹¢ȱ ›Š—³˜’œȱ Š‘Ž¢ǰȱ Š—ȱ ŽŠ•ȱ  ’‘ȱ Ž¡‘’‹’’˜—œȱ ˜ȱ Žœ’—ȱ Š—ȱ Š›Œ‘’ŽŒž›Žǰś  Šœȱ ’—Œ˜›™˜›ŠŽDzȱ ę—Š••¢ǰȱ ‘Žȱ žœ·Žȱ Š’˜—Š•ȱ Ȃ›ȱ ˜Ž›—Žȱ ǻǼǰȱ ›Š—œŽ››Žȱ›˜–ȱ‘ŽȱŠ•Š’œȱ˜ȱ˜”¢˜ǰȱ—˜ ȱ‘Žȱ›Žœ™˜—œ’‹’•’¢ȱ˜ȱŽŠ—ȱŽ¢–Š›’Žȱ Š—ȱ˜–’—’šžŽȱ˜£˜ȱ˜••˜ ’—ȱŽŠ—ȱŠœœ˜žȂœȱ›Ž’›Ž–Ž—ǰȱ Šœȱ–Ž›Žȱ ’‘ȱ Ž›–Š’—ȱ’ŠĴŽȂœȱŽ—›ŽȱŠ’˜—Š•ȱȂ›ȱ˜—Ž–™˜›Š’—ȱǻǼ6 to form the Ž™Š›–Ž—ȱ˜ȱ›ǯȱȱ‹˜Š›ȱ˜ȱ’›ŽŒ˜›œȱ›Ž™›ŽœŽ—’—ȱ‘ŽœŽȱŽ™Š›–Ž—œȱ ˜ž•ȱ ‹Žȱ’—ȱŒ‘Š›Žȱ˜ȱ™•Š——’—ȱ‘›˜ž‘˜žȱ‘Žȱ’—œ’ž’˜—ǰȱœ’—ŒŽȱ‘ŽȱŽ—›ŽȂœȱŒ˜—ŒŽ™ȱ  Šœȱ —˜ȱ œ’–™•¢ȱ Š‹˜žȱ Œ˜Ȭ‘Š‹’Š’˜—ȱ ‹žȱ Š‹˜žȱ ŽŸŽ•˜™’—ȱ ŠŒ’Ÿ’’Žœȱ ŠŒ›˜œœȱ departments, about sharing communal spaces and about harmonizing the ™›˜›Š––’—ǯȱ˜ȱŽ—œž›Žȱ‘ŽȱŒ˜‘Ž›Ž—ŒŽȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ ‘˜•Žǰȱ‘Žȱ™˜œȱ˜ȱȁ›·œ’Ž—ȱžȱ Ž—›ŽȂȱ ŠœȱŒ›ŽŠŽȱ’—ȱ‘Žȱœž––Ž›ȱ˜ȱŗşŝŖȱŠ—ȱ’ŸŽ—ȱ˜ȱ˜‹Ž›ȱ˜›Š£ǰȱŠȱ‘’‘ȱ ›Š—”’—ȱŒ’Ÿ’•ȱœŽ›ŸŠ—ȱ ’‘ȱ•˜—ȱŽ¡™Ž›’Ž—ŒŽȱ’—ȱŠ–’—’œ›Š’˜—ȱŠ—ȱŠȱ›Ž™žŠ’˜—ȱ ˜›ȱ›ž•’—ȱ ’‘ȱŠ—ȱ’›˜—ȱęœǰȱ ‘˜œŽȱ–’œœ’˜—ȱ’ȱ Šœȱ˜ȱ–Š”Žȱ‘Žȱ™›˜“ŽŒȱ ˜›”ǰȱ  ’‘ȱ ‘Žȱ ™˜•’’ŒŠ•ȱ œž™™˜›ȱ ˜ȱ ›Žœ’Ž—ȱ ˜–™’˜žǰȱ ›’–Žȱ’—’œŽ›ȱ ŠŒšžŽœȱ ‘’›ŠŒȱŠ—ȱ›Š—³˜’œȱ’ĴŽ›Š—ȱ’—ȱ‘Žȱ˜™™˜œ’’˜—ǯ Žȱ˜ Žȱ˜ȱ˜›Š£ȱ‘Žȱ—Š–ŽȱŽ—›ŽȱȂ›ȱŽȱž•ž›Žȱ Ž˜›Žœȱ˜–™’˜žǰȱ

which he dreamed up after the death of the eponymous president in April ŗşŝŚǯȱ˜–™’˜žȂœȱœžŒŒŽœœ˜›ǰȱŠ•·›¢ȱ ’œŒŠ›ȬȂœŠ’—ǰȱœŽŽ–Žȱ’œ’—Œ•’—Žȱ˜ȱ

śȱ ȱ‘Žȱ ȁŽ—›ŽȱŽȱ›·Š’˜—ȱ —žœ›’Ž••ŽȂȱ ǻǼȱ Šœȱ ‘Žȱę›œȱ—Š’˜—Š•ȱ ŒŽ—›ŽȱŽŸ˜Žȱ ˜ȱŽœ’—ȱŠ—ȱ Šœȱ‹˜›—ȱ’—ȱ‘Žȱžœ·ŽȱŽœȱ›œȱŽŒ˜›Š’œǰȱ’—’’ŠŽȱ‹¢ȱ’œȱ’›ŽŒ˜›ȱ›Š—³˜’œȱ Š‘Ž¢ǯȱ

6ȱ ȱ˜ȱ˜ŸŽ›Œ˜–Žȱ‘Žȱ’œŠ™™˜’—–Ž—ȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱŠ’•ŽȱžœŽž–ȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ Ž—’Ž‘ȱŽ—ž›¢ȱŠȱ Šȱ·Ž—œŽǰȱŠ•›Šž¡ȱ‘ŠȱŒ›ŽŠŽȱ’—ȱŗşŜŝǰȱ’—ȱ‘ŽȱŠ—Œ’Ž—ȱ™Š•Š’œȱ˜‘œŒ‘’•ȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ›žŽȱŽ››¢Ž›ǰȱ ‘ŽȱŽ—›ŽȱŠ’˜—Š•ȱȂ›ȱ˜—Ž–™˜›Š’—ȱ ǻǼǯȱ ȱ œŽȱ ˜žȱ ˜ȱŽŸŽ•˜™ȱ Šȱ™›˜›Š––Žȱ˜ȱ ˜Œž–Ž—Š’˜—ȱ Š—ȱ ›ŽœŽŠ›Œ‘ȱ ’—˜ȱ Œ˜—Ž–™˜›Š›¢ȱ Š›ǯȱȱ ŽŠ–ȱ ˜ȱ–˜Ž›—ȱ Š›ȱ Œž›Š˜›œȱ Š—ȱ Œ›’’Œœȱ™ž›œžŽȱŠ—ȱŠŒšž’œ’’˜—œȱ™˜•’Œ¢ȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱ™›˜žŒŽȱ ˜›”œȱ‹¢ȱŠŒ˜—ǰȱŠ•‘žœǰȱ˜••˜Œ”ǰȱŽȱ ˜˜—’—ȱŠ—ȱ˜‘Ž›œȱ˜›ȱ‘ŽȱŒ˜••ŽŒ’˜—œȱ˜ȱ—Š’˜—Š•ȱ–žœŽž–œǯȱ‘’œȱ Šœȱ›ŽŠ›ŽȱŠœȱŠȱ™’•˜ȱ scheme for the Musée National d’Art Moderne, although only a handful of works actually Ž—Ž›Žȱ’œȱŒ˜••ŽŒ’˜—ǰȱŠŽ›ȱ‘Ž’›ȱŠ›’œȱ‘Šȱ’Žǯ

Œ˜–™•ŽŽȱ‘Žȱ™›˜“ŽŒǯȱ˜ȱŽ—œž›Žȱ‘Žȱ’ȱœ˜ǰȱ˜›Š£ȱ˜•ȱ‘’–ȱ‘Žȱ™›˜“ŽŒȱœ‘˜ž•ȱ be carried out under this title, honouring the memory of his predecessor and ˜•ȱ™Š›¢ȱŒ˜••ŽŠžŽǯȱ‘Žȱ’ŽŠȱ’ȱ—˜ȱŠ’•ȱ˜ȱ–˜ŸŽȱŠ—ȱŽ—‘žœŽȱ˜–™’˜žȂœȱ  ’˜ ȱŠ—ȱ›’Ž—œǰȱŠ’—’—ȱ‘Žȱœž™™˜›ȱ’—ȱ‘ŽȱŽ—ȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱŒ˜—œŽ›ŸŠ’ŸŽȱ–Š“˜›’¢ȱ ’—ȱŠ›•’Š–Ž—ȱȮȱŽŸŽ—ȱ’ȱ—ž–Ž›˜žœȱŒ˜—œŽ›ŸŠ’ŸŽȱ™˜•’’Œ’Š—œȱ˜ž—ȱ’ȱ’ĜŒž•ȱ˜ȱ ‘ŠŸŽȱŠ—¢ȱŽ—‘žœ’Šœ–ȱ˜›ȱ‘ŽȱŽ—›Žǯȱ—ȱ‘Žȱ˜‘Ž›ȱ‘Š—ǰȱ‘Žȱ™›˜™˜œŠ•ȱ Šœȱ—˜ȱ ˜ȱ‘ŽȱŠœŽȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ•ŽȱŠ—ȱ–Š—¢ȱŠ›’œ’Š—œȱœ‘˜ Žȱ‘Ž’›ȱ’œŠ™™›˜ŸŠ•ǰȱ ˜ȱ‘Žȱ ™˜’—ȱ ‘Ž›Žȱ‘ŽȱŽ—›ŽȂœȱ˜ĜŒ’Š•ȱ’Ž—’¢ǰȱœ‘˜›Ž—Žȱ˜ȱȁŽ—›Žȱ˜–™’˜žȂǰȱ Šœȱ ›Ž™•ŠŒŽȱ‹¢ȱŠȱ–˜›Žȱ™˜™ž•Š›ȱ—Š–Žǰȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱ˜ŒžœŽȱ˜—ȱ‘Žȱœ’ŽDZȱŽŠž‹˜ž›ǯ7 ˜‹Ž›ȱ˜›Š£ȱœ‘˜ž•ȱŠ•œ˜ȱ‹ŽȱŒ›Ž’Žȱ ’‘ȱ‘Žȱ’ŽŠȱ˜ȱ’Ÿ’—ȱ‘ŽȱŽ—›ŽȱŠ—ȱ

’—Ž™Ž—Ž—ȱŠ–’—’œ›Š’˜—Dzȱę›œȱ ‘’•Žȱ’ȱ Šœȱ‹Ž’—ȱŒ›ŽŠŽǰȱ˜ȱŽ—œž›Žȱ‘Šȱ‘Žȱ ‹ž’•’—ȱ ˜›”ȱŠ—ȱ‘ŽȱœŽĴ’—ȱž™ȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ˜ž›ȱŽ™Š›–Ž—œȱ’ȱ—˜ȱœžěŽ›ȱ›˜–ȱ ‘ŽȱžœžŠ•ȱ‹ž›ŽŠžŒ›Š’Œȱ‘˜•Ȭž™œDzȱ‘Ž—ȱ˜—ȱŠȱ™Ž›–Š—Ž—ȱ‹Šœ’œǰȱ˜ȱ™›ŽœŽ›ŸŽȱ‘Žȱ original infrastructure, which otherwise would have fragmented into separate Š–’—’œ›Š’˜—œǯȱ—ȱœ˜ǰȱ‘ŽȱŒȱ˜ȱřȱŠ—žŠ›¢ȱŗşŝśǰȱŽę—Žȱ‘ŽȱŽ—›ŽȱŠœȱȁŠȱ national public institution with a cultural mission endorsed with legal powers Š—ȱę—Š—Œ’Š•ȱŠž˜—˜–¢Ȃǯȱ‘’œȱ•Žȱ˜ȱ™›˜Žœœȱ›˜–ȱž—’˜—œȱŠ—ȱŒ’Ÿ’•ȱœŽ›ŸŠ—œǰȱ who thought that this status would inhibit the career prospects of the original ŽŠž‹˜ž›ȱœŠěǯȱ˜›ȱ‘’œȱŠ—ȱ˜‘Ž›ȱ›ŽŠœ˜—œǰȱ’ȱœŽŽ–œȱ‘Šȱ—˜—Žȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ›Ž—Œ‘ȱ museum professionals applied to run the new MNAM, which had been taken ˜žȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ™˜›˜•’˜ȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ’›ŽŒ’˜—ȱŽœȱžœ·ŽœȱŽȱ›Š—ŒŽȱǻž›¹—ŽǰȱŘŖŖŖǰȱ™ǯȱ ŞŝǼǯȱ‘Žȱ™˜œȱ‘Šȱ˜ȱ‹Žȱę••Žȱ‹¢ȱŠ™™˜’—’—ȱŠȱ™›Žœ’’˜žœȱ˜›Ž’—ȱ™›˜Žœœ’˜—Š•ǰȱ ‘Žȱ Ž’œ‘ȱ˜—žœȱ ž•Ž—ǯȱ Žȱ‘Šȱ›Š —ȱ•Žœœ˜—œȱ›˜–ȱ‘Žȱ’Œ˜—˜Œ•Šœ’ŒȱŠ—ȱ ŠŒ’Ÿ’œȱ–˜Ž•ȱ˜ȱŠ—‹Ž›ȂœȱŽŽ•’“”ȱ ‘Ž—ȱ‘Žȱ •ŠĴŽ›ȱ ŠœȱœŽŽ›’—ȱ‘Žȱę›œȱ development of Stockholm’s Moderna Museet, in a city which had always  Š—ŽȱŠȱŒž•ž›Š•ȱŒŽ—›ŽȱŠȱ’œȱ‘ŽŠ›ǰȱŠ—ȱ ‘Ž›Žȱę—ŽȱŠ›œǰȱ–žœ’Œǰȱ™˜Ž›¢ǰȱę•–ȱ Š—ȱ˜‘Ž›ȱ’œŒ’™•’—ŽœȱŒ˜ž•ȱ‹Žȱ‹›˜ž‘ȱ˜Ž‘Ž›ǯ ˜Ȭ˜—Žȱ Šœȱ‹ŽĴŽ›ȱœž’Žȱ˜ȱ•ŽŠȱ‘’œȱ–ž•’™•ŽȱŒ˜–‹’—Š’˜—ȱ‘Š—ȱ‘Žȱ–ž•’Ȭ

Š•Ž—Žȱ ž•Ž—DZȱ Š›ȱ ‘’œ˜›¢ȱ ›ŠžŠŽǰȱ Š›’œǰȱ ę•–Ȭ–Š”Ž›ȱ Š—ȱ ‘Žȱ ›’Ž—ȱ ˜ȱ —ž–Ž›˜žœȱŠ›’œœǯȱ‘ŽȱŠ™™˜’—–Ž—ȱ˜ȱœžŒ‘ȱŠȱ•ŽŠŽ›ȱ ŠœȱŠȱ™˜ Ž›ž•ȱŠœœŽȱ˜›ȱ ‘Žȱ™˜•’’ŒŠ•ȱŠ–‹’’˜—ȱ˜ȱ›Žž›—ȱŠ›’œȱ˜ȱ’œȱ›˜•Žȱ˜ȱ’—Ž›—Š’˜—Š•ȱŒŠ™’Š•ȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ Š›œǯȱ Žȱ™Šœœ’˜—ŠŽ•¢ȱ‹Ž•’ŽŸŽ8ȱ’—ȱ‘Žȱ›ŽŠ•’¢ȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ’—Ž›Ȭ’œŒ’™•’—Š›¢ȱ›ŽŠ–ȱ˜ȱ

7ȱ ȱ ȁȱ ’œȱ —˜ȱ ‘Žȱ Ž—›Žȱ Ž˜›ŽœȬ˜–™’˜žȱ  ‘’Œ‘ȱ ‘Žȱ ›Žœ’Ž—ȱ ˜ȱ ‘Žȱ Ž™ž‹•’Œȱ ’—Šžž›ŠŽȱ¢ŽœŽ›Š¢ǯȱ˜›ȱ‘ŽȱŸŽ›¢ȱ˜˜ȱ›ŽŠœ˜—ȱ‘Šȱ‘ŽȱŽ—›Žȱ˜–™’˜žȱ˜Žœȱ—˜ȱŽ¡’œǰȱ Š—ȱ ’••ȱ—ŽŸŽ›ȱŽ¡’œǯȱ˜–Žȱ‹Ž•’ŽŸŽȱ‘Šȱ—˜Ȭ˜—Žȱ ’••ȱœ˜™ȱœŠ¢’—ȱŽŠž‹˜ž›ȱŠ—ȱ‘Šȱ’œȱ‘˜ ȱ’ȱ œ‘˜ž•ȱ‹ŽǯȱŽŠž‹˜ž›ȱ›Ž“ŽŒŽȱ‘Žȱ—Š–Žȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱ‘Šȱ‹ŽŽ—ȱ’–™˜œŽȱ›˜–ȱ˜—ȱ‘’‘ȱ˜ȱŠ˜™ȱ˜—Žȱ suggested by the site: it is proof of its good health and bodes well for its future, at the very –˜–Ž—ȱ˜ȱ’œȱ‹’›‘ǯȂȱǻ ’••Žœȱ•Š£¢ǰȱLe Quotidien de ParisǰȱŗȱŽ‹›žŠ›¢ȱŗşŝŝǰȱšž˜Žȱ‹¢ȱŠ •Žœœǰȱ ŗşŞŜǰȱ™™ǯȱŝŜȮŝǼǯ

8ȱ ȱ—ȱŗşŝśǰȱœ‘˜›•¢ȱŠŽ›ȱ‘’œȱŠ™™˜’—–Ž—ǰȱ ž•Ž—ȱ ›˜Žȱ‘’œȱ‹ŽŠž’ž•ȱŽ¡DZȱȁŽŠž‹˜ž›ǰȱ ’—ȱ’œȱŒ˜—ŒŽ™ȱŠ—ȱŠ›Œ‘’ŽŒž›Žǰȱ›Ž™›ŽœŽ—œȱŠȱž—’šžŽȱŠ—ȱ˜›’’—Š•ȱŠĴŽ–™ȱ˜ȱ‹›’—ȱ˜Ž‘Ž›ȱ ‘Žȱ’쎛Ž—ȱŽ•Ž–Ž—œȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱ–Š”Žȱž™ȱ–˜Ž›—ȱŒž•ž›Žǰȱ’—ȱ˜›Ž›ȱ˜ȱ–Š”Žȱ‘Ž–ȱŠŒŒŽœœ’‹•Žȱ˜ȱ ‘Žȱ™ž‹•’ŒȱŠȱŠȱœ’—•ŽȱŸŽ—žŽǯȱ˜›ȱ‘ŽœŽȱ›ŽŠœ˜—œǰȱŽŠž‹˜ž›ȱ ’••ȱ˜ěŽ›ȱŠȱ›ŽŠŽ›ȱ˜™™˜›ž—’¢ȱ ˜ȱ Ž¡™•˜›Žȱ ‘Šȱ ‘Žȱ ’쎛Ž—ȱ ’œŒ’™•’—Žœȱ ‘ŠŸŽȱ ’—ȱ Œ˜––˜—ȱ Š—ȱ ‘Šȱ ’œ’—ž’œ‘Žœȱ ‘Ž–ǰȱ

ŽŠž‹˜ž›ȱȮȱŠŒŒ˜›’—ȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ‘’œ˜›’Œȱ–˜Ž•ȱ˜ȱŠž‘ŠžœȱŠ—ȱ˜‘Ž›ȱ Ž’œ‘ȱ Š—ȱžŒ‘ȱŒž•ž›Š•ȱŒŽ—›ŽœȱȮȱŠ—ȱ›Š™’•¢ȱŠ’—ŽȱŠȱ ˜›•Ȭ ’Žȱ›Ž™žŠ’˜—ǯȱ—ȱ ŗşŜŞǰȱ‘ŽȱŠ••˜ Žȱ‘’–œŽ•ȱ‘Žȱ•ž¡ž›¢ȱ˜ȱž›—’—ȱ˜ —ȱ‘Žȱ’›ŽŒ˜›œ‘’™ȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ MoMA in New York – due, according to him, to his aversion to the trustees, ȁŠȱŒ›˜ ȱ˜ȱ–’••’˜—Š’›Žœȱ ‘˜ȱžœžŠ••¢ȱ‘Šȱ•’Ĵ•Žȱ’—Ž›Žœȱ’—ȱ‘ŽȱŠ›œȂȱǻ’—Ž›Ÿ’Ž ȱ šž˜Žȱ’—ȱž›¹—ŽǰȱŘŖŖŖDZȱ™ǯȱŘśŖǼǯȱ˜›ȱ‘’–ȱ˜ȱŠŒŒŽ™ȱŠȱ™˜œȱ’—ȱ›Š—ŒŽȱ˜ȱœŽȱž™ȱ Šȱ™›˜“ŽŒȱ ‘Šȱ Šœȱ œ’••ȱž—ŒŽ›Š’—ȱ Šœȱ ‘Ž›Ž˜›Žȱ™Š›’Œž•Š›•¢ȱĚŠĴŽ›’—ǯȱ’‘ȱ ‘’—œ’‘ǰȱ‘’œȱŒ‘˜’ŒŽȱ™›˜ŸŽȱ‹Ž—ŽęŒ’Š•ȱ˜ȱ‘’–ǰȱœ’—ŒŽȱ’ȱ•Žȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ–˜œȱ•˜›’˜žœȱ –˜–Ž—ȱ’—ȱ‘’œȱ‹›’••’Š—ȱ’—Ž›—Š’˜—Š•ȱ–žœŽž–ȱŒŠ›ŽŽ›ǯ9 It is worth noting that Hulten always avoided using the word ‘Museum’ when discussing his place ˜ȱ ˜›”ǯȱ ’œȱ’••žœ›’˜žœȱ™›ŽŽŒŽœœ˜›œȱ˜ž’œȱ ŠžŽŒ˜Žž›ȱŠ—ȱŽŠ—ȱŠœœ˜žȱ‘Šȱ only reached the position of chief curator of MNAM, while Hulten himself  Šœȱ›Š—Žȱ ‘Žȱ ’•Žȱ˜ȱ’›ŽŒ˜›ȱ˜ȱ ‘Žȱ’—Žȱ›œȱŽ™Š›–Ž—ǰȱ ’—ȱ Œ‘Š›Žȱ˜ȱ œŒž•™ž›Žœǰȱ ›Š ’—œǰȱ ™›’—œȱ Š—ȱ ™‘˜˜›Š™‘¢ȱ Šȱ ‘Žȱ ˜–™’˜žȱ Ž—›Žǰȱ ‘Ž›Ž˜›Žȱ—˜ȱœ˜•Ž•¢ȱ ’‘’—ȱ‘ŽȱŒ˜—Ž¡ȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ–žœŽž–ȱ’œŽ•ǯ ȱ Œ˜ž›œŽǰȱ ‘’œȱ ˜—•¢ȱ ›Žœž•Žȱ ’—ȱ žŽ••’—ȱ ‘Žȱ ¡Ž—˜™‘˜‹’Šȱ˜ȱ œ˜–Žȱ›Ž—Œ‘ȱ

people, who witnessed with stupefaction the building of a national centre for ‘ŽȱŠ›œȱ ‘Ž›Žȱœ˜ȱ–Š—¢ȱ˜›Ž’—Ž›œȱ Ž›Žȱ˜ŒŒž™¢’—ȱ’–™˜›Š—ȱ™˜œœǯȱ‘Ž›Žȱ Šœȱ —˜ȱ˜—•¢ȱ ž•Ž—ȱ‹žȱŠ•œ˜ȱ‘ŽȱŠ•’Š—ȱžŒ’Š—˜ȱŽ››’˜ȱ’—ȱ‘ŽȱŒŽ—›Žȱ˜›ȱŽ•ŽŒ›˜Ȭ acoustics, or the Yugoslav Vonko Globokar, head of musical instruments and ‘ŽȱŒ‘˜’›ȱŠȱǯȱ‘ŽœŽȱ Ž›Žȱœ˜–Žȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ–˜›Žȱ™›˜–’—Ž—ȱꐞ›Žœȱ’—ȱ‘Žȱ —Ž ȱŠ››’ŸŠ•œǰȱŠȱ”’—ȱ˜ȱ›˜“Š—ȱ‘˜›œŽȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱ‘Šȱ‹ŽŽ—ȱ ‘ŽŽ•Žȱ’—˜ȱ›Š—ŒŽȂœȱ Œž•ž›Š•ȱŽŒ‘—˜Œ›ŠŒ¢ǰȱ ’—›˜žŒ’—ȱ–Ž›’ŒŠ—Ȭœ¢•Žȱ›ŽŒ›ž’–Ž—ȱ˜ȱ™›Žœ’’˜žœȱ ™›˜Žœœ’˜—Š•œȱ Ȯȱ ™˜œœȱ Ž–‹›ŠŒ’—ȱ ˜›Ž’—ȱ Šœȱ  Ž••ȱ Šœȱ ›Ž—Œ‘ȱ ŒŠ—’ŠŽœǯȱ Ž—Ž Š‹•Žȱ “˜‹ȱ Œ˜—›ŠŒœǰȱ Šȱ–Ž‘˜ȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱ‹ŽŒŠ–Žȱ ‘Žȱ—˜›–ȱ ’—ȱ ‘’œȱ ¢™Žȱ˜ȱ grand cultural institution, were one of the most striking novelties of the

Š—ȱ ’ȱ  ’••ȱ ŠŒ’•’ŠŽȱ Œ˜••Š‹˜›Š’ŸŽȱ ™›˜“ŽŒœȱ –˜›Žȱ Š–‹’’˜žœȱ ‘Š—ȱ Š—¢‘’—ȱ  Žȱ ‘ŠŸŽȱ ‹ŽŽ—ȱ ŠŒŒžœ˜–Žȱ˜ȱ ’‘’—ȱ›Š’’˜—Š•ȱ’—œ’ž’˜—œǯȱȱŽŠž‹˜ž›ǰȱ—Ž ȱ›Ž•Š’˜—œ‘’™œȱ ’••ȱ‹ŽȱŠ‹•Žȱ ˜ȱŽŸŽ•˜™ȱ‹Ž ŽŽ—ȱ™Š’—’—ȱŠ—ȱ–žœ’ŒǰȱŒ’—Ž–ŠȱŠ—ȱœŒž•™ž›Žǰȱ‹Ž ŽŽ—ȱ ˜›œȱŠ—ȱŠ—ŒŽǯȱ ‘Žȱ–Ž–˜›¢ȱ˜ȱŠȱŸ’œ’ȱ˜ȱŽŠž‹˜ž›ȱ ’••ȱ—˜ȱœ’–™•¢ȱ‹Žȱ‘Žȱ’–™›Žœœ’˜—ȱ•Žȱ‹¢ȱœžŒ‘ȱ˜›ȱœžŒ‘ȱ  ˜›”ȱ˜ȱŠ›ǰȱŠȱ™Š’—’—ǰȱŠȱ‹˜˜”ǰȱ˜›ȱŠ—ȱŽ¡‘’‹’’˜—ǰȱ‹žȱ ’ȱ ’••ȱ Œ›ŽŠŽȱŠȱ ‘˜ž‘ž•ȱ ’—Ž›™•Š¢ȱ ‹Ž ŽŽ—ȱŽ¡™Ž›’Ž—ŒŽœȱȮȱ ’‘ȱ‘Ž’›ȱŒ˜—›Š’Œ’˜—œȱŠ—ȱ–˜–Ž—œȱ˜ȱ ’—œ™’›Š’˜—ȱȮȱŠ—ȱ’ȱ ’••ȱ œž›ŸŽ¢ȱ›ŽŒŽ—ȱ ˜›”œǰȱœ˜–Ž’–Žœȱœ‘˜Œ”’—ȱŠ—ȱ’ĜŒž•ȱ˜ȱž—Ž›œŠ—ǰȱŠœȱ Ž••ȱŠœȱ‘’œ˜›’ŒȱŠ—ȱ Š–’•’Š›ȱ˜—ŽœǯȂȱǻŒ’Žȱ’—ȱŠ •ŽœœǰȱŗşŞŜǰȱ™ǯȱŞŚǼǯ

9ȱ ȱ —ȱŗşŞŗȱ‘Žȱ •Žȱȱ’—ȱŠ›’œȱ ˜ȱ‹ŽŒ˜–Žȱ ‘Žȱ’›ŽŒ˜›ȱ˜ȱ˜ȱ ’—ȱ˜œȱ—Ž•Žœȱ  ‘’Œ‘ȱ˜™Ž—Žȱ ’—ȱŗşŞřȱ ǻŠŽ›ȱŠȱ›˜ž™ȱ˜ȱŠ›’œȱ ›’Ž—œǰȱ •Žȱ‹¢ȱŠ–ȱ›Š—Œ’œǰȱ‹ŽŽȱ‘’–ȱ˜ȱ Š™™•¢ǯȱ ž•˜—ȱ‘ŠŸ’—ȱŽ–™Ž›Žȱ‘’œȱ›ŽœŽ›ŸŠ’˜—œȱŠ‹˜žȱ‘Žȱ–’••’˜—Š’›Žȱ–Ž–‹Ž›œȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ˜Š›Ǽǯȱ —ȱŗşŞśǰȱ‘Žȱ‹ŽŒŠ–ŽȱŠ›’œ’Œȱ’›ŽŒ˜›ȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ ›Šœœ’ȱŠ•ŠŒŽȱ’—ȱŽ—’ŒŽǰȱ‘ŽȱŸŽ—žŽȱ˜›ȱ‘Žȱȱ ˜ž—Š’˜—ȱŽ¡‘’‹’’˜—œǯȱ—ȱŗşŞŝǰȱ˜••˜ ’—ȱ˜£˜Ȃœȱ›Žœ’—Š’˜—ǰȱ‘ŽȱŒŠ–Žȱ‹ŠŒ”ȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ˜–™’˜žȱ Ž—›ŽȱŠœȱŠȱŒ˜—œž•Š—ǯȱ—ȱŗşşŖǰȱ‘Žȱ ŠœȱŠ™™˜’—ŽȱŠ›’œ’Œȱ’›ŽŒ˜›ȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ ž—œ‘Š••Žȱ’—ȱ˜——ȱ  ‘’Œ‘ȱ˜™Ž—Žȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ™ž‹•’Œȱ’—ȱŗşşŘǯȱ—ȱŗşşŜǰȱŠŽȱŜŘǰȱ‘Žȱ˜ž—Žȱ‘Žȱžœ·ŽȱŽŠ—ȱ’—žŽ•¢ȱ ’—ȱ¦•Žǯȱ—ȱŘŖŖśǰȱŠȱ¢ŽŠ›ȱ‹Ž˜›Žȱ‘’œȱŽŠ‘ǰȱ‘Žȱ˜—ŠŽȱ‘’œȱ˜ —ȱŠ›ȱŒ˜••ŽŒ’˜—ȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ˜Ž›—Šȱ Museet in Stockholm so that it could be displayed at a venue built to designs by his architect ›’Ž—ȱŽ—£˜ȱ’Š—˜ǯ

ȁŽŠž‹˜ž›ȱ™‘Ž—˜–Ž—˜—Ȃǰȱ˜ȱ›ŽžœŽȱŠȱ™‘›ŠœŽȱ›˜–ȱŠȱŒ›’’ŒȱǻŽ›˜¢ǰȱŗşŝŝDzȱ ‘’•Žȱ ˜••Š›ǰȱŗşŝŝǰȱŒ˜’—Žȱȁ‘ŽȱŒ‘Š••Ž—Žȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ˜–™’˜žȱŽ—›ŽȂǼǯ ˜ ŽŸŽ›ǰȱ ’ȱ ’ȱ  Šœȱ ‘Žȱ ›ŽŒ›ž’–Ž—ȱ ˜ȱ ˜žœ’Ž›œǰȱ ž—žœžŠ•ȱ ’—ȱ ›Š—ŒŽǰȱ

 ‘’Œ‘ȱ ‘Šȱ ę›œȱ ŠĴ›ŠŒŽȱ ŠĴŽ—’˜—ǰȱ ’ȱ  Šœȱ ‘Žȱ Š›Œ‘’ŽŒž›Š•ȱ Œ˜–™Ž’’˜—ȱ  ‘’Œ‘ȱ ›Ž™›ŽœŽ—Žȱ ‘Žȱ ›ŽŠŽœȱ ‹›ŽŠ”ȱ ’‘ȱ ›Š’’˜—ǯȱ ‘Ž›Žȱ Ž›Žȱ ˜—•¢ȱ ˜ž›ȱ ›Ž—Œ‘–Ž—ȱ˜žȱ˜ȱ—’—Žȱ“ž›¢ȱ–Ž–‹Ž›œ10ȱ ’—ȱŒ‘Š›Žȱ˜ȱœŽ•ŽŒ’—ȱŠȱ™›˜“ŽŒȱ›˜–ȱ ‘ŽȱŜŞŗȱŽ—›’Žœǯȱ‘ŽȱŒ‘˜œŽ—ȱŠ›Œ‘’ŽŒœȱ Ž›Žȱ‘ŽȱŠ•’Š—ȱŽ—£˜ȱ’Š—˜ȱŠ—ȱ‘Žȱ —•’œ‘ȱ’Œ‘Š›ȱ˜Ž›œȱǻ‘Ž—ȱ’—ȱ‘’œȱ‘’›’ŽœǼǰȱ’—ȱ™Š›—Ž›œ‘’™ȱ ’‘ȱŸŽȱ›ž™ǰȱ ‘ŽȱŠ—’œ‘ȱ œ›žŒž›Š•ȱ Ž—’—ŽŽ›œǯȱ••ȱ Ž›Žȱ ‹ŠœŽȱ ’—ȱ˜—˜—ǰȱ Š—ȱ ‘Ž›Žȱ Šœȱ a solid foreign contingent among the suppliers, for instance, the steel came ›˜–ȱ ›ž™™ȱŠ—ȱ‘ŽȱŽœŒŠ•Š˜›œȱ›˜–ȱŠ™Š—ǯ ‘ŽȱœŽ•ŽŒŽȱŽ—›¢ȱ Šœȱ‘Žȱ˜—•¢ȱ˜—Žȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱ’ȱ—˜ȱŒ˜–™•¢ȱ ’‘ȱ‘Žȱ‹›’Žǰȱ

œ’—ŒŽȱ‘ŽȱŠ›Œ‘’ŽŒœȱ‘Šȱ‹ŽŽ—ȱŽ¡™›Žœœ•¢ȱ›ŽšžŽœŽȱ˜ȱŽœ’—ȱŠȱŸŠœȱ‹ž’•’—ȱ˜—ȱ ˜—Žȱ•ŽŸŽ•ǯȱžȱ’Š—˜ȱŠ—ȱ˜Ž›œȱ Ž›Žȱ™›˜™˜œ’—ȱ˜ȱ•ŽŠŸŽȱ‘Žȱ–Š“˜›ȱ™Š›ȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ site level in order to create a large piazza and then erect a building several œ˜›Ž¢œȱŠ‹˜ŸŽȱ›˜ž—ȱǻ›˜˜ǰȱŘŖŖśDZȱ™ǯȱśŞřǼǯȱŽȱ‘’œȱ Šœȱ‘ŽȱŽ—›¢ȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱŒŠ–Žȱ Œ•˜œŽœȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱœ™’›’ȱ˜ȱ‘’‘ȬŽŒ‘ȱŽ¡™Ž›’–Ž—Š’˜—ǰȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱžœ’˜—ȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱŠ›œȱŠ—ȱ to embracing the public, all themes which had shaped the creation of this new Œž•ž›Š•ȱ ŒŽ—›Žǯȱ‘ŽȱŠ›Œ‘’ŽŒœȱ™›˜™˜œŽȱŠȱ ž—Œ’˜—Š•ȱ‹ž’•’—ȱȮȱŠȱ ȁ–ŠŒ‘’—Žȱ ˜ȱŽ¡‘’‹’ȂȱȮȱ–ŠŽȱž™ȱ˜ȱ–ž•’Ȭž—Œ’˜—Š•ȱœ™ŠŒŽœǰȱ ’‘’—ȱŠȱ›Š—œ™Š›Ž—ȱ ‘˜•Žǰȱ ›Š—œ™Š›Ž—ȱ ˜ȱ ‘Žȱ ™˜’—ȱ ˜ȱ ’œ™•Š¢’—ȱ ‘Žȱ ‹ž’•’—Ȃœȱ ’—Ž›—Š•ȱ ˜›Š—œǯȱ ‘’œȱ approach was intended to enhance the relationship between the interior spaces Š—ȱ˜ȱŠ›˜žœŽȱŒž›’˜œ’¢ȱ ‘Ž—ȱ˜—Žȱ•˜˜”Žȱ˜žȱ›˜–ȱ’—œ’Žǯȱ‘ŽȱŠ›Œ‘’ŽŒœȱ•Žȱ the entire space on each level unencumbered, also factoring in the possibility of changing ceiling heights to insert mezzanine levels – provided all ducts for ventilation and casings for electricity, water and gas, and all lifts were ›Ž›˜ž™Žȱ˜—ȱ‘Žȱœ’Žȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ‹ž’•’—ȱŠŒ’—ȱ›žŽȱžȱŽ—Š›ǯȱ˜ȱ–Š”Žȱ‘’œȱ—˜ŸŽ•ȱ arrangement more visible, they placed ducts and pipe covers on the outside of the metallic ‘skeleton’, and underlined their presence with bright colours, ŽŸ˜’ȱ ˜ȱ œ¢–‹˜•’Œȱ –ŽŠ—’—ǯ11ȱ žȱ ‘Žȱ Œ˜•˜ž›œȱ  Ž›Žȱ —˜ȱ žœŽȱ ›Š—˜–•¢DZȱ electric casings were in orange tubes, blue for ventilation, green for water, red ˜›ȱ•’œǰȱŽœŒŠ•Š˜›œȱŠ—ȱ˜‘Ž›ȱ–˜Ÿ’—ȱ™Š›œǯ šžŠ••¢ȱ—˜—ȬŒ˜—˜›–’œȱ Šœȱ‘ŽȱŒ‘˜’ŒŽȱ˜ȱ‹ž’•’—ȱ˜—ȱŠȱ›Ž•Š’ŸŽ•¢ȱœ–Š••ȱŠ›ŽŠȱ

˜ȱ‘Žȱœ’ŽǰȱŠ•˜—ȱ‘Žȱ›žŽȱžȱŽ—Š›ǰȱŽœ™’Žȱ‘ŽȱŸŠœȱ›˜ž—ȱŠȱ‘Ž’›ȱ’œ™˜œŠ•ǯȱ

10ȱ ȱ‘Žȱ“ž›¢ȱ Šœȱ–ŠŽȱž™ȱ˜ȱŽŠ—ȱ›˜žŸ·ȱǻ™›Žœ’Ž—Ǽǰȱ Š·Š—ȱ’Œ˜—ȱǻŸ’ŒŽȬ™›Žœ’Ž—Ǽǰȱ ‘’•’™ȱ˜‘—œ˜—ǰȱ1–’•Žȱ’••ŠžǰȱœŒŠ›ȱ’Ž–Ž¢Ž›ǰȱ’Œ‘Ž•ȱŠŒ•˜ĴŽǰȱ’›ȱ›Š—”ȱ›Š—Œ’œǰȱ’••’Š–ȱ Š—‹Ž›ȱŠ—ȱ Ž›–Š—ȱ’Ž‹ŠŽ›œǯ

11ȱ ȱȁ•žŽǰȱ›Žǰȱ¢Ž••˜ ǯȱȱ Šœȱ’œ™•Š¢’—ȱŠȱœ™’›’ȱ˜ȱ›Ž‹Ž••’˜—ȱ˜ȱ™žȱŒ˜•˜ž›œȱ˜—ȱŽŠž‹˜ž›ǰȱ ’—ȱ ‘Žȱ–’•Žȱ˜ȱ›Ž¢ȱŠ›’œǰȱŽŸŽ—ȱ ’‘˜žȱ‹Ž’—ȱŠȱŒŠ•Œž•ŠŽȱŽœž›Žǯȱ‘Žȱ‘›ŽŽȱ™›’–Š›’Žœȱ – blue, red, yellow – read like a manifesto of culture for all: a demanding fundamentalism, ˜ȱ ‘Žȱ œŠ–Žȱ ˜›Ž›ȱ Šœȱ ‘Žȱ ›Š—œ™Š›Ž—ȱ •Šœœȱ ‘˜žœŽȱ ǻdzǼȱ ‘Žȱ Š‹œŽ—ŒŽȱ ˜ȱ œ¢–‹˜•’Œȱ Œ˜—Ž—ǰȱ Š•˜—œ’Žȱ ‘Žȱ Š—’Ȭ–˜—ž–Ž—Š•ȱ Š™™ŽŠ›Š—ŒŽȱ ˜ȱ ‘Žȱ Ž—›Žǰȱ ›Š—œ•ŠŽȱ  Ž••ȱ ‘Žȱ œžœ™’Œ’˜—ȱ ˜ȱ ‘ŽȱŗşŜŞȱŽ—Ž›Š’˜—ȱ ˜ Š›œȱ ›Ž™›ŽœŽ—Š’˜—ǰȱŠ—ȱ—˜Š‹•¢ȱ ‘Žȱ ›Ž™›ŽœŽ—Š’˜—ȱ˜ȱ™˜ Ž›ǯȂȱ ǻž›¹—ŽǰȱŘŖŖŖǰȱ™ǯȱŚśǼ

‘Žȱ›Žœȱ‘Ž¢ȱŒ‘˜œŽȱ˜ȱž›—ȱ’—˜ȱŠ—ȱŽ—˜›–˜žœȱ™ŽŽœ›’Š—’£Žȱ™ž‹•’Œȱ™•ŠŒŽǯȱ¢ȱ doing so they turned their back on the Modern Movement tradition, which would have dictated that the building be placed in the centre of the plot, in the middle of a green space, in order to accentuate the sculptural character of ‘Žȱ‹ž’•’—Ȃœȱ™›˜ę•Žȱ ‘’•ŽȱŒ›ŽŠ’—ȱŠȱ•˜ŒŠ•ȱŸ’œžŠ•ȱ •Š—–Š›”ȱ’—ȱ‘Žȱ™›˜ŒŽœœǯȱ žȱ ’ȱŠ•œ˜ȱ ›Žœ’œŽȱ™›Žœœž›Žȱ ›˜–ȱŒ˜—œŽ›ŸŠ’ŸŽȱ ˜ —ȱ™•Š——Ž›œǰȱ ‘˜ȱŠ›žŽȱ ‘Šȱ‘Žȱ‹ž’•’—ȱœ‘˜ž•ȱ‹ŽȱŠ•’—Žȱ ’‘ȱ‘Žȱ›žŽȱȱŠ›’—ǰȱ˜—Žȱ˜ȱŠ›’œȂȱ˜•Žœȱ œ›ŽŽœǰȱŠ—ȱŽ–Š—Žȱ‘Šȱ‘Žȱ—Ž ȱŠ³ŠŽȱ‹Žȱ›Žœ™ŽŒž•ȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱž›‹Š—ȱŒ˜—Ž¡ǰȱ in other words pastiched – this section of street has now been incorporated ’—˜ȱ‘Žȱ™’Š££Šǯȱ‘Žȱ™’Š££Šȱ Šœȱ’—ŽŽȱ‘Žȱ”Ž¢ȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱœŒ‘Ž–ŽǰȱŒ˜–‹’—’—ȱŽŠœŽȱ ˜ȱŒ˜––ž—’ŒŠ’˜—ȱ ’‘ȱœ™ŠŒŽȱ˜›ȱœ™˜—Š—Ž˜žœȱŠ‘Ž›’—œǯȱȱ Šœȱ’—ȱ˜›Ž›ȱ˜ȱ free this public space that car parks were relegated to being underground on ‘›ŽŽȱ•ŽŸŽ•œǯȱ˜ȱ˜˜ȱ Ž›Žȱ‘Žȱ›ŽœŽ›ŸŽȱŒ˜••ŽŒ’˜—œǰȱ›Žœž•’—ȱ’—ȱ‘ŽȱŽ¡ŒŠŸŠ’˜—ȱ˜ȱ •ŠŒŽȱ›ŠŸ’—œ”¢ȱ˜ȱ‹ž’•ȱ’Ž››Žȱ˜ž•Ž£Ȃœȱȱœ˜ȱŠœȱ—˜ȱ˜ȱ˜‹œ›žŒȱ‘ŽȱŸ’Ž ȱ ˜ȱ‘Žȱ—˜›‘ȱŠ³ŠŽȱ˜ȱŠ’—ȱŽ››’ȂœȱŒ‘ž›Œ‘ȱǻŠ›’—Ž••’ǰȱŗşŝŞǼǯȱȱ˜™’Š—ȱ ›’Ž›ȱ even proposed the truly revolutionary idea of an entire building constructed ž—Ž››˜ž—ǯ12 ’Š—˜ȱŠ—ȱ˜Ž›œȂœȱœŒ‘Ž–Žȱ Šœȱ–˜›Žȱ›Žœ™ŽŒž•ȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱž›‹Š—ȱŒ˜—Ž¡ȱ‘Š—ȱ

’œȱ ‘’‘ȬŽŒ‘ȱ Š›Œ‘’ŽŒž›Žȱ  ˜ž•ȱ œžŽœǯȱ ‘Ž¢ȱ  ’œ‘Žȱ ˜›ȱ Ÿ’œ’˜›œȱ ˜ȱ ‘Žȱ Ž—›Žȱ˜ȱ‹ŽȱŠ‹•Žȱ˜ȱŠ–’›Žȱ‘ŽȱŒ’¢œŒŠ™ŽȱŠȱŠ—¢ȱ’–Žǰ13 both from the building itself, and even literally through it: hence the glass walls, lifts, escalators Š—ȱ›Š’œ’—ȱ‘Žȱ‹ž’•’—ȱ˜—ȱ™’•Žœǯȱ‘Ž›ŽŠœȱ‘Ž’›ȱ˜›’’—Š•ȱœŒ‘Ž–Žȱ™›˜™˜œŽȱŠȱ ›Š’œŽȱ‹ž’•’—ǰȱ‹Š›Ž•¢ȱ˜žŒ‘’—ȱ‘Žȱ›˜ž—ǰȱ›Ž—Œ‘ȱ•Š œȱ˜ȱꛎȱ™›ŽŸŽ—’˜—ȱ and planning laws forbade this arrangement, and the architects were forced ˜ȱ›ŽžŒŽȱ‘Žȱ‹ž’•’—ȱ‹¢ȱ˜—ŽȱĚ˜˜›ȱŠ—ȱ˜ȱ‘ŠŸŽȱ’ȱ›Žœȱ’›ŽŒ•¢ȱ˜—ȱ‘Žȱ›˜ž—ȱ ǻ˜˜•’ŽǰȱŗşŞşDZȱ™™ǯȱşśȮŞǰȱ’ž›ŽȱŞŚǼǯ ‘Žȱ œ•˜™Žȱ ˜ȱ ‘Žȱ ™’Š££ŠȂœȱ ™ŠŸŽ–Ž—ȱ ˜ Š›œȱ ‘Žȱ Ž—›Š—ŒŽȱ ˜ȱ ‘Žȱ Ž—›Žȱ

œŽŽ–Žȱ ˜ȱ ’—Ÿ’Žȱ ‘Žȱ ™ŠœœŽ›Ȭ‹¢ȱ ˜ȱ Œ˜–Žȱ Œ•˜œŽ›ȱ ’—ȱ Šȱ Ž•Œ˜–’—ȱ Žœž›Žȱ Ȯȱ Šȱ ŽŸ’ŒŽȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱ‘Šœȱ‹ŽŽ—ȱ›ŽȬžœŽȱŠȱ‘Žȱ žŽ—‘Ž’–ȱžœŽž–ȱ’—ȱ’•‹Š˜ȱŠ—ȱŠȱ ‘ŽȱŠŽȱ˜Ž›—ȱ’—ȱ˜—˜—ǯȱ‘’œȱŽ—’Œ’—ȱ’—Ÿ’Š’˜—ȱŽ—Œ˜ž›ŠŽȱ˜ž›’œœȱŠ—ȱ

12ȱ ȱœ’—ȱ‘Žȱ™œŽž˜—¢–ȱ˜ȱ žœŠŸŽȱ쎞•™’—ǰȱ‘Žȱœ˜Œ’˜•˜’œȱ•‹Ž›ȱŽ’œŽ›ȱ™ž‹•’œ‘Žȱ Š—ȱŽœœŠ¢ȱ’—ȱŗşŝŜȱ’•ŽȱȁŠȱœ˜’Ȭ’œŠ—ȱž˜™’ŽȱžȱŒŽ—›ŽȱŽŠž‹˜ž›Ȃȱǻ‘Žȱœ˜ȬŒŠ••ŽȱŽŠž‹˜ž›ȱ ž˜™’ŠǼǰȱ ‘Ž›Žȱ‘Žȱ’–Š’—ŽȱŝŖȱĚ˜˜›œȱ‹ž’•ȱž—Ž››˜ž—ȱǻœŽŽȱ‘Žȱ—•’œ‘ȱŒ˜––Ž—Š›¢ȱ˜ȱ‘’œȱ Ž¡ȱ–ŠŽȱ‹¢ȱ›Ž’ǰȱŘŖŖŝǼǯ

13ȱ ȱȁ—ȱŠȱŒ’¢ȱŠœȱŽ—œŽȱŠœȱŠ›’œǰȱ Žȱ‘˜ž‘ȱ Žȱœ‘˜ž•ȱ—˜ȱžœŽȱ‘Žȱ˜Š•ȱŠ›ŽŠȱŠŸŠ’•Š‹•Žȱ˜ȱ us, in order to create a parvis, a sort of clearing, with activities closely complementing those ™›˜™˜œŽȱ’—ȱ‘ŽȱŽ—›Žǯȱ‘ŽȱŽœ™•Š—ŠŽȱ—ŽŽŽȱ˜ȱ‹Žȱ•’—”Žȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ Š••Žœȱ‹¢ȱŠ—ȱž—Ž››˜ž—ȱ ™ŠœœŠŽǯȱȱ‘Žȱ’–Žȱ Žȱ‘˜ž‘ȱ‘Žȱ Š••Žœȱ ˜ž•ȱ—˜ȱ‹ŽȱŽ–˜•’œ‘ŽȱǽdzǾȂȱȱ’Š—˜ǯȱȁ—ȱ›ŽŠ•’¢ȱ  Žȱ Ž›Žȱž™ȱŠŠ’—œȱ˜–Š’ŒȱŠ–’—’œ›Š’˜—ǯȱ—ȱ‘ŽȱŽŠ›•¢ȱŝŖœǰȱ‘ŽȱŒŠ›ȱ ŠœȱšžŽŽ—ȱ’—ȱŠ›’œǯȱ ‘Ž›Žȱ Ž›Žȱ—˜ȱ™ŽŽœ›’Š—ȱœ›ŽŽœǰȱŠ—ȱ™ž‹•’ŒȱŠž‘˜›’’ŽœȱŠ••˜ ŽȱŒŠ›ȱŒ’›Œž•Š’˜—ȱŠ—ȱ™Š›”’—ȱ “žœȱŠ‹˜žȱŠ—¢ ‘Ž›Žǯȱ‘ŽȱŒ˜—ŒŽ™ȱ˜ȱŠȱ™’Š££Šȱ ŠœȱŒ•Šœ‘’—ȱ ’‘ȱ‘’œȱ™˜•’Œ¢ǯȱ‘’Œ‘ȱ’œȱ ‘¢ȱ’ȱ  Šœȱ’ĜŒž•ȱ˜ȱ›ŽŠ•’£ŽǯȂȱǻ˜Ž›œǼȱǻ’—Ž›Ÿ’Ž ȱ˜ȱǯȱ˜Ž›œȱŠ—ȱǯȱ’Š—˜ȱ‹¢ȱǯȱ’Œ˜—ȱ’—ȱǯȱ’Š—˜ǰȱ ǯȱ˜Ž›œǰȱDu Plateau Beaubourg au Centre PompidouǰȱŠ›’œǰȱŽ—›Žȱ Ž˜›ŽœȬ˜–™’˜žǰȱŗşŞŝǰȱ ™™ǯȱŗŘȮřǼǯ

̦—Žž›œȱ˜ȱ˜••˜ ȱ‘Ž’›ȱŒž›’˜œ’¢ȱ’—˜ȱ‘Žȱ‹ž’•’—ȱŠ—ȱ ŠœȱŠ•œ˜ȱŠ—’Œ’™ŠŽȱ’—ȱ ‘Žȱ‹ž’•’—Ȃœȱ˜›’’—Š•ȱŠ³ŠŽǯȱȱ ŠœȱŽœ’—Žȱ˜ȱ’œ™•Š¢ȱŠȱœ›ŽŠ–ȱ˜ȱŸŠ›’Žȱ ’—˜›–Š’˜—ȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱ ˜ž•ȱ‹Žȱ™›˜“ŽŒŽȱ’—ȱ—Ž˜—ȱ•ŽĴŽ›’—ǰȱ’••ž–’—ŠŽȱ™Š—Ž•œǰȱ ȱŠ—ȱŒ’—Ž–ŠȱœŒ›ŽŽ—œǯȱ‘Žȱ’ŽŠȱ Šœȱ˜ȱŠĴ›ŠŒȱŠȱ •Š›ŽȱŒ›˜ ȱ˜ȱœ™ŽŒŠ˜›œȱ to the heart of the city, by employing the arresting visual devices usually Šœœ˜Œ’ŠŽȱ ’‘ȱ Š’››˜ž—œȱ˜›ȱ’–ŽœȱšžŠ›Žȱ ’—ȱŽ ȱ˜›”ǯȱ‘’œȱ–Ž‘˜ȱ˜ȱ Œ˜––ž—’ŒŠ’˜—ȱŠȱŠ—ȱŽ¡‘’‹’’˜—œȱŸŽ—žŽȱ‘Šȱ‹ŽŽ—ȱ™’˜—ŽŽ›Žȱ‹¢ȱ‘Žȱ™Š—’œ‘ȱ ŠŸ’•’˜—ȱŠȱ‘ŽȱŗşřŝȱInternational Exhibitionǰȱ ‘Ž—ȱ‘žŽȱ™˜œŽ›œȱ Ž›Žȱę••Žȱ ’‘ȱ —Ž œȱŠ‹˜žȱ™Š’—ǯȱ ˜ ŽŸŽ›ǰȱ‘’œȱ’Š—ȱȁ—Ž œȱ‹’••‹˜Š›Ȃȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱ‘ŽȱŽ—’—ŽŽ›ȱ ’••¢ȱ •ûŸŽ›ȱ‘Šȱ‹ŽŽ—ȱŒ˜––’œœ’˜—Žȱ˜ȱ™›˜žŒŽǰȱ Šœȱ›˜™™ŽȱŽŠ›•¢ȱ˜—ȱ˜›ȱ ŽŒ‘—’ŒŠ•ǰȱę—Š—Œ’Š•ȱŠ—ȱ˜‘Ž›ȱ›ŽŠœ˜—œǯ14ȱœȱŠȱ›Žœž•ȱ‘ŽȱŠ³ŠŽȱŠœȱ‹ž’•ȱ•˜˜”Žȱ more transparent and industrial, leaving the main decorative element to be ™›˜Ÿ’Žȱ ‹¢ȱ ‘Žȱ ™›˜–’—Ž—ȱ ŽœŒŠ•Š˜›ȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱ Œ›˜œœŽœȱ ‘Žȱ Š³ŠŽȱ ’—ȱ ’Š˜—Š•ȱ œŽ™œǯȱ ȱ ’œȱ—˜ȱ‹¢ȱŒ‘Š—ŒŽȱ‘Šȱ ’ȱ‘Šœȱ‹ŽŒ˜–Žȱ‘Žȱ•˜˜ȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ—Ž ȱŽ—›Žǰȱ ’œȱ ‹Žœȱœ¢–‹˜•ȱŠ—ǰȱ’—ȱ‘ŽȱŽ—ǰȱ‘Žȱę›œȱ–˜Ž›—ȱ ˜›”ȱ˜ȱŠ›ȱ˜ȱ‹ŽȱœŽŽ—ȱ‹¢ȱ‘Žȱ ™ž‹•’Œǯŗś And yet the installation of a few information screens sheltered inside ‘Žȱ›˜ž—ȱĚ˜˜›ȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ–Š’—ȱ˜›ž–ȱ ˜ž•ȱ—˜ȱ‘ŠŸŽȱŽ—Œ˜ž—Ž›ŽȱŠ—¢ȱŽŒ‘—’ŒŠ•ȱ problems, and would have helped to welcome and orientate visitors as they ŒŠ–Žȱ’—˜ȱŠȱ‹ž’•’—ȱŠœȱŸŠœȱŠœȱ’ȱ Šœȱ’œŒ˜—ŒŽ›’—ǯȱȱ ˜ž•ȱŠ•œ˜ȱŠ™™ŽŠ›ȱ‘Šȱ‘Žȱ alternative scheme of spreading information screens throughout the building  Šœȱ—˜ȱŠ˜™ŽǯȱŽǰȱ’ȱ Šœȱ˜—•¢ȱ˜˜ȱŽŠœ¢ȱ˜›ȱ™Ž˜™•Žȱ˜ȱŽȱ•˜œȱ’—ȱ‘ŽȱŽ—›Žǰȱ ’œȱŸŠ›’˜žœȱŒ˜–™˜—Ž—œȱ—˜ȱ‹Ž’—ȱŒ•ŽŠ›•¢ȱ’쎛Ž—’ŠŽȱœ’—ŒŽȱŽŸŽ›¢‘’—ȱ Šœȱ Œ˜—ŒŽ’ŸŽȱ ˜ȱ‹ŽŒ˜–Žȱ ’—Ž›ȬŒ‘Š—ŽŠ‹•Žǯȱ˜‘’—ȱ ŠœȱŽ•’—ŽŠŽȱ˜›ȱŽę—ŽDZȱ —Ž’‘Ž›ȱ ‘Žȱ˜ĜŒŽœȱ ǻ ‘’Œ‘ȱ‘Šȱ˜ȱ‹Žȱ ’–™›˜Ÿ’£ŽȱŠ—ȱ ’‘ȱœ˜ȱ •’Ĵ•ŽȱĚŠ’›ȱ ‘Šȱ ‘Ž¢ȱœž‹œŽšžŽ—•¢ȱ‘Šȱ˜ȱ‹Žȱ›Š—œŽ››Žȱ˜ȱ—Ž’‘‹˜ž›’—ȱ‹ž’•’—œǼDzȱ—˜›ȱ‘Žȱ ‹’ȱ•’‹›Š›¢ȱ ’‘ȱ’œȱŗśǰŞŖŖȱ–2 principally situated on level 3, but also on level 2 and level 4; nor the museum which shared level 4 with the library but was also ˜—ȱ•ŽŸŽ•ȱśǯȱ—ȱ•ŽŸŽ•ȱŜȱ‘Žȱ™Š¢’—ȱŽ–™˜›Š›¢ȱŽ¡‘’‹’’˜—ȱŠ›ŽŠȱ Šœȱž—ŽŠœ’•¢ȱœ’Žȱ —Ž¡ȱ˜ȱ™˜™ž•Š›ȱŠĴ›ŠŒ’˜—œȱœžŒ‘ȱŠœȱ‘Žȱ‹Š›ȱ›ŽœŠž›Š—ǰȱ‘ŽȱœŒž•™ž›ŽȱŽ››ŠŒŽœȱ Š—ȱ‘Žȱ™Š—˜›Š–Šȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱŒ’¢ǯ ‘ŽȱŠ›Œ‘’ŽŒž›Š•ȱ™›˜“ŽŒȱ Šœǰȱ ’—ȱ ‘ŽȱŽ—ǰȱ ‘Žȱ‘Ž’›ȱ˜ȱ ‘Žȱ›Ž‹Ž••’˜žœȱœ™’›’ȱ

˜ȱ ŗşŜŞǰȱ ’—ĚžŽ—ŒŽȱ‹¢ȱ›žŠ•’œ–ȱŠ—ȱ˜™ǯȱ ȱ œ¢–‹˜•’£Žȱ ‘Žȱ™ŠœœŠŽȱ ›˜–ȱ rational functionalism to the insolence of a provocative monument (Figure 8.1). As building work progressed, it provoked virulent protest from the public

14ȱ ȱ’Š—˜ȱŠ—ȱ˜Ž›œȱœžœ™ŽŒŽȱ‘Šȱ™˜•’’ŒŠ•ȱ›ŽŠœ˜—œȱ–Š¢ȱ‘ŠŸŽȱ’—Ž›ŸŽ—ŽDZȱ ‘˜ȱ ˜ž•ȱ ‘ŠŸŽȱœŽ•ŽŒŽȱ‘Žȱ’—˜›–Š’˜—ȱ‘Šȱ Šœȱ˜’—ȱ˜ȱ‹Žȱ™›˜“ŽŒŽǵȱ—ȱ ‘Šȱ’ȱœžŽ—œȱŽŒ’Žȱ ˜ȱ˜ŒŒž™¢ȱ‘Žȱ‹ž’•’—ȱ˜ȱ™›˜“ŽŒȱ‘Ž’›ȱ˜ —ȱ—Ž œȱ˜—˜ȱ‘ŽȱŠ³ŠŽǵȱǻ’—Ž›Ÿ’Ž ȱ’ŸŽ—ȱ˜ȱDomus ’—ȱŠ—žŠ›¢ȱŗşŝŝǰȱŒ’Žȱ’—ȱž›¹—ŽǰȱŘŖŖŖǰȱ™™ǯȱŗŖŝȮŞǼǯ

ŗśȱ ȱŒŒ˜›’—ȱ ˜ȱ ›Š—ŒŽœŒ˜ȱ ›˜˜ȱ ‘Žȱ ŽœŒŠ•Š˜›ȱ ›Ž™›ŽœŽ—œȱ ‹˜‘ȱ ‘Žȱ œ¢–‹˜•ȱ Š—ȱ ‘Žȱ œ¢–™˜–ȱ˜ȱŽȬœŠŒ›Š•’£Š’˜—ȱ˜ȱŠ›ȱŠŒŒ˜–™•’œ‘Žȱ‹¢ȱ‘Žȱ˜–™’˜žȱŠ—ȱ‘ŽȱŒž•ž›Š•ȱ˜™Ž›Š’˜—ȱ ’ȱ Šœȱ’—Ž—Žȱ˜ȱ™žȱ’—ȱ–˜’˜—ǯȱ˜ȱ•˜—Ž›ȱœŽŒ•žŽȱ’—ȱ‘ŽȱœŠŒ›ŽȱŽ—Œ•˜œž›Žȱ˜ȱœ’•Ž—ŒŽȱŠ—ȱ ’œ˜•Š’˜—ǰȱŠ›ȱȮȱŽ¡ŠŒ•¢ȱ•’”Žȱ‘’œȱŽœŒŠ•Š˜›ȱȮȱ Šœȱȁ˜žȂǰȱŸ’œ’‹•ŽȱŠ—ȱŽ—“˜¢Š‹•Žǯȱǻ›˜˜ǰȱŘŖŖśȱǰȱ™ǯȱ śŞŜǼǯ

Š—ȱ‘Žȱ™›Žœœǰȱ‹ŽŒŠžœŽȱ‘Žȱ‘’‘ȬŽŒ‘ȱŠ›Œ‘’ŽŒž›Žȱ Šœȱ“žŽȱ˜˜ȱŽ—˜ž‘ȱ˜›ȱ ‹ž’•’—œȱ ˜ȱ Œ˜––Ž›Œ’Š•ȱ ˜›ȱ •Ž’œž›Žȱ žœŽȱ œžŒ‘ȱ Šœȱ›¢œŠ•ȱ Š•ŠŒŽȱ ˜›ȱ ‘Žȱ ’쎕ȱ ˜ Ž›ǰȱ‹žȱ—˜ȱ˜›ȱ–žœŽž–œȱ˜›ȱ–˜—ž–Ž—œǯȱ‘’œȱ ŠœȱŽœ™’Žȱ‘ŽȱŽ¡’œŽ—ŒŽȱ ˜ȱ™›Žœ’’˜žœȱŒ˜—Ž–™˜›Š›¢ȱŽ¡Š–™•ŽœȱœžŒ‘ȱŠœȱ˜›–Š—ȱ˜œŽ›ȂœȱŠ’—œ‹ž›¢Ȃœȱ Ž—›Žȱ˜™Ž—Žȱ’—ȱ˜› ’Œ‘ȱ’—ȱŗşŝŝǰȱŠ—ȱ‘ŽȱŠ’˜—Š•ȱ’›ȱŠ—ȱ™ŠŒŽȱžœŽž–ȱ  ‘’Œ‘ȱ˜™Ž—Žȱ ’—ȱŠœ‘’—˜—ȱǯǯȱ ’—ȱŗşŝŜǯȱ‘Žȱ™›Žœœȱ •Š‹Ž••Žȱ ‘Žȱ‹ž’•’—ȱ Šȱ ȁ›Žę—Ž›¢Ȃȱ Š—ȱ Šȱ ȁŠœȱ ŠŒ˜›¢Ȃǰȱ žœ’—ȱ ˜‘Ž›ȱ ’—žœ›’Š•ȱ –ŽŠ™‘˜›œǰȱ  ‘’Œ‘ȱ œ™Š›”Žȱ˜ěȱž›‘Ž›ȱ™›˜ŽœȱŒŠ–™Š’—œȱŠŠ’—œȱŒŽ›Š’—ȱŠœ™ŽŒœȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ™›˜“ŽŒǯ16 If politicians in power had governed according to public opinion, the building  ˜ž•ȱ—ŽŸŽ›ȱ‘ŠŸŽȱ‹ŽŽ—ȱŒ˜–™•ŽŽȱ‹ŽŒŠžœŽȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ˜žŒ›¢ȱŠŠ’—œȱ‘Žȱ™›˜“ŽŒDZȱ œ˜–Žȱ“žŽȱ’ȱ˜˜ȱœ—˜˜¢ȱ ’‘ȱ’œȱŽ•’’œȱ–˜Ž›—’¢ǰȱ˜‘Ž›œȱ˜ž—ȱ’ȱŒ˜–™•ŽŽ•¢ȱ Ÿž•Š›ȱ Š—ȱ ’—ȱ ‹Šȱ ŠœŽǯȱ ‘Žȱ Œ›’’Œȱ ’•˜—ȱ ›Š–Ž›ȱ Œ˜’—Žȱ Šȱ ™‘›ŠœŽȱ  ‘’Œ‘ȱ ‹ŽŒŠ–Žȱ ’Žœ™›ŽŠǰȱ ‘Šȱ ‘Žȱ‹ž’•’—ȱ Šœȱ ‘Žȱ ȁ ’—ȱ ˜—Ȃȱ˜ȱŠ›Œ‘’ŽŒž›Žǯȱ ‘’œȱ–’‘ȱ‘ŠŸŽȱ™ŠœœŽȱŠœȱŠȱŒ˜–™•’–Ž—ȱŽ¡ŒŽ™ȱ‘Šȱ’ȱ ŠœȱŒ•ŽŠ›•¢ȱ–ŽŠ—ȱŠœȱŠ—ȱ ’—œž•ǯȱ˜œȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱŒ˜–™•’–Ž—œǰȱ’—Œ’Ž—Š••¢ǰȱŽ—Žȱ˜ȱ‹ŽŒ˜–ŽȱŠ–‹’ž˜žœǯȱ Žœ™’Žȱ’œȱ•˜‹Š•ȱŠ–Žȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱ™›˜™Ž••Žȱ˜Ž›œȱŠ—ȱ’Š—˜ȱ˜—˜ȱ‘Žȱ ˜›•ȱ˜ȱ œŠ›˜–ǰȱ‘Žȱ˜–™’˜žȱŽ—›Žȱ‘ŠȱŠȱŠ’›•¢ȱ•’–’ŽȱŠ›Œ‘’ŽŒž›Š•ȱ’—ĚžŽ—ŒŽȱ˜—ȱ žž›Žȱ–žœŽž–œǯȱŽŸŽ›‘Ž•Žœœȱ’ȱ’œȱ ˜›‘ȱ–Ž—’˜—’—ȱŠȱŽ ȱ‹ž’•’—œȱœžŒ‘ȱŠœȱ ˜›–Š—ȱ˜œŽ›ȂœȱŠ››·ȱȂ›ȱ’—ȱÉ–Žœǰ17ȱŽŠ—ȱ˜žŸŽ•Ȃœȱ˜—Š’˜—ȱŠ›’Ž›ȱ™˜ž›ȱ

16ȱ ȱ ‘Žȱ–˜œȱ Œ›’’Œ’£Žȱ Ž•Ž–Ž—œȱ Ž›Žȱ ‘Žȱ Š’›ȱ žŒœȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱŽ•’–’Žȱ ‘Žȱ ™’Š££Šȱ Ȯȱ Šȱ ˜›‹žœ’Ž›ŽœšžŽȱ ‘˜–ŠŽȱ ˜ȱ œŽŠȱ ˜ŒŽŠ—ȱ •’—Ž›œǯȱ Š—¢ȱ ™›˜ŽœŽȱ ŠŠ’—œȱ ‘Ž’›ȱ ž•’—Žœœȱ Š—ȱ ›Žœ’Ž—ȱ ’œŒŠ›ȱ‘Šȱ‘Ž–ȱ›Ž–˜ŸŽȱȮȱ‘Ž¢ȱ Ž›Žȱœ˜•ȱ˜›ȱŠȱœ¢–‹˜•’Œȱ›Š—Œȱ˜ȱŽŠ—ȱ’—žŽ•¢ǰȱ Š—ȱŠ›’œȱ ‘˜ȱœ™ŽŒ’Š•’£Žȱ’—ȱ‘Žȱ›ŽŒ¢Œ•’—ȱ˜ȱ–ŠŒ‘’—Žȱ™Š›œǰȱŠ—ȱ ‘˜ȱ™Š›’Š••¢ȱ›ŽȬžœŽȱ‘Ž–ȱ’—ȱ the making of Crocodome, half way between a game and a work of art, and later erected in the –’•Žȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ˜›ž–ǯȱ—ȱ‘Žȱ–ŽŠ—ȱ’–Žȱ ˜ȱŽŠ–œȱ˜ȱŠ’›ȱŸŽ—’•Š’˜—ȱŽ¡™Ž›œȱ Ž›ŽȱŒ˜—œž•Žǰȱ  ‘˜ȱŠ–’ĴŽȱ‘Šȱ‘Žȱ‹ŽœȱŠ—ȱ˜—•¢ȱœ˜•ž’˜—ȱ Šœȱ‘Žȱ˜›’’—Š•ȱ˜—ŽǰȱŠ—ȱ‘Ž›Ž˜›Žȱ—Ž ȱŠ’›ȱ ducts, identical to the previous ones but painted white, according to Giscard’s wishes, were ’—œŠ••Žȱǻ˜˜•’ŽǰȱŗşŞşǰȱ™ǯȱŗřŚǰȱ—˜ŽȱřŜǼǯ

17ȱ ȱÉ–ŽœȂœȱŠ››·ȱȂ›ȱ ŠœȱŠ•œ˜ȱŠ—ȱž›‹Š—ȱ›ŽŽ—Ž›Š’˜—ȱ™›˜“ŽŒǰȱ™›˜–˜Žȱ‹¢ȱ‘Žȱ›’‘ȱ Ȯȱ–˜›Žȱ™›ŽŒ’œŽ•¢ȱ‹¢ȱŽŠ—ȱ˜žœšžŽǰȱŠȱ‹žœ’—Žœœȱ–Š—ŠŽȱ’—ȱ‘Žȱ ˜›•ȱ˜ȱŠœ‘’˜—ȱǻŠŒ‘Š›Ž•Ǽȱ who became involved in politics and succeeded, as a centre right candidate, in recapturing ›˜–ȱ‘Žȱ•Žȱ‘Žȱ•˜ŒŠ•ȱ˜ŸŽ›—–Ž—ȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱŒ’¢ȱ˜ȱ‘’œȱ‹’›‘ǯȱ‘Žȱ˜•ȱ–ž—’Œ’™Š•ȱ‘ŽŠ›Žȱœ˜˜ȱ ˜™™˜œ’Žȱ ‘ŽȱŠ’œ˜—ȱŠ››·Žǰȱ ’œȱ™˜›Œ‘ȱ Šȱ™Šœ’Œ‘Žȱ˜ȱ ‘Žȱ˜–Š—ȱ •Š—–Š›”Dzȱ ’ȱ ‘Šȱ‹ž›—Žȱ ˜ —ȱ’—ȱŗşśŘǰȱ‘Šȱ—˜ȱ‹ŽŽ—ȱ›Ž‹ž’•ȱŠ—ȱ‘Žȱœ’Žȱ ŠœȱžœŽȱŠœȱŠȱŒŠ›ȱ™Š›”ǯȱȱŒ˜–™Ž’’˜—ȱ Šœȱ œŠŽȱ‹Ž ŽŽ—ȱ’—Ÿ’ŽȱŠŽ—Œ’Žœȱ˜—•¢ǰȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱ Šœȱ ˜—ȱ‹¢ȱ˜›–Š—ȱ˜œŽ›ǯȱ‘ŽȱŠ›Œ‘’ŽŒž›Š•ȱ ŽŠž›Žœȱœ‘Š›Žȱ‹¢ȱ‘Žȱ˜–™’˜žȱŽ—›ŽȱŠ—ȱ‘ŽȱŠ››·ȱȂ›ȱŠ›Žȱ •’–’Žȱ˜ȱ ‘ŽȱŒ‘˜’ŒŽȱ˜ȱ •ŠœœȱŠ—ȱ‘’‘ȬŽŒ‘ȱœ¢•Žǯȱ—•’”Žȱ‘Žȱ˜–™’˜žȱŽ—›Žȱ‘ŽȱŠ››·ȱȂ›ǰȱ‹ž’•ȱ‹Ž ŽŽ—ȱŗşŞŞȱ Š—ȱŗşşŘǰȱ–Š”Žœȱ—˜ȱžœŽȱ˜ȱ™›’–Š›¢ȱŒ˜•˜ž›œȱŠ—ȱ‘Ž›Žȱ’œȱ—˜ȱ’—œ’œŽ—ŒŽȱ’—ȱ›Š ’—ȱŠĴŽ—’˜—ȱ ˜ȱ’œŽ•ǯȱ—ȱ‘ŽȱŒ˜—›Š›¢ǰȱ ’ȱ™Š¢œȱŒ•˜œŽȱŠĴŽ—’˜—ȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ—ŽŽȱ˜ȱ‘Š›–˜—’£Žȱ ’‘ȱ‘Žȱž›‹Š—ȱ Œ˜—Ž¡ǰȱ ’—ȱ™Š›’Œž•Š›ǰȱ ’‘ȱ ‘Žȱ–˜—ž–Ž—ȱ˜™™˜œ’ŽȱŠ—ȱ ‘ŽȱŠ“ŠŒŽ—ȱ œ›ŽŽœȱŠ—ȱ™’Š££Šœǯȱ ˜ ŽŸŽ›ǰȱŠœȱ ’‘ȱŽŠž‹˜ž›ǰȱ‘Ž›Žȱ’œȱŠȱŒŽ—›Š•ȱŠ›’ž–ȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱ’ŸŽœȱŠŒŒŽœœȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱŽ¡‘’‹’’˜—ȱ Š›ŽŠœǰȱ ˜ȱ ‘Žȱ ǻ‘ŽŠŸ’•¢ȱžœŽǼȱ •’‹›Š›¢ǰȱ ˜ȱ ‘Žȱ‹Š›ȱŠ‹˜ŸŽȱŠ—ȱ ˜ȱ ‘Žȱ Ž››ŠŒŽȱ ’‘ȱ ’œȱ œž——’—ȱ Ÿ’Ž œǯȱ Ž›ŽȱŠŠ’—ȱ ŽȱŽ—Œ˜ž—Ž›ȱ‘ŽȱŒ˜–‹’—Š’˜—ȱ˜ȱŸ’œžŠ•ȱŠ›œǰȱ‹˜˜”œǰȱ–žœ’ŒȱŠ—ȱŒ’—Ž–ŠȱŽŒǯȱ ǻŒȱ Ž——Ž‘ȱ˜ Ž••ȂœȱŽ¡ȱ’—ȱŠ–™ž—Š—’ȱǭȱŠŒ‘œǰȱŗşşşǼǯ

•Ȃ›ȱ˜—Ž–™˜›Š’—ȱ’—ȱŠ›’œǰ18ȱŠ—ǰȱ’—ȱ™Š›’Œž•Š›ǰȱ›Šœ‹˜ž›Ȃœȱ˜—Ž–™˜›Š›¢ȱ Art Museum19ȱ‹¢ȱ›’Ž—ȱŠ’—œ’•‹Ž›ǯ

18ȱ ȱŠ›’Ž›Ȃœȱ™›Žœ’Ž—ǰȱ•Š’—ȱ˜–’—’šžŽȱŽ››’—ǰȱ ’œȱŠȱ›ŽŠȱŒ˜••ŽŒ˜›ȱ˜ȱŒ˜—Ž–™˜›Š›¢ȱ Š›ȱŠ—ȱ‘Žȱ˜ž—Ž›ȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ˜—Š’˜—ȱŠ›’Ž›ȱ™˜ž›ȱ•Ȃ›ȱ˜—Ž–™˜›Š’—ǰȱ˜›’’—Š••¢ȱœ’Žȱ’—ȱ ‘Žȱ‘¦ŽŠžȱŽȱ˜ž¢ȬŽ—Ȭ˜œŠœȱ ’‘ȱ’œȱ ˜›”œ‘˜™œǰȱŽ¡‘’‹’’˜—ȱ™ŠŸ’•’˜—ȱŠ—ȱœŒž•™ž›ŽȱŠ›Ž—ǯȱ ȱ Šœȱ›Š—œŽ››Žȱ˜ȱ’œȱŒž››Ž—ȱŠ›’œȱœ’Žȱ’—ȱŗşşŚǰȱ˜ȱŠȱ—Ž ȱ‹ž’•’—ȱ˜—ȱ˜ž•ŽŸŠ›ȱŠœ™Š’•ȱ commissioned from Jean Nouvel (who had already designed a factory and warehouse for Š›’Ž›Ǽǯȱȱ‘’›ȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱœ™ŠŒŽȱ ŠœȱŽŠ›–Š›”Žȱ˜›ȱ‘Žȱ˜ž—Š’˜—ȂœȱŽ–™˜›Š›¢ȱŽ¡‘’‹’’˜—œǯȱ —ȱ‘’œȱŽ¡Š–™•Žȱ˜˜ǰȱ‘Ž›Žȱ’œȱŠȱ‹•Ž—’—ȱ˜ȱ‘’‘ȬŽŒ‘ȱŠ›Œ‘’ŽŒž›Žȱ ’‘ȱž›‹Š—ȱ™•Š——’—ȱœ’—ŒŽȱ ‘ŽȱŠ”ŽȱŠ³ŠŽȱ–ŠŽȱ˜ȱ•ŠœœȱŠ—ȱœŽŽ•ȱ’œȱžœŽȱŠœȱŠȱ’œ™•Š¢ȱŒŠœŽȱ˜›ȱ‘Žȱ Š•—žȱ›ŽŽœȱ’—ȱ‘Žȱ Š›Ž—ǯȱ ‘’œȱ Š›Ž—ȱ ž—Œ’˜—œȱ Šœȱ Š—ȱ Š›’ž–ȱ™•ŠŒŽȱ ’—ȱ ›˜—ȱ ˜ȱ ‘Žȱ ›ŽŠ•ȱ Š³ŠŽȱ Ž›ŽŒŽȱ ŗŘȱ –Ž›Žœȱž›‘Ž›ȱ’—ȱǻœŽŽȱŽ‹Šœ’Š—ȱŽŒ”ŽȂœȱŽ¡ȱ’—ȱŠ–™ž—Š—’ȱǭȱŠŒ‘œǰȱŗşşşǼǯ

19ȱ ȱ›Šœ‹˜ž›ȂœȱžœŽž–ȱ˜ȱ˜Ž›—ȱŠ—ȱ˜—Ž–™˜›Š›¢ȱ›ȱ Šœȱž—ŸŽ’•Žȱ’—ȱŗşşŞȱ’—ȱ •ŠŒŽȱŽŠ—ȱ›™ǰȱŠŽ›ȱŠȱŽœ’—ȱ‹¢ȱ‘ŽȱŠ›’œ’Š—ȱŠ›Œ‘’ŽŒȱ•Š’—ȱŠ’—œ’•‹Ž›ǯȱ ŽȱŒ•ŽŠ›•¢ȱœ˜ž‘ȱ˜ȱ Ž–ž•ŠŽȱ‘Žȱ˜–™’˜žȱŽ—›Žȱ ’‘ȱ’œȱ›Š—œ™Š›Ž—ȱŠ³ŠŽœȱŠ—ȱ’œȱŠ’›ȱžŒœȱ˜—ȱ‘Žȱ™’Š££Šȱ  ‘’Œ‘ȱ‘ŽȱŠ›Œ‘’ŽŒȱ‘˜™Žȱ˜ȱŽ¡ŒŠŸŠŽȱ˜ȱ’—œŠ••ȱ‘ŽȱŽŒ‘—’ŒŠ•ȱ›˜˜–œDzȱ‘˜ ŽŸŽ›ǰȱ‘Žȱ Šœȱ˜›ŒŽȱ to move those to the back of the building after being requested to place a garage underneath ‘Žȱ ™’Š££Šǯȱ ‘’œȱ Ž¡™•Š’—œȱ ‘Žȱ •Šœœȱ ˜™Ž—’—œȱ ˜ Š›œȱ ‘Žȱ •˜ŒŠ•ȱ ˜ŸŽ›—–Ž—ȱ ‘ŽŠšžŠ›Ž›œȱ and the elite National School of Administration, as opposed to the opaque character of the ›ŽŠ›ȱ ŠŒŠŽœǰȱ —Ž¡ȱ ˜ȱ ‘Žȱ ™˜™ž•Š›ȱ œŠ’˜—ȱ šžŠ›Ž›ȱ ǻ‘Žȱ œŒ‘Ž–ŽȂœȱ Œ›’’Œœȱ ’—Ž›™›ŽŽȱ ‘’œȱ Šœȱ œ¢–‹˜•’ŒŠ••¢ȱœž‹–’Ĵ’—ȱ˜ȱ™˜ Ž›ȱŠ—ȱ•˜˜”’—ȱ˜ —ȱ˜—ȱ‘Žȱ™Ž˜™•ŽǼǯ

’ǯȱŞǯŗȱ Ž›’Š•ȱŸ’Ž ȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ•ŠŽŠžȱŽŠž‹˜ž›DZȱ‘Žȱ’–™›Žœœ’ŸŽȱ‹ž’•’—ȱ‹¢ȱŽ—£˜ȱ ’Š—˜ȱŠ—ȱ’Œ‘Š›ȱ˜Ž›œȱ’—ȱ’œȱž›‹Š—ȱŒ˜—Ž¡ǯȱȚȱ›Š—Œ’œŒ˜ȬŠŸ’Ž›ȱ Ž›—¤—Ž£ȱŠžŠ•ǯ

Beaubourg from the inside, or the persistence of the American model

—ȱ ‘Žȱ ˜žœ’Žȱ ‘Žȱ ˜–™’˜žȱ Ž—›Žȱ ›Ž™›ŽœŽ—Žȱ Šȱ ›Š—œ’’˜—Š•ȱ ™‘ŠœŽǰȱ ›Š‘Ž›ȱ ‘Š—ȱ ‘ŽȱŠŸŽ—ȱ˜ȱŠȱ—Ž ȱŽ›Šǯȱžȱ ›¢’—ȱ ˜ȱŠœœŽœœȱ ‘ŽȱŽ—›ŽȂœȱ •ŽŸŽ•ȱ of innovation inside is more problematic – independently from the criticism  ‘’Œ‘ȱ‘ŽȱŽ—›Žȱ‘ŠœȱŠ• Š¢œȱŠĴ›ŠŒŽǯȱŸŽ›Š••ǰȱ‘Žȱ™›˜“ŽŒȱ Šœȱ’——˜ŸŠ’ŸŽȱ’—ȱ terms of architecture and urban planning, but internally what had been most ›˜ž—Ȭ‹›ŽŠ”’—ȱŽ—Žȱž™ȱŠœȱ›’’ȱœ›žŒž›ŽœȱŠŽ›ȱ¢ŽŠ›œȱ˜ȱ™Šœœ’˜—ŠŽȱŽ‹ŠŽǯȱ ›˜–ȱ‘Žȱ‹Ž’——’—ǰȱ—˜Ȭ˜—ŽȱŠ›ŽȱŒ‘Š••Ž—Žȱ‘Žȱ˜›’’—Š•ȱ™›˜™˜œŠ•ȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱ Šœȱ ˜ȱž—’Žȱž—Ž›ȱ˜—Žȱ›˜˜ȱŠ›ǰȱ–žœ’Œǰȱ‹˜˜”œȱŠ—ȱ˜‘Ž›ȱŠĴ›ŠŒ’˜—œǰȱŠȱ–’¡ȱ‘Šȱ Šœȱ Œ˜–™Š›Žȱ˜ȱŠȱœž™Ž›–Š›”Žȱ˜›ȱŽ™Š›–Ž—ȱœ˜›Žȱǻ˜••Š›ǰȱŗşŝśDZȱ™ǯȱŗŗŗǼǯȱ ˜—Ž–™˜›Š›¢ȱŠ›Ȃœȱ›˜•Žȱ’—ȱŒ›’’Œ’£’—ȱŠ—ȱœž‹ŸŽ›’—ȱœ˜Œ’Ž¢ǰȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱ‘Šȱ‹ŽŽ—ȱ

hailed in the 1970s, was now at risk of being diluted by the mass consumption ˜ȱ‘Žȱ•Ž’œž›ŽȱŠ—ȱŽ—Ž›Š’—–Ž—ȱ’—žœ›’ŽœȱǻŽ˜˜ǰȱŘŖŖŜDZȱ™ǯȱŗŜŞǼǯȱŸŽ—ȱ›˜–ȱ Šȱ–˜›Žȱ›Š’ŒŠ•ȱ™˜’—ȱ˜ȱŸ’Ž ǰȱ™•ŠŒ’—ȱŠȱ–žœŽž–ȱ’—ȱ‘Žȱ‘ŽŠ›ȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ˜–™’˜žȱ Ž—›Žȱ ŠœȱŠ• Š¢œȱ˜’—ȱ˜ȱ‹Žȱ‹ž›Ž—œ˜–ŽǰȱŠ—ȱ–Š—¢ȱ ˜ž•ȱ‘ŠŸŽȱ™›ŽŽ››Žȱ Šȱ ŒŽ—›Žȱ ˜›ȱ Ž–™˜›Š›¢ȱ Ž¡‘’‹’’˜—œȱ ’—œŽŠǯȱ ‘Žȱ™›˜‹•Ž–ȱ’ȱ —˜ȱ Ž›’ŸŽȱ œ˜ȱ much from the presence of a museum – provided its remit was not limited to being an historical collection – as from the mission, which needed to be  ‘˜••¢ȱ˜ŒžœŽȱ˜—ȱŠ›ȱŠ—ȱŽ‹ŠŽȱ˜ȱŠȱŒ˜—Ž–™˜›Š›¢ȱ—Šž›Žǯ ‘Žȱ–˜Ž•ȱ ˜›ȱ ‘’œȱ —Ž ȱ ¢™Žȱ ˜ȱ ’—œ’ž’˜—ȱ Š•›ŽŠ¢ȱ Ž¡’œŽǯȱ ‘Ž›Žȱ Ž›Žȱ

™›ŽŒŽŽ—œȱŠȱ‘Žȱȱ’—ȱ˜œ˜—ȱŠ—ȱ˜—˜—ǰȱŠ’—ȱ›˜–ȱ‘Žȱ–’•Žȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ ˜•ȱŠ›ǰȱ‹žȱ’ȱ’œȱ™›ŽŒ’œŽ•¢ȱ’—ȱŽ ȱ˜›”ȱ‘ŠȱŠȱ—Ž ȱ’—œ’ž’˜—ǰȱŽœ’—Žȱ˜ȱ ‹ŽŒ˜–ŽȱŠȱ—Ž ȱ’—Ž›—Š’˜—Š•ȱ–˜Ž•ǰȱ Šœȱ‹˜›—ǯȱ‘ŽȱŒž›Š˜›ȱŠ›Œ’ŠȱžŒ”Ž›ǰȱŠŽ›ȱ being made redundant by the Whitney Museum in 1976, went on to create ‘ŽȱŽ ȱžœŽž–ȱ˜ȱ˜—Ž–™˜›Š›¢ȱ›ǰȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱ˜™Ž—Žȱ ‘Žȱ ˜••˜ ’—ȱ¢ŽŠ›ȱ ’—ȱ™Š›ȱ˜ȱ ‘Žȱ ›ŠžŠŽȱŽ—›Žȱ˜ȱ ‘ŽȱŽ ȱŒ‘˜˜•ȱ ˜›ȱ˜Œ’Š•ȱŽœŽŠ›Œ‘ǯȱ‘’œȱ –Š›”ŽȱŠȱ›Žž›—ȱ˜ȱ˜ —˜ —ȱ‹˜‘Ž–’Š—ȱŠ—‘ŠĴŠ—ǰȱŠ—ȱ‘Ž›Ž˜›ŽȱŠȱ›Žž›—ȱ ˜ȱ ‘Žȱ˜›’’—œȱ˜ȱ ‘Žȱ‘’—Ž¢ȱŠ—ȱ˜‘Ž›ȱ–žœŽž–œȱ˜ȱ–˜Ž›—ȱŠ›ǯȱ ˜ ŽŸŽ›ȱ here, as its name implied, the museum was no longer dealing with modern Š›ȱ ’‘’—ȱŠ—ȱ‘’œ˜›’ŒŠ•ȱŒ˜—Ž¡ǰȱ‹žȱ ’‘ȱŒ˜—Ž–™˜›Š›¢ȱŠ›ǰȱŠ—ȱ Šœȱ’—Ž—ȱ˜—ȱ ‹›’—’—ȱŠ‹˜žȱŠȱ—Ž ȱ–žœŽž–ȱŒ˜—ŒŽ™ǯȱȱ Šœȱ˜—Žȱ˜ȱŠȱ—ž–‹Ž›ȱ˜ȱŠ•Ž›—Š’ŸŽȱ ŸŽ—žŽœȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱŽ–Ž›Žȱ’—ȱŗşŝŖœȱŽ ȱ˜›”ǰȱœžŒ‘ȱŠœȱȱǻȁŽ ȱ˜›”ȱ›’œœȱ ’—ȱ Žœ’Ž—ŒŽȱ Š••Ž›¢ȂǼǰȱ •˜Œ”˜ Ž›ǰȱ ǯŗǰȱ ›’œœȱ ™ŠŒŽǰȱ Šœ‘’˜—ȱ ˜Šǰȱ ˜— ˜˜ȱ›ȱ Š••Ž›¢ǰȱȱ˜ȱ’˜ȱŠ—ȱ‘Žȱ•Ž›—Š’ŸŽȱžœŽž–ǯȱŠ—¢ȱ˜ȱ ‘ŽœŽȱŸŽ—žŽœȱ Ž›ŽȱŽ™‘Ž–Ž›Š•ȱǻ‘ŽȱŽ ȱžœŽž–ȱ˜ȱ˜—Ž–™˜›Š›¢ȱ›ȱ™Š’ȱ ‘˜–ŠŽȱ˜ȱœ˜–Žȱ‹¢ȱœŠ’—ȱŠ—ȱŽ¡‘’‹’’˜—ȱŒž›ŠŽȱ‹¢ȱŠŒ”’ȱ™™•ŽȱŠ—ȱŽ—’•Žȱ Alternatives in RetrospectǼǯȱ ‘Ž’›ȱ ȁŠ•Ž›—Š’ŸŽȂȱ œŠžœȱ  Šœȱ Žę—Žȱ ˜ȱ Œ˜ž›œŽȱ in relation to the MoMA and other establishmentȱ–žœŽž–œǰȱę›œȱ ’—ȱŽ›–œȱ˜ȱ ž›‹Š—ȱ˜™˜›Š™‘¢ǰȱ•˜ŒŠŽȱŠœȱ‘Ž¢ȱ Ž›Žȱ’—ȱ‘ŽȱŠ›’œœȂȱšžŠ›Ž›œȱ˜ȱŠ—‘ŠĴŠ—Ȃœȱ

historical centre, often SoHo,20ȱŠœȱŽŽœŠȱ ›ŽŽ—‹Ž›ȱ›Ž–Š›”Žȱǻ ›ŽŽ—‹Ž›ȱet alǯǰȱ ŗşşŜDZȱ™™ǯȱřśŜȮŜŘǰȱ—˜ŽȱřŗǼǯȱ—Ž¡™ŽŒŽ•¢ȱ‘ŽœŽȱ™•ŠŒŽœȱ Ž›Žȱ›ž—ȱŠœȱŒ˜••ŽŒ’ŸŽœȱ ‹¢ȱŠŒ’Ÿ’œœȱŒ˜—ŒŽ›—Žȱ ’‘ȱ‘ž–Š—ȱ›’‘œǰȱ‘ŽȱŠ—’Ȭ’Ž—Š–ȱŠ›ȱ–˜ŸŽ–Ž—ǰȱ ethnic minorities, the gay community, feminist associations, and all manner ˜ȱ›Ž—œȱ ‘’Œ‘ǰȱŠŒŒ˜›’—ȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱŽ–’—’œȱ‘’œ˜›’Š—ȱž•’ȱŠ›œ˜—ǰȱ Ž—ȱ‘Š—ȱ’—ȱ ‘Š—ȱ ’‘ȱ‘Žȱ–žœŽž–ȱ˜ž—Žȱ‹¢ȱŠ›Œ’ŠȱžŒ”Ž›ǯȱ‘›˜ž‘ȱ’œȱŽ¡‘’‹’’˜—œȱ and publications on critical theory, her museum became a venue for debating Š—ȱœ™›ŽŠ’—ȱ—•˜Ȭ–Ž›’ŒŠ—ȱ’ŽŠœȱ˜—ȱ‘ŽȱŽ–’—’œȱ–˜ŸŽ–Ž—ȱŠ—ȱŠ—¢ȱ˜‘Ž›ȱ ˜™’ŒŠ•ȱ’œœžŽœȱǻŠ›œ˜—ǰȱŘŖŖŝDZȱ™™ǯȱŘŖŜȮŗśǼǯȱžŒ”Ž›ȱ‘ŠȱŠ• Š¢œȱ’—œ’œŽȱ‘Šȱ‘Žȱ Š’–ȱ˜ȱ‘Ž›ȱ–žœŽž–ȱ Šœȱ˜ȱœ‘˜ ȱ’ŽŠœȱ›Š‘Ž›ȱ‘Š—ȱ˜‹“ŽŒœǯȱžŒ‘ȱŠȱ™›˜›Š––Žȱ did not preclude making acquisitions, but thanks to its commitment to the Œ˜—Ž–™˜›Š›¢ǰȱ‘ŽȱŒ˜••ŽŒ’˜—ȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱŽ ȱžœŽž–ȱ˜ȱ˜—Ž–™˜›Š›¢ȱ›ȱ Šœȱ Žę—Žȱ›˜–ȱ‘ŽȱœŠ›ȱŠœȱ‹Ž’—ȱœŽ–’Ȭ™Ž›–Š—Ž—ȱŠ—ȱ Šœȱ˜ȱ‹Žȱ™žȱž™ȱ˜›ȱœŠ•Žȱ ŽŸŽ›¢ȱ Ž—ȱ¢ŽŠ›œǯȱ‘’œȱ Šœȱ ’—ȱ ŠŒȱ Š’›•¢ȱ œ’–’•Š›ȱ ˜ȱ ‘Žȱ™˜•’Œ¢ȱ˜ȱ ‘Žȱ˜›’’—Š•ȱ ˜ȱȮȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱ ’—ȱžŽȱ Œ˜ž›œŽȱ ˜ž•ȱŠ•œ˜ȱ‹Žȱ ˜›˜ĴŽ—ȱ‘Ž›Žȱ Ȯȱ‹žȱ ’ȱ ’œȱ ‘Žȱ ’–™˜›Š—ŒŽȱžŒ”Ž›ȱŠŸŽȱ˜ȱ’—˜›–Š’˜—ȱ’—ȱ‘Ž›ȱ–žœŽž–ȱ ‘’Œ‘ǰȱŠŒŒ˜›’—ȱ˜ȱ –™Š›˜ȱŽ››Š—˜ȱŽȱ Š›˜ǰȱ ŠœȱŠȱ—˜Š‹•ŽȱŽ™Š›ž›Žǯȱ‘Žȱ‘Šœȱ’—Ž›™›ŽŽȱ‘’œȱ Ž–™‘Šœ’œȱŠœȱ‘Žȱœ ’Œ‘ȱ›˜–ȱŠȱ™˜œȬ’—žœ›’Š•ȱœ˜Œ’Ž¢ȱ˜ȱŠ—ȱŽŒ˜—˜–¢ȱ‹ŠœŽȱ ˜—ȱ’—˜›–Š’˜—ȱǻŽ››Š—˜ȱŽȱ Š›˜ǰȱŗşŞŞǼǯȱ‘Ž›Ž˜›Žǰȱ ‘Ž—ȱ‘Žȱ–žœŽž–ȱ–˜ŸŽȱ ˜ȱ‘Žȱ›˜ž—ȱĚ˜˜›ȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱœ˜›ȱž’•’—ȱ˜—ȱ›˜Š Š¢ǰȱ’œȱœ‘˜™ȱ ’—˜ œȱ—˜ȱ ˜—•¢ȱ™›˜Ÿ’ŽȱŠ—ȱŽ¡ŒŽ••Ž—ȱ–Ž‘˜ȱ˜ȱŠŸŽ›’œ’—ȱ’œȱŒŠ•Ž—Š›ȱ˜ȱŽŸŽ—œǰȱ‘Ž¢ȱ Š•œ˜ȱ˜ěŽ›Žȱ‘Žȱ–žœŽž–ȱŠȱ—˜ŸŽ•ȱ˜›–ȱ˜ȱŽ¡‘’‹’’˜—ȱœ™ŠŒŽǯ žȱ—Ž’‘Ž›ȱ‘ŽȱŽ ȱžœŽž–ȱ˜ȱ˜—Ž–™˜›Š›¢ȱ›ȱ—˜›ȱ‘Žȱ˜‘Ž›ȱŠ•Ž›—Š’ŸŽȱ

œ™ŠŒŽœȱ’—ȱŽ ȱ˜›”ȱ Ž›Žȱ™Š›’Œž•Š›•¢ȱ Ž••ȱ”—˜ —ȱ’—ȱŠ›’œǰȱŠ—ǰȱ’—ȱŠ—¢ȱŒŠœŽǰȱ ’ȱ Šœȱž—‘’—”Š‹•Žȱ‘Šȱ‘Žȱ‘’‘Žœȱ˜›–ȱ˜ȱ›Ž—Œ‘ȱŠŽȬž—ŽȱŽ—Ž›™›’œŽœǰȱ would contemplate being inspired by such grassroots organizations, when Š••ȱŠ•˜—ȱ’ȱ Šœȱ‘Žȱ˜ȱ‘Ž¢ȱ Ž›ŽȱŒ˜–™Ž’—ȱ ’‘ǯȱȱ‘ŠœȱŠ•–˜œȱ‹ŽŒ˜–Žȱ Šȱ Œ•’Œ‘·ȱ ˜ȱŽœŒ›’‹Žȱ ‘Žȱ ŽŸ˜•ž’˜—ȱ˜ȱ ‘Žȱ˜–™’˜žȱŽ—›Žȱ ›˜–ȱŠȱ˜™’Š—ȱ ’—’’Š’ŸŽȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱ œ™›Š—ȱ ˜žȱ ˜ȱ Šȱ ™Ž›’˜ȱ ˜ȱ Œž•ž›Š•ȱ Ž¡™Ž›’–Ž—Š’˜—ǰȱ ˜ȱ Š—ȱ ’—œ’ž’˜—ȱ  ‘’Œ‘ȱ ›ŠžŠ••¢ȱ ›Ž“˜’—Žȱ ‘Žȱ Œ˜—˜›–’œȱ •’—Žǰȱ Š—ȱ ’—ȱ ˜’—ȱ œ˜ȱ —Ž•ŽŒŽȱ’œȱ˜›’’—Š•ȱœ™’›’ȱ˜ȱ’——˜ŸŠ’˜—ǯȱ—ȱ›ŽŠ•’¢ȱ’ȱœžŒŒž–‹Žȱ›’‘ȱ›˜–ȱ ‘ŽȱœŠ›ȱ˜ȱ˜Ȃœȱ’—ĚžŽ—ŒŽǰȱ›˜–ȱ‘ŽȱŸŽ›¢ȱ–˜–Ž—ȱ‘ŽȱŽŒ’œ’˜—ȱ ŠœȱŠ”Ž—ȱ to include a museum which, instead of dealing with recent contemporary art,  ˜ž•ȱ‹ŽȱŽŸ˜Žȱ ˜ȱ ‘Žȱ ‘˜•Žȱ˜ȱ ‘Žȱ  Ž—’Ž‘ȱ ŒŽ—ž›¢ǯȱȱ ‘’œȱ™˜’—ȱ—˜ȱ ˜—•¢ȱ Šœȱ‘Žȱ˜™™˜›ž—’¢ȱ–’œœŽȱ˜ȱ›ŽŽę—Žȱ‘Žȱ–žœŽž–ȱ’ŽŠǰȱ‹žȱ‘Žȱ™›˜“ŽŒȱ Š•œ˜ȱ›Ž ȱ •’Žȱ Š Š¢ȱ ›˜–ȱ ‘Žȱžœ·ŽȱŠ’˜—Š•ȱȂ›ȱ˜Ž›—Žȱ Šȱ ‘ŽȱŠ•Š’œȱ

20ȱ ȱ˜ȱŠŸ˜’ȱ‘Žȱ›Žœ›’Œ’˜—œȱ˜ȱœ’–™•¢ȱŒŠŽ›’—ȱ˜ȱŠȱœ˜Œ’Š••¢ȱŽŽ›–’—ŽȱŠž’Ž—ŒŽǰȱ‘Žȱ Ž ȱžœŽž–ȱ˜ȱ˜—Ž–™˜›Š›¢ȱ›ȱŽŒ’Žȱ’—ȱŗşŞŖȱ˜ȱœŠŽȱŠȱœŽ›’Žœȱ˜ȱŽ¡‘’‹’’˜—œȱŽ—’•Žȱ EventsDZȱŠ›Œ’ŠȱžŒ”Ž›ȱ˜ěŽ›Žȱ‘Ž›ȱ›˜˜–œȱ˜ȱ›˜ž™œȱ˜ȱŠ›’œœȱ ‘˜ȱ‘Šȱ‘Ž’›ȱ˜ —ȱŠ•Ž›—Š’ŸŽȱ œ™ŠŒŽœȱ ’—ȱ ˜‘Ž›ȱ —Ž’‘‹˜ž›‘˜˜œȱ ǻŠ’›—Žǰȱ ŗşşŜǰȱ ™™ǯȱ ŚŖŖȱ Š—ȱ ŚŖşǰȱ —˜Žȱ řŝǼǯȱ žȱ ‘Žȱ Ž ȱ žœŽž–ȱ˜ȱ˜—Ž–™˜›Š›¢ȱ›ȱ‘ŠœȱŠ• Š¢œȱ›Ž–Š’—Žȱ•˜¢Š•ȱ˜ȱ˜ —˜ —ȱŠ—‘ŠĴŠ—ǰȱœ’—ŒŽȱ’—ȱ ŗşŞřȱ’ȱ Šœȱ›Š—œŽ››Žȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ•˜ Ž›ȱĚ˜˜›œȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱœ˜›ȱž’•’—ȱœ˜ž‘ȱ˜ȱ›˜Š Š¢ǰȱŠ—ȱ‘Ž—ȱ ’—ȱŘŖŖŝȱ˜ȱŠȱ‹ž’•’—ȱ˜—ȱ˜ Ž›¢ȱ›ŽŽǯ

Žȱ˜”¢˜ǰȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱ‹ŽŒŠ–Žȱ’œŠěŽŒŽȱ˜›ȱ¢ŽŠ›œȱ˜ȱŒ˜–ŽȱȮȱ‘Žȱ’›˜—¢ȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱŠ•Žȱ being that this pavilion, built for the 1937 International Exhibition, would, in ŘŖŖŘǰȱ‘˜žœŽȱŠ—ȱŠ›ȱŒŽ—›ŽȱŽŠ•’—ȱ ’‘ȱ‘Žȱ•ŠŽœȱ˜›–œȱ˜ȱŒ˜—Ž–™˜›Š›¢ȱŠ›ǯ ‘Žȱ‘Š—ž•ȱ˜ȱŽŠž‹˜ž›ȱœž™™˜›Ž›œȱ Ž›Žȱ•Žȱ ˜—Ž›’—ȱ ‘Šȱ Šœȱ‘Žȱ

™˜’—ȱ˜ȱ’—Ě’Œ’—ȱ‘Žȱ ‘˜•Žȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ‘’œ˜›¢ȱ˜ȱ–˜Ž›—ȱŠ›ȱ˜—ȱ‘’œȱ—Ž ȱŒžĴ’—Ȭ ŽŽȱ ’—œ’ž’˜—ǯȱ ˜ž•ȱ ‘Žȱ ŸŽ—Ž›Š‹•Žȱ avant-garde masterpieces, already consecrated by the passage of time, not appear anachronistic in their new Œ˜—Ž¡ǵȱŽœ’ŽœǰȱŠȱ ‘˜•ŽȱŽ—Ž›Š’˜—ȱ˜ȱȱ‹Ž—ŽŠŒ˜›œȱ Ž›Žȱ‘ŠŸ’—ȱœ˜ȱ –žŒ‘ȱ›˜ž‹•ŽȱŠŒŒŽ™’—ȱ‘ŽȱŽŠž‹˜ž›ȱœ™’›’ȱ‘Šȱ‘Ž¢ȱ›Ž—ŽŽȱ˜—ȱ™›˜–’œŽȱ ’œȱ Š—ȱ˜™™˜œŽȱ ‘Žȱ ›Š—œŽ›ȱ ˜ȱ Ž¡’œ’—ȱ Œ˜••ŽŒ’˜—œǰȱ ‘’Œ‘ǰȱ ‘Ž¢ȱ ’—œ’œŽǰȱ œ‘˜ž•ȱ›Ž–Š’—ȱŠȱ‘ŽȱŠ•Š’œȱŽȱ˜”¢˜ǰȱ˜ȱ˜›–ȱŠȱȁmusée d’art moderne’ according ˜ȱŠȱ–˜›Žȱ›Žœ›’Œ’ŸŽȱ‹žȱ ’Ž•¢ȱŠŒŒŽ™ŽȱžœŽȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱŽ›–ǯ21 If those responsible ˜›ȱ ‘Žȱ ˜ž—Š’˜—ȱ˜ȱ ‘Žȱ—Ž ȱŽ—›Žȱ‘Šȱ‘ŠȱŠȱ–Š“˜›’¢ȱ˜ȱ ¢˜ž—ȱ™Ž˜™•Žȱ in their midst, they might have considered this a good arrangement; but the ™›Žœ’Ž—ȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱŽœŠ‹•’œ‘–Ž—ǰȱ˜‹Ž›ȱ˜›Š£ǰȱ ŠœȱŠ•›ŽŠ¢ȱ˜ȱŠȱŒŽ›Š’—ȱŠŽȱ Š—ȱ‘Žȱ’Ž—’ꮍȱ ’‘ȱ‘Žȱ™’˜—ŽŽ›’—ȱŒ˜—ŒŽ›—œȱ˜ȱ‘’œȱŽ—Ž›Š’˜—ȱ˜—•¢ǯȱ‹˜ŸŽȱ Š••ǰȱ‘Žȱ Š—Žȱ˜ȱ’ŸŽȱ‘’œȱ’—œ’ž’˜—ȱŠȱ ˜›•Ȭ ’Žȱ›Ž™žŠ’˜—ȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱ ˜ž•ȱ not have been possible if he had specialized in post World War II art, which  Šœȱ ˜˜ȱ ˜ŒžœŽȱ˜—ȱ ‘ŽȱŽ ȱ˜›”ȱŒ‘˜˜•ǯȱ‘’œȱ ’œȱ ‘¢ȱ‘ŽȱŽŒ’Žȱ ‘Šȱ‘’œȱ Ž—›Žȱœ‘˜ž•ȱŽŠ•ȱ ’‘ȱ‘Žȱ ‘˜•Žȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱŠ›ȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ Ž—’Ž‘ȱŒŽ—ž›¢ǰȱ’—œ’œ’—ȱ ˜—ȱ‘Žȱ›Š—œŽ›ȱ˜ȱŒ˜••ŽŒ’˜—œȱ›˜–ȱȱŠ—ȱę¡’—ȱŗşŖśȱȮȱ‘Žȱ¢ŽŠ›ȱ ‘Ž—ȱ‘Žȱ ŠžŸŽœȱŠŒ‘’ŽŸŽȱ›ŽŒ˜—’’˜—ȱŠȱ‘Žȱžž–—ȱŠ•˜—ȱȮȱŠœȱ‘ŽȱœŠ›’—ȱŠŽȱ˜›ȱ‘Žȱ Œ˜••ŽŒ’˜—œȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱ—˜ ȱœ›ŽŒ‘Žȱ‹ŠŒ”ȱ˜ȱ ‘Žȱ˜œȬ–™›Žœœ’˜—’œœǰȱŠœȱ’ȱ‘Žȱ ˜ǯȱ¢ȱ›Ž’—Ž›Š’—ȱŠ’œœŽȱŠ—ȱ‘ŽȱŒ‘˜˜•ȱ˜ȱŠ›’œȱ ’‘’—ȱ‘Žȱ‹ŠŒ”‹˜—Žȱ ˜ȱ ‘’œȱ Œ˜••ŽŒ’˜—ǰȱ ˜›Š£ȱ œ›žŒ”ȱ Šȱ ™Š›’˜’Œȱ —˜Žȱ ‘’•Žȱ ™žœ‘’—ȱ Œ‘›˜—˜•˜¢ȱ ˜› Š›ȱ–˜›Žȱ‘Š—ȱ‘’œȱŽ ȱ˜›”ȱŒ˜–™Ž’˜›ǯȱžȱ‘Žȱ˜–™’˜žȱŽ—›Žȱ•˜œȱ an historic opportunity: declaring modernity over and going beyond it – a position which would have placed it as forerunner of a new international –žœŽ˜•˜’ŒŠ•ȱ ŠŸŽȱž›’—ȱ‘Žȱ™˜œ–˜Ž›—ȱŽ›Šǯ ȱ–Š¢ȱœŽŽ–ȱŒž›’˜žœȱ‘Šȱ‘ŽȱŽ—›ŽȂœȱŠ‘Ž›Ž—ŒŽȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ–Š’—œ›ŽŠ–ȱ–˜Ž•ȱ

for a ‘museum of modern art’, which was by then being contested even in New ˜›”ǰȱœ‘˜ž•ȱ‘ŠŸŽȱ™ŠœœŽȱŒ˜–™•ŽŽ•¢ȱž——˜’ŒŽȱ‹¢ȱŽŠž‹˜ž›ȂœȱŒ‘›˜—’Œ•Ž›œǯȱ

21ȱ ȱ‘Žȱ›’Ž—œȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱžœ·ŽȱȂŠ›ȱ–˜Ž›—ŽǰȱŒ‘Š’›Žȱ‹¢ȱ›ȱŠŒšžŽœȱŽŠ›ǰȱ Ž›Žȱ—˜ȱ opposed to the transfer, but sought to limit its scope by drawing a subtle distinction between –˜Ž›—ȱŠ—ȱŒ˜—Ž–™˜›Š›¢ȱŠ›ǯȱ›˜–ȱ‘Ž’›ȱ™˜’—ȱ˜ȱŸ’Ž ȱ˜—•¢ȱ ˜›”œȱŠŽ›ȱŗşśŖȱœ‘˜ž•ȱ‹Žȱ œŽ—ȱ ˜ȱ ŽŠž‹˜ž›ȱ ǻŠ •Žœœǰȱ ŗşŞŜǰȱ ™ǯȱ ŜşǼǯȱ ‘Žȱ •ŽŠ•ȱ œŠžŽœȱ ˜ȱ ‘ŽȱŠ’˜—Š•ȱžœŽž–ȱ ˜ȱ ˜Ž›—ȱ›ȱœž™™˜›Žȱ‘Ž–ǰȱ‘Ž›Ž˜›Žȱ‘Ž’›ȱ›ŽšžŽœȱŒ˜ž•ȱ—˜ȱœ’–™•¢ȱ‹Žȱ’—˜›ŽǯȱœȱŠȱ›Žœž•ȱ  ˜›”œȱ˜—ŠŽȱ˜ȱȱ‹¢ȱŒ˜••ŽŒ˜›œȱ ‘˜ȱ˜™™˜œŽȱ‘Ž’›ȱ›Š—œŽ›ȱ˜ȱŽŠž‹˜ž›ȱ›Ž–Š’—Žȱ Šȱ‘ŽȱŠ•Š’œȱŽȱ˜”¢˜ǯȱ‘Žȱœ’žŠ’˜—ȱ›Ž–Š’—Žȱœ˜ȱž—’•ȱ‘ŽȱŒ˜–™•ŽŽȱ›Ž˜›Š—’£Š’˜—ȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ ˜–™’˜žȱŽ—›Žȱ’—ȱŗşŞśǰȱ–ŠœŽ›–’—Žȱ‹¢ȱ ŠŽȱž•Ž—’ȱ ‘˜ȱŽ—Š‹•Žȱ‘Žȱ›Š—œŽ›ȱ˜ȱ‘ŽœŽȱ –˜Ž›—ȱŠ›ȱŒ˜••ŽŒ’˜—œȱ‹¢ȱŽŸ’œ’—ȱ–˜›Žȱ›Š’’˜—Š•ȱ Š¢œȱ˜ȱ’œ™•Š¢’—ȱ‘’œȱ–ŠŽ›’Š•ǯȱ‘’œȱ ’쎛Ž—’Š’˜—ȱŠŸŽȱŠȱ ŠœŽȱ˜ȱŸ’Œ˜›¢ȱ ˜ȱ Š••ȱ ‘˜œŽȱ ‘˜ǰȱ œ’—ŒŽȱ ŗşŝŜǰȱ‘Šȱ ˜ž‘ȱ ˜›ȱ Šȱ—Ž ȱ Š™™Ž••Š’˜—ǰȱžœ·ŽȱȂ›ȱ˜Ž›—ŽȱŽȱ˜—Ž–™˜›Š’—ȱǻ˜ž•’—ǰȱŗşşŘǰȱ™ǯȱŗŜŗǰȱ—˜ŽȱŚśǼǰȱŽŸŽ—ȱ’ǰȱ ˜›ȱ‘ŽȱœŠ”Žȱ˜ȱŒ˜—’—ž’¢ǰȱ‘Žȱ–žœŽž–Ȃœȱ˜•ȱ—Š–Žȱ Šœȱ›ŽŠ’—Žǯ

Many artists and intellectuals from the left criticized the MoMA for not going ‹Ž¢˜—ȱ‹œ›ŠŒȱ¡™›Žœœ’˜—’œ–ȱ’—ȱ’œȱ™Ž›–Š—Ž—ȱ’œ™•Š¢œȱž™œŠ’›œǰȱ›Ž•ŽŠ’—ȱ ‘Žȱ Š›’œ’Œȱ ’——˜ŸŠ’˜—œȱ ˜ȱ ‘Žȱ ŗşŜŖœȱ Š—ȱ ŗşŝŖœȱ ˜ȱ Ž–™˜›Š›¢ȱ Ž¡‘’‹’’˜—œȱ ‘Ž•ȱ˜—ȱ‘Žȱ›˜ž—ȱĚ˜˜›ǯȱžȱ—˜Ȭ˜—ŽȱŠ™™ŽŠ›œȱ˜ȱ‘ŠŸŽȱ—˜’ŒŽȱ‘Šȱ‘ŽȱœŠ–Žȱ ™‘Ž—˜–Ž—˜—ȱ Šœȱ‘Š™™Ž—’—ȱŠȱŽŠž‹˜ž›ǯȱ‘Ž›ŽǰȱŒ˜—Ž–™˜›Š›¢ȱ ˜›”œȱ Ž›Žȱ Ž—•’ŸŽ—’—ȱ‘ŽȱŒ‘˜’ŒŽȱ’—ȱ‘Žȱ˜›ž–ȱ˜—ȱ‘Žȱ›˜ž—ȱĚ˜˜›ȱŠ—ȱ’—ȱ˜‘Ž›ȱŽ–™˜›Š›¢ȱ Ž¡‘’‹’’˜—ȱŠ›ŽŠœǰȱ‹žȱ‘Ž¢ȱœžěŽ›Žȱ’œŒ›’–’—Š’˜—ȱ ’‘’—ȱǰȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱ Šœȱ –Š’—•¢ȱŽ’ŒŠŽȱ˜ȱ›ŽŒ˜—’£ŽȱŠ›’œ’ŒȱŠŒ‘’ŽŸŽ–Ž—œǯȱ›’’—Š••¢ǰȱ˜žȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ 8000 items which made up the Museum’s collection,22 only 1000 were put on ™Ž›–Š—Ž—ȱ ’œ™•Š¢ǯȱ ˜—žœȱ ž•Ž—ȱ Š—ȱ Ž›–Š’—ȱ’ŠĴŽȱ ˜›Š—’£Žȱ ‘Ž–ȱ ’—ȱ chronological order, as at the MoMA, but without applying any distinction ‹Ž ŽŽ—ȱ—Š’˜—Š•ȱœŒ‘˜˜•œǯȱ—ȱ•ŽŸŽ•ȱŚȱǻŘşŜŖ–2Ǽȱ‘ŽȱŸ’œ’˜›ȱ–˜ŸŽȱ›˜–ȱŠžŸ’œ–ȱ ˜ȱ¡™›Žœœ’˜—’œ–ǰȱž‹’œ–ǰȱžž›’œ–ȱŠ—ȱŽŠ›•¢ȱ‹œ›ŠŒȱŠ›Dzȱ˜—ȱ•ŽŸŽ•ȱśȱǻŚŝŞŖ–2Ǽȱ ‘Žȱ ’’—Ž›Š›¢ȱ œŠ›Žȱ  ’‘ȱ ŠŠ’œ–ǰȱ –˜Ÿ’—ȱ ˜—ȱ ˜ȱ ž››ŽŠ•’œ–ȱ Š—ȱ Š›’œœȱ ‹Ž ŽŽ—Ȭ‘ŽȬ Š›œǰȱ ‘Ž›ŽȱŠȱȁꛎȬ Š••Ȃȱ–Š›”Žȱ‘Žȱ›˜—’Ž›ȱ‹Ž ŽŽ—ȱœŠŒ›˜œŠ—Œȱ Š›ȱ Š—ȱ ž—Œ˜—œŽŒ›ŠŽȱ ›˜ž—ǯȱ —ȱ ‘Žȱ ˜‘Ž›ȱ œ’Žȱ  Šœȱ Šȱ œ™ŠŒŽȱ ǻřřŖŖ–2Ǽȱ Ž’ŒŠŽȱ ˜ȱ›Ž—Œ‘ȱŠ—ȱ ’—Ž›—Š’˜—Š•ȱŒ˜—Ž–™˜›Š›¢ȱŠ›ǯȱ‘’œȱ–žœŽ˜•˜’ŒŠ•ȱ ›ŠŒž›Žȱ Šœȱ•ŠŽ›ȱŽ–™‘Šœ’£Žȱ‹¢ȱ‘Žȱ’—œŠ••Š’˜—ȱ˜—ȱ•ŽŸŽ•ȱśȱ˜ȱŠȱ™Ž›–Š—Ž—ȱ display which dealt with all art movements of the twentieth century until ŗşŜśǰȱ›ŽœŽ›Ÿ’—ȱ•ŽŸŽ•ȱŚȱ˜›ȱŽ–™˜›Š›¢ȱŽ¡‘’‹’’˜—œȱ˜ȱ–˜›Žȱ›ŽŒŽ—ȱ ˜›”ǯȱŒŒŽœœȱ to level 4 was through lateral escalators only, which were frequently missed ‹¢ȱŸ’œ’˜›œȱŠ•›ŽŠ¢ȱ’›Žȱ‹¢ȱ‘Žȱę›œȱ•Žȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ‘’œ˜›’ŒŠ•ȱŒ˜••ŽŒ’˜—ǯ

It is ironic that the competitive similarity with the MoMA was the outcome ˜ȱŠȱ–Š’—•¢ȱ™˜•’’ŒŠ•ȱŽŒ’œ’˜—ǯȱȱ ŠœȱŠ”Ž—ȱž—Ž›ȱ™›Žœœž›Žȱ›˜–ȱ‘ŽȱŠž‘˜›’’Žœǰȱ when the credibility of the Gaullist government had been undermined by —Š’˜—Š•’œȱŠĴŠŒ”œȱ›˜–ȱŠ••ȱœ’ŽœDZȱ–Š—¢ȱŽŠ›Žȱ‘Žȱ—Ž ȱŽ—›Žȱ ˜ž•ȱ‹ŽŒ˜–Žȱ Šȱ ˜˜•ȱ ˜›ȱ›Ž’—˜›Œ’—ȱȱŒž•ž›Š•ȱ‘ŽŽ–˜—¢ǰȱ •ŽŠ’—ȱ ˜ȱ ’—Œ›ŽŠœ’—ȱŽ–Š—ȱ Š—ȱ‘’‘Ž›ȱ™›’ŒŽœȱ˜›ȱŠ›ȱŒ˜–’—ȱ›˜–ȱ‘Žȱ˜‘Ž›ȱœ’Žȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ•Š—’Œǯ23 It is not ‹¢ȱŠŒŒ’Ž—ȱ‘ŠǰȱŠȱ‘Žȱ‹ž’•’—Ȃœȱ’—Šžž›Š’˜—ǰȱ‘Žȱ–Š’—ȱŽ¡‘’‹’’˜—ȱŠ••Ž›¢ȱ ™›ŽœŽ—ŽȱŠȱ›Ž›˜œ™ŽŒ’ŸŽȱŽ¡‘’‹’’˜—ȱ˜—ȱŠ›ŒŽ•ȱžŒ‘Š–™ǰȱŠȱ›Ž—Œ‘ȱ™’˜—ŽŽ›ȱ’—ȱ –˜Ž›—ȱŠ›ǯȱ˜—žœȱ ž•Ž—ȱ‘’–œŽ•ȱŒž›ŠŽȱ‘Žȱœ‘˜ ȱŠ—ȱ›ŽŠ›ŽȱžŒ‘Š–™ȱ Šœȱ‘Žȱę›œȱ›ŽŠ•ȱŠ›’œȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ Ž—’Ž‘ȱŒŽ—ž›¢ǰȱŠ•‘˜ž‘ȱŽž¢œȱŠ—ȱꐞ›Š’ŸŽȱ ˜™ȱŠ›’œœȱ‘ŠȱŒ˜—ŽœŽȱ‘’œȱ‘’œ˜›’ŒŠ•ȱ›˜•Žǯȱ ž•Ž—ȱ–Žȱ—˜ȱ˜™™˜œ’’˜—ȱ ‘Ž—ȱ he opened the door to modern European art, including his purchases for the

22ȱ ȱ‘Žȱ—ž–‹Ž›ȱ˜ȱŽ¡‘’‹’Žȱ ˜›”œȱ’—Œ›ŽŠœŽȱǻŚŖŖȱ’—ȱŗşŝŝǰȱŜŖŖȱ’—ȱŗşŞŚǰȱŞśŖȱœ’—ŒŽȱŗşŞśǼȱ in a way that was proportional to the collections’ growth, which passed from 9000 to 30,000 ™’ŽŒŽœǯ

23ȱ ȱ›Š—”ȱ•Š—ȱœŠŽȱ’—ȱCarrefourȱ˜—ȱŘśȱž•¢ȱŗşŝŚȱ‘Šȱ‘Žȱ˜ž—ȱœ›’”’—ǰȱ‘ŽȱŠ››’ŸŠ•ȱ en masseȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ–Ž›’ŒŠ—ȱŒ‘˜˜•DZȱŽ¡Š–™•Žœȱ˜ȱŠŒ’˜—ȱ™Š’—’—ǰȱ˜™ǰȱ™ȱŠ—ȱ’—’–Š•ȱ›ȱdzȱ  ’‘ȱ˜••˜Œ”ǰȱ ˜›”¢ǰȱ˜‹Ž¢ǰȱŠ–ȱ›Š—Œ’œǰȱ˜‘”˜ǰȱŽ••ŠǰȱŽŠ•ȱŠ—ȱ–Š—¢ȱ˜‘Ž›œȱ˜›ȱ‘’–ǰȱ‘Žȱ Ž–™‘Šœ’œȱ™•ŠŒŽȱ˜—ȱŠ›ȱ›˜–ȱŠŒ›˜œœȱ‘Žȱ•Š—’Œȱ–ŠŒ‘Žȱ‘Žȱȃœ™’›’ȱ˜ȱŽŠž‹˜ž›Ȅȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱ  ˜ž•ȱŠ•œ˜ȱ‹ŽȱŒ‘Š›ŠŒŽ›’£Žȱ‹¢ȱ‘Žȱ’–™˜›Š—ŒŽȱ’ŸŽ—ȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱŽ˜ȬŽŠ•’œœȱŸŽœȱ •Ž’—ǰȱ›–Š—ǰȱ Š¢œœŽǰȱ™˜Ž››’ȱŠ—ȱ’”’ȱŽȱŠ’—Ȭ‘Š••ŽǰȱŠœȱ Ž••ȱŠœȱ–˜›Žȱ›ŽŒŽ—ȱŒ˜—˜›–’œœȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱŠŸŠ—Ȭ Š›ŽȂȱǻŠ›’Œ•ŽȱŒ’Žȱ’—ȱŠ •ŽœœǰȱŗşŞŜǰȱ™ǯȱŝŜǼǯȱ

MNAM of works by Grosz, Kandinsky,24ȱ˜—›’Š—ǰȱŠ•ŽŸ’Œ‘ǰȱŠ›’ĴŽǰȱ›—œȱ Š—ȱŽ••–Ž›ǯȱžȱ ž•Ž—Ȃœȱ™ž›Œ‘ŠœŽȱ˜ȱ‹’ȱ–Ž›’ŒŠ—ȱ—Š–ŽœȱœžŒ‘ȱŠœȱ˜••˜Œ”ǰȱ ŠžœŒ‘Ž—‹Ž›ȱ Š—ȱ •Ž—‹ž›ǰȱ ›Š’œŽȱ Œ˜—œ’Ž›Š‹•Žȱ œžœ™’Œ’˜—ǰȱ ™Š›’Œž•Š›•¢ȱ  ‘Ž—ȱ‘Žȱ ’—›˜žŒŽȱ–Ž›’ŒŠ—ȱ Š¢œȱ˜ȱę—Š—Œ’—ȱŒŽ›Š’—ȱŠŒšž’œ’’˜—œǯŘś His ŽŽ›–’—ŽȱŠŒšž’œ’’˜—œȱ™˜•’Œ¢ȱ’—ȱ›Ž—Œ‘ȱŠ›ȱŠ’•Žȱ˜ȱ›ŽŠœœž›ŽȱŒ›’’Œœǰȱ‘˜ž‘ȱ he was purchasing works by indigenous artists he regarded as homologues to ˜™ȱ–Ž›’ŒŠ—ȱŠ›’œœDZȱ˜›ȱŽ¡Š–™•Žǰȱ‘Žȱnouveaux réalistesȱœžŒ‘ȱŠœȱ •Ž’—ǰȱŠ¢œœŽǰȱ ’—žŽ•¢ǰȱ›–Š—ǰȱ·œŠ›ȱŠ—ȱ˜‘Ž›œȱǻŽ˜˜ǰȱŘŖŖŜDZȱ™ǯȱŗŞŘǼǯȱ˜›ȱœ˜–Žȱ‘’œȱœ›ŠŽ¢ȱ  Šœȱœ’–™•¢ȱŠ™’—ȱ ‘Šȱ‘Žȱ’—Ž›—Š’˜—Š•ȱŠ›ȱ–Š›”Žȱ‘ŠȱŠ•›ŽŠ¢ȱŠŒŒ•Š’–Žǯȱ ‘’œȱ–ŽŠ—ȱ ‘Žȱ–žœŽž–ȱ ŠœȱŠ‹’ŒŠ’—ȱ ’œȱ ›˜•Žȱ˜ȱŽ¡™Ž›’–Ž—Š•ȱ •Š‹˜›Š˜›¢ȱ Š—ȱ Š•œ˜ȱ ’œȱ ŠŽœ‘Ž’Œȱ “žŽ–Ž—ǰȱ ’—ȱ ŠŸ˜ž›ȱ ˜ȱ ’——˜Œž˜žœǰȱ Ž—Ž›Š’—’—ȱ Š›ǰȱ  ‘˜œŽȱ˜—•¢ȱ–ŽŠœž›Žȱ Šœȱ‘Žȱ•ŽŸŽ•ȱ˜ȱ™•ŽŠœž›Žȱ’ȱŠŸŽȱ˜ȱŽ•’ŽȱŒ˜••ŽŒ˜›œǯȱ‘Žȱ Œ›’’Œȱ’Œ‘Ž•ȱŠ˜—ȱŽœŒ›’‹Žȱ ’‘ȱ ’›˜—¢ȱ ‘Žȱœ’—ȱ˜ȱŒ›˜—¢’œ–ȱŽ–‹˜’Žȱ‹¢ȱ Š›’œœȱœžŒ‘ȱŠœȱŸŽœȱ •Ž’—ǰȱŽŠ—ȱ’—žŽ•¢ȱŠ—ȱ›–Š—ǰȱ ‘˜ȱ‹ŽŒŠ–Žȱ‘ŽȱŽ—›ŽȂœȱ ˜ĜŒ’Š•ȱ˜Š‘Ž›œǰȱœ’—ŒŽȱ‘Ž¢ȱ Ž›Žȱȁ‘ŽȱŠŸ˜ž›’Žœȱ˜ȱ›Žœ’Ž—ȱ˜–™’˜žȱŠ—ȱ ˜—žœȱ ž•Ž—ǯȱ‘Ž¢ȱŒ˜ž•ȱ‘Š›•¢ȱ‹Žȱ•Žȱ˜žǰȱŒ˜ž•ȱ‘Ž¢ǵȱ‘Ž¢ȱ Ž›Žȱ’œ‘Žȱ ˜žȱ ’‘ȱ Š••ȱ–Š——Ž›ȱ ˜ȱ œŠžŒŽœȱ Šȱ ŽŠž‹˜ž›Ȃȱ ǻŠ›’Œ•Žȱ ™ž‹•’œ‘Žȱ ’—ȱCimaise, ǛȱŗśŘǰȱŒ’Žȱ’—ȱž›Žœ—ŽǰȱŘŖŖŖDZȱ™ǯȱŗŚŗǼǯȱ‘ŽȱŽ—›ŽȂœȱœŽŒ˜—ȱ›ŽŠȱŽ¡‘’‹’’˜—ȱ Paris-New York, also curated by Hulten, almost a companion piece to the žŒ‘Š–™ȱœ‘˜ ǰȱ ŠœȱœŠŽȱŠ—ȱ‘Ž›Žȱ Šœȱ—˜‘’—ȱœž›™›’œ’—ȱ ‘Ž—ȱ’ȱŠ’•Žȱ ˜ȱ ™•ŽŠœŽȱ ‘Žȱ ȁŠ—’Ȭ’–™Ž›’Š•’œœȂȱ Ȯȱ ‘Žȱ Œ›’’Œȱ ’Ž››Žȱ Œ‘—Ž’Ž›ȱ ŽœŒ›’‹Žȱ ‘Žȱ Ž¡‘’‹’’˜—ȱ Šœȱ ‘Žȱ ˜žŒ˜–Žȱ ˜ȱ Šȱ œŽŒ˜—ȱŠ›œ‘Š••ȱ •Š—ǰȱ ‘’œȱ ’–ŽȱŽŸ˜Žȱ ˜ȱ ‘ŽȱŠŽœ‘Ž’Œȱ‘ŽŽ–˜—¢ȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱǯȱȱ’œȱ ˜›‘ȱ›ŽŒŠ••’—ȱ‘Šȱ’ȱ Šœȱ‘Žȱ•ŽŠœȱ Ÿ’œ’ŽȱŽ¡‘’‹’’˜—ȱ ’—ȱ ‘Žȱ›Š—ȱ œŽ›’Žœȱ˜ȱ–ž•’Ȭ’œŒ’™•’—Š›¢ȱŽ¡‘’‹’’˜—œȱ ’‘ȱ Paris-Berlin, Paris-Moscow and Paris-Paris, a collaborative venture between ǰȱȱŠ—ȱ‘Žȱǯ žȱŽ—˜ž‘ȱ’›Žœœ’˜—œǯȱŽ›ȱ‘Žȱœ˜•Ž–—ȱ˜ĜŒ’Š•ȱ’—Šžž›Š’˜—ȱŒŽ›Ž–˜—¢ȱ˜—ȱ

řŗȱŠ—žŠ›¢ȱŗşŝŝȱŠ—ȱ‘ŽȱŽ—›ŽȂœȱ™ž‹•’Œȱ˜™Ž—’—ȱ ˜ȱŠ¢œȱ•ŠŽ›ǰȱŽŠž‹˜ž›Ȃœȱ –Š“˜›ȱ™›˜‹•Ž–ǰȱ™Š›Š˜¡’ŒŠ••¢ǰȱ‘Šœȱ‹ŽŽ—ȱ’œȱ’––Ž—œŽȱ™˜™ž•Š›’¢ǯȱ’‘ȱŠ•–˜œȱ seven million visitors a year, ‘the largest cultural centre in the world’, covering Š—ȱŠ›ŽŠȱ˜ȱŠ•–˜œȱŜśǰŖŖŖ–2ǰȱ’ȱœ˜˜—ȱŠ™™ŽŠ›ŽȱŒ›Š–™Žǯȱ‘ŽȱŒ˜•˜ž›ž•ȱŒ›˜ œȱ ’—ȱ ‘Žȱ›˜ž—ȱĚ˜˜›ȱ ˜›ž–ȱ Ž›Žȱ œ˜ȱŽ—œŽȱ ‘Šȱ ‘Ž¢ȱ ‘Ž–œŽ•ŸŽœȱ‹ŽŒŠ–Žȱ ‘Žȱ spectacle, stealing the show from the art installations and free displays which Š›’œœȱ–˜ž—ŽȱŽŸŽ›¢ȱ ŽŽ”ǯȱ˜›ȱŠȱ ‘’•Žȱ‘ŽȱŒŽ—›Š•ȱŠ›ŽŠȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ˜›ž–ǰȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱ

24ȱ ȱ‘ŽȱŠŒšž’œ’’˜—ȱ˜ȱ ˜›”œȱ‹¢ȱ Š—’—œ”¢ȱ Šœȱœž™™•Ž–Ž—Žȱ‹¢ȱ‘Žȱ‹ŽšžŽœȱ–ŠŽȱ‹¢ȱ the artist’s spouse who donated to the museum all the paintings, prints and drawings her ‘žœ‹Š—ȱ˜ —ŽǰȱŠ—ȱ‘ŽœŽȱŽ—Ž›Žȱ‘ŽȱŒ˜••ŽŒ’˜—ȱŠŽ›ȱ‘Ž›ȱŽŠ‘ȱ’—ȱŗşŞŗǯ

Řśȱ ȱ›’ŸŠŽȱ˜—Š’˜—œȱ Ž›ŽȱŠŒŒŽ™ŽǰȱŒ˜—›Š›¢ȱ˜ȱ›Ž—Œ‘ȱ›Š’’˜—ȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱ’ŒŠŽȱ‘Šȱ ŠŒšž’œ’’˜—œȱ ˜›ȱ —Š’˜—Š•ȱ –žœŽž–œȱ  Šœȱ ‘Žȱ ™›Ž›˜Š’ŸŽȱ ˜ȱ ‘Žȱ ŠŽǯȱ–˜—œȱ ‘ŽœŽȱ ‘Žȱ ›Ž—Œ‘Ȭ‹˜›—ȱŒ˜••ŽŒ˜›ǰȱ˜–’—’šžŽȱŽȱŽ—’•ǰȱ ‘˜ȱ•’ŸŽȱ’—ȱŽ¡Šœǰȱ Šœȱ™Š›’Œž•Š›•¢ȱŽ—Ž›˜žœȱ  ’‘ȱ ’œȱ ˜ȱ –Ž›’ŒŠ—ȱ  ˜›”œȱ ‹¢ȱ ŠŒ”œ˜—ȱ ˜••˜Œ”ǰȱ Š››¢ȱ ’ŸŽ›œȱ Š—ȱ —¢ȱ Š›‘˜•ǯȱ ȱ ŽŠž‹˜ž›ȱ˜ž—Š’˜—ȱ ŠœȱŽŸŽ—ȱŒ›ŽŠŽȱ’—ȱŽ ȱ˜›”ǰȱ •ŠŽ›ȱ›Ž—Š–Žȱ Ž˜›Žœȱ˜–™’˜žȱ ›ȱŠ—ȱž•ž›Žȱ˜ž—Š’˜—ȱǻŽ˜˜ǰȱŘŖŖŜǰȱ™ǯȱŗŞśǼǯ

ŠŒŽȱ Šœȱ Šȱ–Š—Žȱ ‹ŽŒŠžœŽȱ ’ȱ Šœȱ ž—Ȭ™ŠŒ”Žǰȱ ”’—Ž’Œȱ Š—ȱ ’—Ž›ŠŒ’ŸŽǰȱ Šœȱ ž›—Žȱ˜ŸŽ›ȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱȁ›˜Œ˜›˜–Žȱ˜ȱ’ȱŠ—ȱžŒŽȂǰȱŠȱ’Š—’Œȱ™•Š¢ž•ȱœŒž•™ž›Žȱ –ŠŽȱ˜ȱ›ŽŒ¢Œ•Žȱ–ŽŒ‘Š—’ŒŠ•ȱ™Š›œȱ‹›˜ž‘ȱ˜Ž‘Ž›ȱ‹¢ȱŽŠ—ȱ’—žŽ•¢ǰȱ’”’ȱŽȱ Š’—Ȭ‘Š••ŽȱŠ—ȱŽ›—Š›ȱž’—‹ž‘•ǰȱ ’‘ȱ‘ŽȱŒ˜••Š‹˜›Š’˜—ȱ˜ȱ’••¢ȱ •ûŸŽ›ǰȱ Š—’Ž•ȱ™˜Ž››’ȱŠ—ȱŽŸŽ—ȱ˜—žœȱ ž•Ž—ǯȱŽ›ȱ‘’œȱ‘Ž›Žȱ ŠœȱŠȱŘŖȱ–’—žŽȱšžŽžŽȱ ˜›ȱ ‘ŽȱŽœŒŠ•Š˜›œȱ Š”’—ȱŸ’œ’˜›œȱ ˜ȱ ‘Žȱž™™Ž›ȱĚ˜˜›œǰȱ Ž’‘Ž›ȱ ˜ȱ ‘Žȱ ˜™ȱĚ˜˜›ȱ Ž››ŠŒŽǰȱŠ—ȱž—Ž¡™ŽŒŽȱ˜ž›’œȱŠĴ›ŠŒ’˜—ȱ™›’—Œ’™Š••¢ȱ˜›ȱ˜›Ž’—Ž›œǰȱ˜›ȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ •Š›Žȱ•’‹›Š›¢ǯȱ‘’œȱŠŸ˜ž›’Žȱœ™˜ȱ ’‘ȱ¢˜ž—ȱŠ›’œ’Š—œȱŠŒŒ˜ž—Žȱ˜›ȱ‘Š•ȱ‘Žȱ Ž—›ŽȂœȱŽ—›’ŽœȱŠ—ȱę—’—ȱŠȱœŽŠȱ Šœȱ’–™˜œœ’‹•Žǯȱ‘Ž›Žȱ Ž›ŽȱŗǰřŖŖȱŒ‘Š’›œȱ˜›ȱ ŗřǰŖŖŖȱ›ŽŠŽ›œȱŠȱŠ¢ǰȱ–Š—¢ȱ‹Ž’—ȱŠ’•¢ȱŸ’œ’˜›œǰȱ˜Ž—ȱ ’‘ȱ•’Ĵ•Žȱ˜›ȱ—˜ȱ’—Ž›Žœȱ ’—ȱ‘ŽȱŽ—›ŽȂœȱ˜‘Ž›ȱŠŒ’Ÿ’’Žœǯ26ȱ‘ŽȱžœŽž–ǰȱ ’‘ȱ˜—•¢ȱŗǯśȱ–’••’˜—ȱŸ’œ’˜›œȱ Šȱ¢ŽŠ›ǰȱ Šœȱ‘Žȱ˜—•¢ȱ™•ŠŒŽȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱ Šœȱ—˜ȱ‘›˜—Žȱ ’‘ȱ™Ž˜™•ŽȱǻŽ¡ŒŽ™ȱ˜›ȱ ›Š—Œžœ’Ȃœȱœž’˜ǰȱœŽȱž™ȱ˜—ȱ‘Žȱ™’Š££Š27Ǽȱ‹ŽŒŠžœŽȱȱ‘ŠȱŠ—ȱŽ—›Š—ŒŽȱŽŽȱ which contributed to limiting visitor numbers to 2000 a day, 40 per cent of  ‘’Œ‘ȱ Ž›Žȱ˜›Ž’—Ž›œǯȱ˜›ȱ‘Žȱę›œȱŽ ȱ¢ŽŠ›œȱ ‘Ž—ȱŽ—›¢ȱ Šœȱ›ŽŽǰȱž—Š¢ȱ Ÿ’œ’˜›œȱŠŸŽ›ŠŽȱŗřǰŚŖŖȱ™Ž›ȱŠ¢ǯȱ‘Žȱ•Š›ŽȱŽ–™˜›Š›¢ȱŽ¡‘’‹’’˜—œȱ‘Ž•ȱ˜—ȱ•ŽŸŽ•ȱ 6 also charged an entrance fee but they had the advantage of being renewed every three or four months; from the beginning they, too, met with a success œ’–’•Š›ȱ˜ȱ‘Šȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ–žœŽž–ǯ ˜›ȱ Šȱ Ž ȱ ¢ŽŠ›œǰȱ ‘Žȱ–Šœœ’ŸŽȱ ™ž‹•’Œȱ ›Žœ™˜—œŽȱ Š—ȱ ‘Žȱ ›Žœž•’—ȱ šžŽžŽœȱ

ž›—ŽȱŽŠž‹˜ž›ȱ’—˜ȱŠ—ȱž—™›ŽŒŽŽ—Žȱœ˜Œ’Š•ȱ™‘Ž—˜–Ž—˜—ȱǻ•Žž›¢ǰȱŘŖŖŝǼDzȱ ‘’œȱ˜ŒŒž››ŽȱŠŠ’—ȱ–˜›Žȱ›ŽŒŽ—•¢ȱ ’‘ȱ‘Žȱ˜™Ž—’—œȱ˜ȱ ‘ŽȱŠŽȱ˜Ž›—ȱ’—ȱ ˜—˜—ȱŠ—ȱ‘Žȱ žŽ—‘Ž’–ȱ’—ȱ’•‹Š˜ȱȮȱ‹žȱ ’‘˜žȱ‘ŽȱŽ•Ž–Ž—ȱ˜ȱœž›™›’œŽȱ œ’—ŒŽȱ‘Ž’›ȱœžŒŒŽœœȱ‘Šȱ‹ŽŽ—ȱ–Ž’Œž•˜žœ•¢ȱ™•Š——ŽȱŠ—ȱ–Š›”ŽŽȱ’—ȱ‘Žȱ–Ž’Šǯȱ žœȱ Šœȱ ‘Žȱ—Ž ȱ ŒŠ—ȱ‹Žȱ œ‘˜Œ”’—ǰȱ œ˜ȱ Œ˜ž•ȱ ȁŽ¡ŒŽœœ’ŸŽȂȱ œžŒŒŽœœȱ ‹Žȱ Œ›’’Œ’£Žǯȱ ‘Žȱ‘Š›œ‘ŽœȱŒ›’’Œǰȱ‘Žȱœ˜Œ’˜•˜’œȱŽŠ—ȱŠž›’••Š›ǰȱŠ›žŽȱ‘Šȱ›Š‘Ž›ȱ‘Š—ȱ Š—ȱŠ›ȱŒŽ—›ŽǰȱŽŠž‹˜ž›ȱ ŠœȱŠȱŠœ‘’˜—ȱ™‘Ž—˜–Ž—˜—ȱŠ—ȱŠȱ–˜Œ”ȱŽ¡Ž›Œ’œŽȱ’—ȱ

26ȱ ȱŒŒ˜›’—ȱ˜ȱ›ŽœŽŠ›Œ‘ȱŒŠ››’Žȱ˜žȱ˜—ȱ‘ŽȱŽ—›ŽȂœȱ™ž‹•’Œǰȱ‘Žȱ¢™’ŒŠ•ȱ’‹›Š›¢ȱžœŽ›ȱ Šœȱ ŠȱœžŽ—ȱ’—ȱœŽŒ˜—Š›¢ȱœŒ‘˜˜•ȱ˜›ȱŠ‹˜ŸŽDZȱȁ˜ž—ǰȱ ’‘ȱŠȱŽ›ŽŽȱŠ—ȱŠ›’œ’Š—ǰȱ‘’œȱ•˜¢Š•ȱ¢™Žȱ ˜ȱŸ’œ’˜›ȱ–Š”Žœȱž™ȱ‘Žȱ–Š“˜›’¢ȱ˜ȱȱžœŽ›œȱŠ—ȱ’œȱŠȱ›Žž•Š›ȱŸ’œ’˜›ȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ–ž•’Ȭ’œŒ’™•’—Š›¢ȱ Ž¡‘’‹’’˜—œȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱŽŠ›•¢ȱ¢ŽŠ›œȱȮȱParis-New YorkȱǻŗşŝŝǼǰȱParis-BerlinȱǻŗşŝŞǼǰȱParis-MoscowȱǻŗşŝşǼȱ and Paris-ParisȱǻŗşŞŗǼǯȱ ŽȦœ‘Žȱ ’••ȱŸ’œ’ȱ–˜›Žȱ›Š›Ž•¢ȱ‘ŽȱžœŽž–ȱ˜ȱ˜Ž›—ȱ›ǰȱ–˜›Žȱ›Š›Ž•¢ȱ œ’••ȱ‘ŽȱŽ››ŠŒŽȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱœ˜ȱŠ™™ŽŠ•Žȱ˜ȱ˜ž›’œœȂȱǻ˜’››’Ž›ǰȱŘŖŖŖǰȱ™ǯȱŗŘřǼǯȱ—ȱœ˜ȱ›ŽŠ•’¢ȱ’›ŽŒ•¢ȱ Œ˜—›Š’ŒŽȱ ‘Žȱ ž—Š–Ž—Š•ȱ ˜Š•œȱ ˜ȱ ‘Žȱ’‹›Š›¢ȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱ Š’–ŽȱŠȱ ŠĴ›ŠŒ’—ȱ Š••ȱ ¢™Žœȱ˜ȱ Ÿ’œ’˜›œǰȱ‹¢ȱŽ–™‘Šœ’£’—ȱŠ—ȱ’—˜›–Š’˜—Ȭ‹ŠœŽȱŠ™™›˜ŠŒ‘ȱŠ—ȱ›Ž•ŽŠ’—ȱŸ˜ŒŠ’˜—Š•ȱ›Š’—’—ȱ ˜ȱŠȱœŽŒ˜—Š›¢ȱ™˜œ’’˜—ǯ

27ȱ ȱ‘Ž—ȱ›Š—Œžœ’ȱ–ŠŽȱ‘’œȱ‹ŽšžŽœȱ’ȱ Šœȱž—Ž›ȱ‘ŽȱŽ¡™›ŽœœȱŒ˜—’’˜—ȱ‘Šȱ‘’œȱ ˜›”œȱ œ‘˜ž•ȱ‹ŽȱŒ˜—œŽ›ŸŽȱŠ—ȱŽ¡‘’‹’Žȱ’—ȱ‘ŽȱŽ¡ŠŒȱŒ˜—ꐞ›Š’˜—ȱ˜ȱ‘’œȱœž’˜ǯȱ—ȱ‘Žȱ˜•ȱȱ ’—ȱŸŽ—žŽȱžȱ›·œ’Ž—ȱ’•œ˜—ȱ‘ŠȱŠ•›ŽŠ¢ȱŠĴŽ–™Žȱ˜ȱ˜ȱ‘’œȱ‘›˜ž‘ȱŠȱœ™ŽŒ’Š•ȱ’—œŠ••Š’˜—ȱ ˜›–’—ȱ™Š›ȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱŸ’œ’˜›Ȃœȱ’’—Ž›Š›¢ǯȱȱŽŠž‹˜ž›ǰȱ‘Ž¢ȱ˜™Žȱ˜ȱ›ŽŒ˜—œ›žŒȱ‘Žȱœž’˜ȱ˜—ȱ the piazza, respecting the orientation, the direction of natural light, and the arrangement ˜ȱ‘Žȱ ˜›”œǯȱ ˜ ŽŸŽ›ǰȱŠœȱ‘Žȱœ™ŠŒŽȱ ŠœȱŸŽ›¢ȱŒ›Š–™ŽȱŠ—ȱ™ŠŒ”Žȱ ’‘ȱ ˜›”œǰȱ’ȱ‘Šȱ˜ȱ ‹ŽȱŒ•˜œŽȱ˜›ȱœŽŸŽ›Š•ȱ¢ŽŠ›œǯȱȱ Šœȱ˜—•¢ȱ ’‘ȱ‘ŽȱŒ›ŽŠ’˜—ȱ˜ȱŠȱ•ŠœœȱŒ˜››’˜›ȱŠ••ȱŠ›˜ž—ȱ‘Žȱ studio, launched in 2000, that the streams of visitors, carrying their MNAM tickets, could be Œ˜—›˜••Žǯȱ

–ŠœœȱŒž•ž›Š•ȱŒ˜—œž–™’˜—ȱ ’‘ȱ’œȱŠĴŽ—’˜—ȱ˜ŒžœŽȱ˜—ȱ™›˜ŒŽœœ’—ȱœ›ŽŠ–œȱ ˜ȱ Œ˜—œž–Ž›œǰȱ “žœȱ Šœȱ ’—ȱ Šȱ œž™Ž›–Š›”Žȱ ǻŠž›’••Š›ǰȱ ŗşŝŝǼǯȱ ¢ȱ Žȱ’•Žǰȱ  ‘˜ȱ Šœȱ‘Ž—ȱ’›ŽŒ˜›ȱ˜ȱ–œŽ›Š–ȂœȱŽŽ•’“”ȱžœŽž–ǰȱ Ž—ȱž›‘Ž›ȱœ’••DZȱ ‘the public comes into the main entrance and the art escapes by the small ˜˜›œȱŠȱ ‘Žȱ‹ŠŒ”Ȃȱ ǻŒ’Žȱ‹¢ȱ–Ž•’—ŽǰȱŗşşŖDZȱ™ǯȱřŜŜǼǯȱ ˜ ŽŸŽ›ǰȱ ›˜–ȱŠ—˜‘Ž›ȱ ™˜’—ȱ˜ȱŸ’Ž ǰȱŽŠž‹˜ž›ȱ‘ŠȱŒ˜—œ˜•’ŠŽȱ‘Žȱ’—ŸŽŽ›ŠŽȱ™›ŠŒ’ŒŽȱ˜ȱȁŒž•ž›Š•ȱ consumption’: ̦—Žž›œȱ™Šœœ’—ȱ ‘›˜ž‘ǰȱ ’‘ȱ—˜ȱ™›ŽŽŽ›–’—Žȱ˜Š•ǯȱ›˜–ȱ ‘’œȱŠ—•ŽȱȮȱ ‘Žȱ™ž‹•’ŒȱŠ™™›˜™›’Š’˜—ȱ˜ȱ‘Ž›’ŠŽȱœ’ŽœȱȮȱŽŠž‹˜ž›ȱœŽȱ—Ž ȱ œŠ—Š›œDZȱ ‘Žȱ œ™ŽŒŠŒ•Žȱ ˜ȱ ‘Žȱ–ŠœœŽœȱ “˜¢ž••¢ȱ •˜œȱ ’—ȱ Šȱ •Š‹¢›’—‘ȱ ’‘˜žȱ really knowing how they got there, was a world away from the old idea of a ŸŽ—žŽȱ˜›ȱ‘Žȱœ˜•ŽȱŽ•’‘ȱ˜ȱŠ›ȱŒ˜——˜’œœŽž›œȱǻ Ž’—’Œ‘ǰȱŗşŞŞDZȱ™ǯȱŘŖşǼǯȱ‘Ž›Žȱ’œȱ —˜ȱ˜ž‹ȱ‘Šȱ’—ȱ›Š—ŒŽȱ‘Žȱ˜–™’˜žȱŽ—›Žȱœ¢–‹˜•’£Žȱ‘ŽȱŒ‘Š—Žȱ›˜–ȱŠȱ —’—ŽŽŽ—‘ȬŒŽ—ž›¢ȱœ¢•Žȱ˜ȱŒž•ž›Š•ȱ™˜•’Œ¢ȱ‹ŠœŽȱ˜—ȱ™›˜–˜’—ȱ‘Žȱę—ŽȱŠ›œǰȱ˜ȱ ŠȱŒ˜—œž–Ž›Ȭ•ŽȱŒž•ž›Š•ȱ’—žœ›¢ȱǻ˜——’Ž›ǰȱŗşşśDZȱ™ǯȱřŜśǼǯ žȱ ‘’œȱ ’œœžŽȱ ž™œŽȱ ‘Žȱ ™›Ž’Œ’˜—œȱ ˜ȱ ˜—žœȱ ž•Ž—ǯȱ Žȱ  Šœȱ ž••¢ȱ

Œ˜––’ĴŽȱ˜ȱŠĴ›ŠŒ’—ȱ‘ŽȱŽ—Ž›Š•ȱ™ž‹•’Œȱ‹¢ȱŠ••ȱ–ŽŠ—œȱŠŸŠ’•Š‹•ŽDzȱ‘Žȱ Šœȱ”ŽŽ—ȱ ˜ȱŽ¡™Ž›’–Ž—ȱ ’‘ȱ–žœŽž–ȱ˜™Ž—’—ȱ’–Žœȱ˜™’—ȱ˜›ȱ•ŠŽȱ˜™Ž—’—ȱ˜—ȱ ŽŽ”ȱ Š¢œȱŠ—ȱ•ŠŽȱŒ•˜œ’—ȱŠȱ ŽŽ”Ž—œǯȱ Žȱ Šœȱ”ŽŽ—ȱŠ•œ˜ȱ˜ȱ›Ž™•ŠŒŽȱ‘Žȱž—’˜›–Žȱ warden, symbol of the museum as a temple, with hosts; and to grant free Ž—›¢ȱ˜ȱŽ¡‘’‹’’˜—œǰȱŠœȱŠ›ȱŠœȱ™˜œœ’‹•ŽȱǻŠ •ŽœœǰȱŗşŞŜDZȱ™ǯȱŞŗDzȱž›¹—ŽǰȱŘŖŖŖDZȱ™ǯȱ ŗŘŝǼǯ28ȱžȱ ž•Ž—ȱ‘ŠȱŠ• Š¢œȱ›ŽŠ–ȱ˜ȱŒ›ŽŠ’—ȱŠȱŒŽ—›Žȱ‘Š•ȱ Š¢ȱ‹Ž ŽŽ—ȱ the production and the contemplation of art, a meeting point between artists Š—ȱ‘Žȱ™ž‹•’Œǰȱ ‘Ž›Žȱ‘Žȱ•ŠĴŽ›ȱŒ˜ž•ȱœ ’Œ‘ȱ›˜–ȱŒž›’˜œ’¢ȱ˜ȱŒ›ŽŠ’˜—ǯȱ‘’œȱ ‘Šȱ •Žȱ ˜ȱ ‘Žȱ ŽœŠ‹•’œ‘–Ž—ȱ ˜ȱ •Š‹˜›Š˜›’Žœȱ ˜›ȱ Ÿ’œžŠ•ȱ Ž¡™Ž›’–Ž—œǰȱ žœ’—ȱ sound, writing and art, alongside workshops for children and art initiation

28ȱ ȱ˜—žœȱ ž•Ž—ȱ‘ŠȱŠ•›ŽŠ¢ȱŽœŽȱ•ŠŽȱ—’‘ȱ˜™Ž—’—ȱŠȱ˜Œ”‘˜•–ȱŠ—ȱŽŠ—ȱ’Ž››Žȱ Žž’—ȱ‘Šȱ™›˜™˜œŽȱ’ȱ›˜–ȱ‘ŽȱŸŽ›¢ȱ‹Ž’——’—ȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ•’‹›Š›¢ȱ™›˜“ŽŒǯȱ‘Ž›Žȱ Šœȱ‘Ž›Ž˜›Žȱ Š—ȱ ’––Ž’ŠŽȱ Œ˜—œŽ—œžœȱ Š‹˜žȱ ‘ŽȱŽ—›Žȱ ‹Ž’—ȱ ˜™Ž—Žȱ ‹Ž ŽŽ—ȱ ŗŖǯŖŖȱ Š—ȱ ŗŘǯŖŖȱ ’—ȱ ‘Žȱ –˜›—’—ȱŠ—ȱž—’•ȱŗŖǯŖŖȱŠȱ—’‘ǯȱ‘Žȱ’ŽŠȱ˜ȱ›ŽŒ›ž’’—ȱ‘˜œœȱ–Žȱ ’‘ȱ•ŽœœȱœžŒŒŽœœǰȱŽœ™’Žȱ the fact that in Sweden Hulten had been able to observe how useful it was to young mothers  Š—’—ȱ˜ȱ›Žž›—ȱ˜ȱ ˜›”ǰȱ˜›ȱ˜ȱž—Ž–™•˜¢ŽȱœŠ•ŽœȱœŠěȱ ‘˜ȱ”—Ž ȱ‘˜ ȱ˜ȱ Ž•Œ˜–ŽȱŸ’œ’˜›œȱ Š—ȱœŽȱŠȱ—˜—ȬŠŒŠŽ–’Œȱ˜—Žǯȱ ˜ ŽŸŽ›ǰȱ’—ȱ‘ŽȱŒŠœŽȱ˜ȱŽŠž‹˜ž›ǰȱ‘Žȱ™Ž˜™•Žȱ ‘˜ȱŠ™™•’Žȱ ˜›ȱ‘Žȱ“˜‹œȱ Ž›ŽȱŽ›ŽŽȱœžŽ—œȱŠ—ȱ’ȱ Šœȱ’ĜŒž•ȱ˜ȱž›—ȱ‘Ž–ȱ˜ —ǰȱŽŸŽ—ȱ‘˜ž‘ȱ‘Ž¢ȱ Ž••ȱ œ‘˜›ȱ ˜ȱ ŠŒ‘’ŽŸ’—ȱ ‘Žȱ Žœ’›Žȱ ŽěŽŒǯȱ ‘Žȱ Š–’—’œ›Š’˜—ȱ Š•œ˜ȱ Ž•ȱ ‘Ž¢ȱ Œ˜ž•ȱ —˜ȱ ˜ȱ  ’‘˜žȱœŽŒž›’¢ȱžŠ›œǯȱ‘Žȱ–˜œȱŽ‹ŠŽȱ™˜’—ǰȱ‘˜ ŽŸŽ›ǰȱ Šœȱ‘Žȱ›ŽŽȱŽ—›¢ȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱ ž•Ž—ȱ  Šœȱž—Š‹•Žȱ˜ȱ’–™˜œŽȱ˜—ȱ‘Žȱ–žœŽž–ǯȱ‘’œȱ–Š¢ȱ‘ŠŸŽȱ‹ŽŽ—ȱ˜›ȱ™œ¢Œ‘˜•˜’ŒŠ•ȱ›ŽŠœ˜—œȱȮȱ‘Žȱ was assured that entrance charges were the best guarantee of good behaviour and a proper appreciation of the visit; or it may have been for strategic reasons with the introduction ˜ȱ •˜¢Š•¢ȱŒŠ›œǯȱ‘Žȱ›ŽŠȱŠŸŠ—ŠŽǰȱŠ™Š›ȱ›˜–ȱ’Ÿ’—ȱŠŒŒŽœœȱ ’‘˜žȱšžŽž’—ǰȱ Šœȱ‘Žȱ •˜—ȬŽ›–ȱ›ŽŸŽ—žŽȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱŒ˜–™Š›ŽȱŠŸ˜ž›Š‹•¢ȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ’—Œ˜–ŽȱŽ—Ž›ŠŽȱ‹¢ȱœŽŸŽ›Š•ȱž••ȱ™›’ŒŽȱ ’Œ”Žœǯȱ‘Ž›ȱœ›ŠŽ’Žœȱ Ž›ŽȱŠ˜™Žǰȱ˜›ȱ’—œŠ—ŒŽǰȱ™•ŠŒ’—ȱȁŽ•ŽŠŽœȂȱ’—ȱcomités d’entreprises ǻŒ˜–™Š—¢ȱœŠěȱŠœœ˜Œ’Š’˜—œǼȱŠ—ȱ˜‘Ž›ȱ›˜ž™œǰȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱ›ŽŒŽ’ŸŽȱ™ž‹•’ŒŠ’˜—œȱ›ŽŽȱ˜ȱŒ‘Š›Žȱ Š—ȱ‹Ž—ŽęŽȱ›˜–ȱ›ŽžŒŽȱŽ—›¢ȱŽŽœǯȱ‘ŽœŽȱ’—’’Š’ŸŽœȱ‘Ž•™Žȱ˜ȱŒŠ™ž›ŽȱŠȱ™ž‹•’ŒȱŠ–˜—œȱ ‘˜œŽȱ ‘˜ȱ’ȱ—˜ȱ˜ȱ˜ȱ–žœŽž–œȱŸŽ›¢ȱ˜Ž—ȱŠ—ȱŽŒ‘˜ŽȱŽŠ—ȱ’••Š›ȂœȱŽ¡™Ž›’–Ž—œȱŠȱ‘Žȱ ‘·¦›ŽȱŠ’˜—Š•ȱ ˜™ž•Š’›Žȱ ǻǼǰȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱ ‘Šȱ ‹ŽŽ—ȱ ˜ž—Žȱ‹¢ȱ ‘Žȱ ›Ž—Œ‘ȱ œŠŽȱ ’—ȱ ŗşśŗȱ ǻž›¹—ŽǰȱŘŖŖŖǰȱ™ǯȱřŗǼǯȱ

Œ•ŠœœŽœȱ˜›ȱ›˜ž™œȱ˜›ȱœ’—•ŽȱŸ’œ’˜›œǯ29 Hulten even insisted that the MNAM, ž—•’”Žȱ˜‘Ž›ȱ›Ž—Œ‘ȱ–žœŽž–œǰȱ’ȱ—˜ȱ ›ŽŒ›ž’ȱž’Žœȱ ›Š’—Žȱ ’—ȱŠ›ȱ‘’œ˜›¢ȱ but instead employed artists or art students, able to communicate personal ›Žœ™˜—œŽœȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ ˜›”œȱ˜—ȱ’œ™•Š¢ǯ ‘Žȱ Œ‘Š••Ž—ŽȱŠȱŽŠž‹˜ž›ȱ Šœȱ ˜ȱ™žȱ ‘Žȱ ȁŽ¡™Ž›’Ž—ŒŽȂȱ˜ȱ Š›ȱ‹Ž˜›Žȱ ’œȱ

ȁ’—Ž›™›ŽŠ’˜—Ȃǰȱ ˜ȱ ›ŽȬžœŽȱ ‘Žȱ Ž›–œȱ Œ‘˜œŽ—ȱ¢ŽŠ›œȱ •ŠŽ›ȱ ‹¢ȱ Š—˜‘Ž›ȱ–žœŽž–ȱ ’›ŽŒ˜›ȱ˜ȱŒ˜—ŸŽ¢ȱ‘Žȱ‹’™˜•Š›ȱ—Šž›Žȱ˜ȱ‘’œȱ™Ž›Ž——’Š•ȱŒ‘˜’ŒŽȱǻŽ›˜ŠǰȱŗşşŜǼǯȱ ŸŽ—ȱ ‘Žȱ˜ȱ ‘Šȱ ’—’’Š••¢ȱ Ž–™‘Šœ’£Žȱ ‘Žȱ Š›Ȭ‘’œ˜›’ŒŠ•ȱ ’—Ž›™›ŽŠ’˜—ǰȱ ž—Ž›ȱ‘Žȱ’›ŽŒ’˜—ȱ˜ȱ•›ŽȱŠ››ȱ›ǯǰȱ‹žȱœ˜˜—ȱ‘Žȱ‹Š•Š—ŒŽȱ’™™Žȱ‘Ž›ŽȱŠ•œ˜ȱ to the other side, and not simply in the education department which was still ž—Ž›ȱ ‘Žȱ ’—ĚžŽ—ŒŽȱ˜ȱ’Œ˜›ȱȂ–’Œ˜ȱŠ—ȱ‘’œȱ Š–˜žœȱ‹˜˜”ȱExperiments in Creative Art Teachingǯȱ‘ŽȱŽ¡‘’‹’’˜—ȱ™›˜›Š––’—ȱ‘Šȱ›ŠžŠ••¢ȱ‹ŽŽ—ȱ‘Š—Žȱ ˜ŸŽ›ȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱŠ›’œœȱ‘Ž–œŽ•ŸŽœǰȱ™Š›’Œž•Š›•¢ȱ˜›ȱ‘ŽȱœŽ›’Žœȱȁ›˜“ŽŒœȂȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱ‘Žȱ žœŽž–ȱ’—Šžž›ŠŽȱŠȱ‘ŽȱŽ—ȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱŗşŝŖœǯ30ȱȱŽŠž‹˜ž›ȱ—˜‘’—ȱŒ˜ž•ȱ ‘ŠŸŽȱ ™•ŽŠœŽȱ ˜—žœȱ ž•Ž—ȱ –˜›Žȱ œ’—ŒŽȱ ‘Žȱ  Šœȱ —˜ȱ ˜—•¢ȱ Š—ȱ Š›ȱ ‘’œ˜›’Š—ȱ ‹žȱ Š•œ˜ȱ Š—ȱ Š›’œȱ Š—ȱ ›’Ž—ȱ ˜ȱ Š›’œœǯȱ Žœ’Žœǰȱ ŠŒŒ˜›’—ȱ ˜ȱ ’œȱ ˜›’’—Š•ȱ Œ˜—ŒŽ™ǰȱŽŠž‹˜ž›ȱ ˜ž•ȱ—˜ȱ›Š ȱŠȱ•’—Žȱ‹Ž ŽŽ—ȱŽŸŽ›¢Š¢ȱ•’ŽȱŠ—ȱŠ›’œ’Œȱ Ž¡™Ž›’–Ž—Š’˜—ǰȱœ’—ŒŽȱœ›ŽŽȱŒ›ŽŠ’Ÿ’¢ȱ—ŽŽŽȱ˜ȱę—ȱŠȱ Š¢ȱ’—˜ȱ‘Žȱ–žœŽž–ȱ Š—ȱŸ’ŒŽȬŸŽ›œŠDZȱ‘ŽȱŠ›ȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ–žœŽž–ȱ—ŽŽŽȱ˜ȱę—ȱŠȱ Š¢ȱ˜žȱ˜—ȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱœ›ŽŽǯȱ —ȱ‘ŽȱŽŠ›•¢ȱŠ¢œȱ‘Ž›Žȱ Ž›ŽȱŠ‹ž—Š—ȱŽ¡Š–™•Žœȱ˜ȱ‹˜‘DZȱ˜›ȱŽ¡Š–™•Žǰȱ’—ȱŗşŝŝȱ the Art Show by Edward Kienholz, a friend of Hulten who was an installation and performance artist; or in 1983 the colourful fountain commissioned from ŽŠ—ȱ’—žŽ•¢ȱŠ—ȱ‘’œȱ ’Žȱ’”’ȱŽȱŠ’—Ȭ‘Š••Žȱ‹¢ȱ‘Žȱ’¢ȱ˜ȱŠ›’œȱŠ—ȱœŽȱž™ȱ Š‹˜ŸŽȱȱ˜—ȱ‘ŽȱŠ“ŠŒŽ—ȱ•ŠŒŽȱ˜›Ȭ›ŠŸ’—œ”’ǯȱ ˜ ŽŸŽ›ǰȱ ‘Žȱ›˜ ’—ȱ Šž’Ž—ŒŽȱŠ—ȱ‘Žȱ™ŠœœŠŽȱ˜ȱ’–Žȱ›ŠžŠ••¢ȱ ŽŠ”Ž—Žȱ‘’œȱ˜™’Š—ȱŽœž›Žȱ  ‘’Œ‘ȱŠĴŽ–™Žȱ˜ȱ›ŽžŒŽȱ‘ŽȱŠ™ȱ‹Ž ŽŽ—ȱȁ–Š”’—ȂȱŠ—ȱȁœŽŽ’—ȂȱŠ›ǯȱ—ȱ‘Žȱ Ž—ȱ‘Žȱ—˜’˜—ȱ Šœȱ‹Žœȱ›Ž™›ŽœŽ—Žȱ‹¢ȱ‘Žȱ›˜ž™Žœȱ˜ȱ“ž•Ž›œǰȱŒ˜—˜›’˜—’œœȱ

29 ‘While waiting for art to become integrated into life and penetrate all levels of œ˜Œ’Ž¢ǰȱŸŠ•žŠ‹•ŽȱŽ¡Œ‘Š—Žœȱ ŒŠ—ȱ Š”Žȱ™•ŠŒŽȱ ’—ȱ ȁ–žœŽž–œȂȱ Œ˜—ŒŽ’ŸŽȱ ’—ȱ—˜ŸŽ•ȱ Š¢œǯȱ‘ŽœŽȱ museums are not simply for the care of works which have lost their individual or social function, religious or political – church, residence or palace – but places where artists meet ‘Žȱ™ž‹•’ŒȱŠ—ȱ ‘Ž›Žȱ‘Žȱ™ž‹•’Œȱ‘Ž–œŽ•ŸŽœȱŒŠ—ȱ‹ŽŒ˜–ŽȱŒ›ŽŠ’ŸŽȱǻŠ›’Œ•Žȱ‹¢ȱ˜—žœȱ ž•Ž—ǰȱ ŠŽȱŗşŝśǰȱŒ’Žȱ’—ȱ–Ž•’—ŽǰȱŗşşŖǰȱ™ǯȱřŜśǼǯ

30ȱ ȱ¢ȱŗşŝŖȱ‘Žȱ˜ȱ‘ŠȱŠ•›ŽŠ¢ȱ’—Ÿ’ŽȱŠ›’œœȱœžŒ‘ȱŠœȱ Š—œȱ ŠŠŒ”ŽȱŠ—ȱ’˜ȱŒŒ˜—Œ’ȱ ˜ȱœŽȱž™ȱ‘Ž’›ȱ˜ —ȱ’—œŠ••Š’˜—œȱ ’‘’—ȱ‘ŽȱŽ¡‘’‹’’˜—ȱInformationǯȱžȱ‘ŽȱœŽ›’Žœȱȁ›˜“ŽŒœȂȱ Œ˜—œ’œŽȱ˜ȱœ–Š••ȱŽ¡‘’‹’’˜—œȱŒ˜––’œœ’˜—Žȱ›˜–ȱ’—Ÿ’ŽȱŠ›’œœȱ ‘˜ȱ Ž›Žȱ›Žœ™˜—œ’‹•Žȱ˜›ȱ Œž›Š’—ȱŠ—ȱ–˜ž—’—ȱ ‘Žȱ œ‘˜ œǯȱ —ȱ ‘ŽȱŽ—ȱ ‘Žȱ˜ȱŠ••˜ŒŠŽȱŠȱProject Room for all ‘ŽœŽȱŽ¡Ž›—Š•ȱŒ˜––’œœ’˜—œǯȱ‘ŽȱœŽ›’Žœȱ•ŠœŽȱž—’•ȱŗşŞŗǰȱ ŠœȱœŠ›ŽȱŠŠ’—ȱ’—ȱŗşŞŜȱŠ—ȱ Šœȱ Ž–ž•ŠŽȱ‹¢ȱŠȱ—ž–‹Ž›ȱ˜ȱ’쎛Ž—ȱ–žœŽž–œǰȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱŠ•œ˜ȱŒ›ŽŠŽȱœ™ŠŒŽœȱ ˜›ȱœ–Š••ȱŠ›’œœȂȱ Ž¡‘’‹’’˜—œȱŠ—ȱ˜›ȱŽŠ•’—ȱ ’‘ȱ›Š’ŒŠ•ȱŠœ™ŽŒœȱ˜ȱ ‘ŽȱŒ˜—Ž–™˜›Š›¢ȱŠ›ȱœŒŽ—Žǯȱ ˜ ŽŸŽ›ǰȱ this raises ontological issues for museums: ‘A Museum must, in a sense, sanction these Š›’œœȂȱ™›˜“ŽŒœDzȱ¢Žȱ‘Žȱ›Žœ™˜—œ’‹’•’’ŽœȱŠ—ȱŠŽ—Šœȱ˜ȱ‘’œȱ ˜›”ȱŠ›Žȱ™Ž›ŒŽ’ŸŽȱ˜ȱ‹Žȱ‘˜œŽȱ ˜ȱ‘ŽȱŠ›’œǰȱ—˜ȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ’—œ’ž’˜—ǯȱ—ȱ–˜œȱ’—œŠ••Š’˜—Ȭ‹ŠœŽȱŠ›ȱ™›˜žŒŽȱ’—ȱŠȱ–žœŽž–ǰȱ‘Žȱ creativity and institutional responsibility of the curator as ‘cultural producer’ disappears’ ǻŠ—’œ£Ž œ”’ǰȱŗşşŞǰȱ™ǯȱŘşŞǼǯ

and other street artists who provide regular entertainment in the piazza, close ˜ȱ‘ŽȱŽ—›ŽȂœȱŽ—›Š—ŒŽǯ31 ‘žœǰȱ ‘Žȱ ‘›ŽŽȱ Œ˜—ŒŽ™œȱ  ‘’Œ‘ȱ ‘Šȱ ›’ŸŽ—ȱ ‘Žȱ Œ›ŽŠ’˜—ȱ ˜ȱ ŽŠž‹˜ž›ȱ

gradually lost their relevance: interdisciplinarity, promoting creativity, and down to earth practicalities designed to ensure the widest access to the general ™ž‹•’Œǯȱ˜ȱœ™Š›”ȱ˜›ȱž˜™’Šȱ•Šœœȱ˜›ŽŸŽ›ǯȱ™Š›ȱ›˜–ȱŠȱ‘Š—ž•ȱ˜ȱŸŽ›¢ȱœ™ŽŒ’ęŒȱ Œ˜••Š‹˜›Š’ŸŽȱ™›˜“ŽŒœȱ ’‘ȱŠ›’œœǰȱ Œ›ŽŠ’ŸŽȱŽ¡™Ž›’–Ž—Š’˜—ȱŠœȱŠȱ ‘˜•Žȱ Šœȱ œžě˜ŒŠŽǰȱœšžŠœ‘Žȱž—Ž›ȱ‘Žȱ Ž’‘ȱ˜ȱ ‘ŽȱŠ–’—’œ›Š’ŸŽȱ™›˜ŒŽœœȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱ ȮȱŽ¡ŒŽ™ȱ’—ȱ‘ŽȱŒŠœŽȱ˜ȱȱȮȱ‘Šȱ˜‘Ž›ȱ™›’˜›’’ŽœǯȱŽ›ȱ‘Žȱ’—’’Š•ȱŽž™‘˜›’Šȱ  ‘Ž—ȱȱ ŠœȱŒ˜••Š‹˜›Š’—ȱ ’‘ȱ‘ŽȱȱŠ—ȱ‘Žȱȱ’—ȱ™›˜›Š––’—ȱ ŽŸŽ—œȱŠ—ȱŽ¡‘’‹’’˜—œǰȱŽŠŒ‘ȱ™›˜Žœœ’˜—Š•ȱŽŠ–ȱ›Ž›ŽŠŽȱ’—˜ȱ’œȱ˜ —ȱœ™‘Ž›Žǰȱ Š—ȱ‘Žȱ’—Ž›’œŒ’™•’—Š›¢ȱœ™’›’ȱ ŽŠ”Ž—Žǯȱœȱ˜›ȱ™ž‹•’ŒȱŠŒŒŽœœȱŠ—ȱ–Š”’—ȱžœŽȱ ˜ȱ‘Žȱ‹ž’•’—ȂœȱĚŽ¡’‹’•’¢ǰȱ’ȱ Šœȱœ˜˜—ȱ›ŽŠ•’£Žȱ‘Šȱ—Ž’‘Ž›ȱ›ŽŽȱŒ’›Œž•Š’˜—ǰȱ —˜›ȱ›ŽšžŽ—ȱŒ‘Š—Žœȱ’—ȱ•Š¢˜žȱ Ž›Žȱ˜˜ȱ˜™Ž›Š’—ȱ™›’—Œ’™•Žœǯ ‘’œȱ  Šœȱ ’—ŽŽȱ ‘Žȱ •Žœœ˜—ȱ ȱ •ŽŠ›—ȱ ŠŽ›ȱ Šȱ Ž ȱ ¢ŽŠ›œȱ ˜ȱ ‹Ž’—ȱ

˜™Ž›Š’˜—Š•ǯȱ ’Š—˜ȱ Š—ȱ ˜Ž›Ȃœȱ ĚŽ¡’‹•Žȱ ˜›’’—Š•ȱ Žœ’—ǰȱ ’—œ™’›Žȱ ‹¢ȱ ‘Žȱ –˜Ž›—ȱ Œ˜—ŒŽ™ȱ ˜ȱ ȁĚ˜ ’—ȱ œ™ŠŒŽȂǰȱ –ŽŠ—ȱ ‘Šȱ –žœŽž–ȱ œŠěȱ Œ˜ž•ȱ ™•ŠŒŽȱ paintings on small screens hanging from the ceiling or resting on the ground ˜—ȱ œ–Š••ȱ–ŽŠ••’Œȱ œŠ—œǰȱ ‹žȱ˜—žœȱ ž•Ž—ȱ’Ÿ’Žȱ ‘Žȱ œ™ŠŒŽȱžœ’—ȱ ‘’Œ”ȱ œŒ›ŽŽ—œȱǻŗŘŒ–ǼǰȱŞŖŒ–ȱ ’ŽȱŠ—ȱ˜ȱŸŠ›¢’—ȱ‘Ž’‘œȱȮȱŘǯŞŖ–ǰȱřǯśŖ–ǰȱŚǯřŖ–ȱ˜›ȱ śǯŜŖ–ǯȱ‘’œȱŠ››Š—Ž–Ž—ȱ›ŽŒŠ••Žȱ‘ŠȱŠ˜™Žȱ‹¢ȱ‘ŽȱŽŽ•’“”ȱžœŽž–ȱ’—ȱ’œȱ new glass wing, where visitors could both observe passers by in the street and Œ˜—Ž–™•ŠŽȱ™Š’—’—œȱ’—ȱ’œ˜•ŠŽȱ›ŽŒŠ—ž•Š›ȱœ™ŠŒŽœȱ•Žȱ˜™Ž—ȱ˜—ȱ˜—Žȱœ’Žǯȱȱ ŽŠž‹˜ž›ǰȱ‘Ž›Žȱ ŠœȱŠ•œ˜ȱŠ—ȱŠĴŽ–™ȱ˜ȱŒ›ŽŠŽȱŠȱœŽ—œŽȱ˜ȱ’—’–ŠŒ¢ȱ ’‘’—ȱŠ—ȱ Š›Œ‘’ŽŒž›Š•ȱ›Š–Ž ˜›”ȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱ Šœȱ™›˜‹Š‹•¢ȱ˜˜ȱ›Š—œ™Š›Ž—ȱŠ—ȱ˜˜ȱœ‘˜ ¢ǯȱ Ž—ŒŽȱ‘ŽȱžœŽȱ˜ȱ’ěžœŽȱ˜ŸŽ›‘ŽŠȱ•’‘’—ǰȱ ’‘ȱ‘Žȱœžœ™Ž—œ’˜—ȱ˜ȱŠȱŸŽ’•ȱŠȱ Šȱ‘Ž’‘ȱ˜ȱřǯřŖ–ǰȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱ‘’ȱŽŒ‘—’ŒŠ•ȱęĴ’—œȱ’—ȱ‘ŽȱŒŽ’•’—ǯȱœȱ‘ŽœŽȱž—’œǰȱ walled on three sides only, were neither rooms, nor symmetrically arranged cells, they were described as ‘huts’: Hulten, keen on African art, liked the idea ‘Šȱ‘’œȱ–žœŽž–ȱȮȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱ‘Žȱ‘ŠȱęĴŽȱ ’‘ȱ›’ŒŠ—ȱœ˜˜•œȱŠ—ȱ’œ™•Š¢ȱŒŠœŽœȱ Ž¡‘’‹’’—ȱ™›’–’’ŸŽȱŠ›ȱȮȱŒ˜ž•ȱŽŸ˜”ŽȱŠȱŸ’••ŠŽȱ˜ȱ‘žœǯȱ ŽȱŠ•œ˜ȱŠ˜™Žȱ‘Žȱ

31 ‘’œȱœ˜Œ’Š•ȱ™‘Ž—˜–Ž—˜—ȱ‘Šœȱ’—œ™’›Žȱœ˜–Žȱ‹›’••’Š—ȱŒ˜––Ž—Š›¢ǰȱ˜›ȱ’—œŠ—ŒŽǰȱ›˜–ȱ ŽŠ—ȱ•Š’›DZȱȁ’—Ž›ȱ˜›ȱœž––Ž›ǰȱ˜—ȱ‘Žȱ›˜ž‘ȱŠ—ȱŽŒ•’—’—ȱ™•Š˜›–ȱ˜ȱŽŠž‹˜ž›ȱ’Š££Šǰȱ Šȱœ˜–Ž ‘Šȱ™˜–™˜žœȱ’•Žǰȱ’œȱ—˜ ȱœŽȱž™ȱŠȱ‹’£Š››ŽȱŒ˜ž›ǯȱ‘Ž›ŽȱŒŠ›œȱŠ›Žȱ›Š —ǰȱ˜›ȱ¢˜ž›ȱ ™˜››Š’ǰȱ˜›ȱ¢˜ž›ȱŠœ›˜•˜’ŒŠ•ȱŒ‘Š›Dzȱ‘Ž¢ȱŒžȱ¢˜ž›ȱœ’•‘˜žŽĴŽǰȱ‘Ž¢ȱŽŒ’™‘Ž›ȱ¢˜ž›ȱ™‘¢œ’˜—˜–¢ȱ ˜›ȱ¢˜ž›ȱžž›Žǰȱœ˜–Ž’–Žœȱ˜‹œŒž›ŽȱœŒ˜›ŽœȱŠ›ŽȱœŽĴ•Žȱ ’‘ȱęœœȱ˜›ȱŽŸŽ—ȱ”—’ŸŽœȱdzȱ—ȱ‘Žȱœ‘ŠŽȱ of the great cultural ship, all these begging fakirs, doodlers and soothsayers are moved by ‘ŽȱœŠ–Žȱ’—œ’—ŒȱŠœȱ‘Ž’›ȱ˜›ŽŠ‘Ž›œȱ’—ȱ‘Žȱœ‘ŠŽȱ˜ȱŠȱŒŠ‘Ž›Š•ȱdzȱȱ›Š’—œǯȱ Š•ȱ—Š”Žȱ˜›ȱ dressed in rags, this fauna withdraws inside the nave, and leaning comfortably against the ‹Š•žœ›ŠŽœȱœ Š™ȱ›ŠŽȱœŽŒ›Žœǯȱ—ȱŠŸŠ—ȬŠ›Žȱ™˜ŽȱœŒ›ŽŠ–œȱ˜—˜–Š˜™˜Ž’Šȱ’—ȱ‘Žȱ‹ŠœŽ–Ž—ǰȱ a mother ŠĴŽ–™œȱ˜ȱœ‘Š›Žȱ ’‘ȱ‘Ž›ȱœ˜—ȱ‘Ž›ȱ›žœ›ŠŽȱŠ–’›Š’˜—ȱ˜›ȱŠȱ–˜‹’•Žȱ‹¢ȱŠ•Ž›ȱ and a young snob is in trance in front of a piece of ironwork by some American artist of ‘Žȱ–˜–Ž—ǯȱžȱ’—’쎛Ž—ȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ–¢œŽ›’Žœȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱ‘ŽȱŒž•ž›Š•ȱ›Ž•’’˜—ȱ‘Šœȱœ™›ŽŠȱŠ›˜ž—ȱ them, these rough necks await in comfort the end of the shower, content with observing the  ˜›”’—œȱ˜ȱ‘Ž’›ȱœ‘Ž•Ž›ȱ›˜–ȱ‘ŽȱŒ˜›—Ž›ȱ˜ȱ‘Ž’›ȱŽ¢ŽȂȱǻ•Š’›ǰȱŗşşŘǰȱ™™ǯȱřśȮŝǼǯ

œŠ–ŽȱŠ››Š—Ž–Ž—ȱ’—ȱ‘Žȱ›ŽŠȱŽ¡‘’‹’’˜—œȱ˜ȱŒž•ž›Š•ȱ‘’œ˜›¢32 dedicated to Paris-New York, Paris-Berlin, Paris-Moscow and Paris-Paris in 1977, 1978, 1979 Š—ȱŗşŞŗȱ›Žœ™ŽŒ’ŸŽ•¢ǯȱȱ‘Šȱ’–Žȱ‘ŽȱŒ˜–™Š›Žȱ‘’œȱ–žœŽž–ȱŽœ’—ǰȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱ combined intimacy with an environment catering for crowds,33 to urban public space, another of his obsessions born from the spectacular views of the city Šě˜›Žȱ›˜–ȱ‘ŽȱŽŠž‹˜ž›ȱ‘›˜ž‘ȱ’œȱ•Šœœȱ Š³ŠŽœȱŠ—ȱŽ››ŠŒŽœǯȱ›‹Š—ȱ Š•˜–Ž›Š’˜—œȱ ›Žœ™˜—ȱ ˜ȱ ‘Žȱ ’쎛Ž—ȱ —ŽŽœȱ ˜ȱ ‘Ž’›ȱ ›Žœ’Ž—œȱ ‘›˜ž‘ȱ Š—ȱ ’—›Šœ›žŒž›Žȱ˜ȱ œšžŠ›ŽœǰȱŠŸŽ—žŽœǰȱŠ›Ž—œȱŠ—ȱ •Š—Žœǯȱ’–’•Š›•¢ǰȱ ž•Ž—ȱ  ’œ‘Žȱ˜ȱœ›žŒž›Žȱ‘’œȱŽ¡‘’‹’’˜—ȱœ™ŠŒŽȱ ˜ȱ–ŽŽȱŸ’œ’˜›œȂȱ’쎛Ž—ȱ •ŽŸŽ•œȱ˜ȱ interest, curiosity and resilience: everyone was free to roam along the main œ›ŽŽœȱ›ŽœŽ›ŸŽȱ˜›ȱŽœœŽ—’Š•ȱ ˜›”œǰȱ‹žȱœ˜–Žȱ–’‘ȱœ™Ž—ȱ’–Žȱ’—ȱŠ“ŠŒŽ—ȱ ›˜˜–œȱ˜ȱ’œŒ˜ŸŽ›ȱ˜›ȱœž›ŸŽ¢ȱ’—ȱ›ŽŠŽ›ȱŽ™‘ȱŠȱœ™ŽŒ’ęŒȱ‘’œ˜›’ŒŠ•ȱŠ›ȱŽ™’œ˜Žȱ ˜›ȱŠȱ™Š›’Œž•Š›ȱ‘Ž–Žǯȱȱȱ‘Žȱ”ŽŽ—ŽœȱŸ’œ’˜›œȱŒ˜ž•ȱŽŸŽ—ȱŽ¡™•˜›Žȱ‘Žȱ reserve collections which were accessible to the public, by asking a gallery ‘˜œȱ˜ȱ•˜ Ž›ȱœŒ›ŽŽ—œȱ›˜–ȱ‘ŽȱŒŽ’•’—œȱ ‘Ž›Žȱ‘Žȱ ˜›”œȱ Ž›Žȱ‘ž—ǯ34 ‘’œȱ ŠŒ’•’¢ȱ ™Ž›™ŽžŠŽȱ ‘Žȱ žŠ•ȱ —Šž›Žȱ ˜ȱ ȁŠ••Ž›’Žœȱ ˜›ȱ ‘Žȱ Ž—Ž›Š•ȱ

™ž‹•’ŒȂȱŠ—ȱȁœž¢ȱ›˜˜–œȂȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱ‘Šȱ™›ŽŸŠ’•Žȱ’—ȱ‘Žȱę›œȱ‘›ŽŽȱŽŒŠŽœȱ˜ȱ ‘Žȱ  Ž—’Ž‘ȱ ŒŽ—ž›¢ǯȱ‘Žȱ˜ȱ ’—ȱ ‘Žȱ ŗşŜŖœȱ ’—›˜žŒŽȱŠȱ Œ‘›˜—˜•˜’ŒŠ•ȱ itinerary combined with a maze of smaller rooms (Figure 8.2Ǽǯȱ —ȱ ‘ŽȱŽŠ›•¢ȱ Š¢œȱ˜ȱŽŠž‹˜ž›ǯȱ‘˜ ŽŸŽ›ǰȱŽŠŒ‘ȱŸ’œ’˜›ȱ Šœȱ›ŽŠ›ŽȱŠœȱŠȱ™˜Ž—’Š•ȱȁ̦—Žž›Ȃȱ likely to follow his own inspiration without a predetermined itinerary, since ŽŸŽ›¢‘’—ȱ  Šœȱ •Žȱ ˜ȱ ‘’œȱ ˜ —ȱ ’—’’Š’ŸŽǯȱ ˜›ȱ ‘Žȱ –Š“˜›’¢ȱ ˜ȱ Ÿ’œ’˜›œȱ ‘Žȱ Ž¡™Ž›’–Ž—ȱ™›˜ŸŽȱž—œžŒŒŽœœž•DZȱ˜ž›’œœȱ˜—ȱŠȱ’‘ȱœŒ‘Žž•Žȱ›ŽĴŽȱ˜ŸŽ›ȱ‘Žȱ •ŠŒ”ȱ˜ȱ˜›’Ž—Š’˜—ǰȱ˜ȱ•˜œȱ˜›ȱŠ’•Žȱ˜ȱę—ȱ‘Žȱ ˜›”œȱ‘Ž¢ȱ‘ŠȱŒ˜–Žȱ˜ȱœŽŽǯȱ

32ȱ ȱ‘ŽȱŽŠ›•¢ȱ  Ž—’Ž‘ȬŒŽ—ž›¢ȱŒž•ž›Š•ȱ •’Žȱ˜ȱŠ›’œǰȱŽ ȱ˜›”ǰȱŽ›•’—ȱŠ—ȱ˜œŒ˜ ȱ was evoked through its artistic and historical manifestations, a strategy which Germano Ž•Š—ȱŽœŒ›’‹ŽȱŠœȱȁ˜Š•ȱŽ¡‘’‹’’˜—ȂǰȱŠ’—DZȱȁ‘’œȱ–Ž‘˜ȱ‘Šœȱ‘Žȱ–Ž›’ȱ˜ȱŽ¡‘’‹’’—ȱ—˜ȱ –Ž›Ž•¢ȱ˜‹“ŽŒœǰȱ‹žȱ‘ŽȱŒ˜——ŽŒ’˜—œȱŠ–˜—ȱŸŠ›’˜žœȱŒž•ž›Š•ȱ™›˜ŒŽœœŽœȱŠœȱ Ž••ȱŠœȱ‘Ž’›ȱ™˜•’’ŒŠ•ȱ ’–™•’ŒŠ’˜—œǯȱŸŽ›¢‘’—ȱ’œȱ‘žœȱ›ŽžŒŽȱ˜ȱŠȱ˜Œž–Ž—ȱ˜ȱ ’œȱ ’–Žǰȱœ˜ȱ‘Šȱ ȁ–ŠœŽ›™’ŽŒŽœȂȱ ǻŠœȱ ’ŽŠ•’œ–ȱ ˜ž•ȱŽę—Žȱ ‘Ž–ǼȱŠ›ŽȱŽšž’ŸŠ•Ž—ȱ ˜ȱ œ˜ȬŒŠ••Žȱ ȁ–’—˜›Ȃȱ ˜›”œǯȱ˜——˜Š’˜—œȱ ˜ȱšžŠ•’¢ȱ’œŠ™™ŽŠ›ȱŠ—ȱ‘’Ž›Š›Œ‘’ŒŠ•ȱ’쎛Ž—ŒŽœȱŠ›ŽȱŽœ›˜¢ŽȂȱǻŒ’Š’˜—ȱ›˜–ȱ‘’œȱŠ›’Œ•Žȱ’—ȱ Greenberg et alǯǰȱŗşşŜǰȱ™ǯȱřŞśȱȮȱ˜›’’—Š••¢ȱ™ž‹•’œ‘Žȱ’—ȱ‘ŽȱŒŠŠ•˜žŽȱ˜›ȱ˜Œž–Ž—Šȱȱ’—ȱ ŗşŞŘǼǯ

33 ‘Paris-Parisȱ˜ěŽ›ŽȱŠ—ȱ’’—Ž›Š›¢ȱŒ˜—œ›žŒŽȱŠ•˜—ȱŠȱŒ’›Œž•Š’˜—ȱŒ˜››’˜›ȱ ‘˜œŽȱ Š••œȱ covered with artworks, which at times opened on to larger and quite frequently fragmented œ™ŠŒŽœǯȱ‘Žȱ›Ž•Š’ŸŽȱŽ¡’ž’¢ȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ›˜˜–œǰȱ‘Žȱ–Š——Ž›ȱ’—ȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱ‘Ž’›ȱ’—Ž›’˜›œȱ Ž›ŽȱŽ™•˜¢Žȱ Š—ȱ‘Žȱ•Š›Žȱ—ž–‹Ž›ȱ˜ȱŽ¡™˜œŽȱ˜‹“ŽŒœȱŒ˜–‹’—Žȱ˜ȱ™›ŽœŽ—ȱ‘ŽȱŸ’œ’˜›ȱ ’‘ȱŠȱŸŽ›¢ȱ•’—ŽŠ›ǰȱ ¢Žȱ•Š‹¢›’—‘’ŒŠ•ǰȱ™ŠœœŠŽȱǻœ’ŒǼȂȱǻŽŠ—ȱŠ›Œȱ˜’—œ˜ǰȱ’—ȱ ›ŽŽ—‹Ž›ȱǭȱŽ›žœ˜—ȱǭȱŠ’›—ŽǰȱŗşşŜǰȱ ™™ǯȱȱŚŘȮřǼǯ

34ȱ ȱ ˜—žœȱ ž•Ž—ȱ ‘Šȱ —Š–Žȱ ‘ŽœŽȱ ›ŽœŽ›ŸŽœȱ ȁcinacothèques’ by reference to kinetic Š›ȱŠ—ȱ ‘’œȱ ’œȱ‘˜ ȱ‘ŽȱŽœŒ›’‹Žȱ ‘Ž’›ȱ ˜›”’—œDZȱ ȁ‘›ŽŽȱ ’—œŠ••Š’˜—œȱŽ—Š‹•Žȱžœȱ ˜ȱ’œ™•Š¢ȱ Š›˜ž—ȱ ŜŖŖȱ ˜›”œǯȱ ŠŒ‘ȱ ž—’ȱ Œ˜–™›’œŽœȱ řřȱ ‘Š—’—ȱ–ŽŠ•ȱ œŒ›ŽŽ—œȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱ Š›Žȱ ę••Žȱ ’‘ȱ Œ˜–™•Ž–Ž—Š›¢ȱ ˜›”œȱ˜›Š—’£Žȱ’—ȱŠ›’œȱ˜›ȱœŒ‘˜˜•ȱ˜›Ž›ǯȱȱ‘˜œȱ’ŸŽœȱŸ’œ’˜›œȱŠȱŒŠŠ•˜žŽȱ ˜ȱŽ—Š‹•Žȱ‘Ž–ȱ˜ȱŒ‘˜˜œŽȱ‘ŽȱœŒ›ŽŽ—ȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱ‘Ž¢ȱ Š—ȱ˜ȱœŽŽȂȱ ǻž›¹—ŽǰȱŘŖŖŖǰȱ™ǯȱŗśŞǼǯȱ‘’œȱ ’——˜ŸŠ˜›¢ȱŽœ’—ȱ Šœȱ‘Š›•¢ȱŽŸŽ›ȱžœŽǰȱ‹ŽŒŠžœŽȱ ’ȱ œ˜˜—ȱ‹ŽŒŠ–ŽȱŒ•ŽŠ›ȱ ’ȱ ŠœȱŽ¡ŒŽœœ’ŸŽ•¢ȱ œ˜™‘’œ’ŒŠŽȱŠ—ȱ›Š’•ŽȱǻŠ •ŽœœǰȱŗşŞŜǰȱ™ǯȱşśǼǯ

ŸŽ—ȱ’ȱ‘Ž¢ȱ‘Šȱ‘Šȱ‘Žȱ’–Žȱ˜›ȱ‘Žȱ˜™™˜›ž—’¢ȱ˜ȱ›Žž›—ǰȱ‘Žȱ—˜—Ȭ’—’’ŠŽȱ Ÿ’œ’˜›ȱ Œ˜ž•ȱ —˜ȱ ŠŸ˜’ȱ Œ˜—žœ’˜—ǯȱ ‘Žȱ œ›’Œȱ Š‘Ž›Ž—ŒŽȱ ˜ȱ Šȱ Œ‘›˜—˜•˜’ŒŠ•ȱ order – all works were hung in production date order – meant that works by the same artist or within the same national school could be dispersed or ‘Šȱ ’Ž•¢ȱ’쎛Ž—ȱ ˜›”œȱ Ž›Žȱ‘ž—ȱœ’Žȱ‹¢ȱœ’ŽȱŒ›ŽŠ’—ȱ “ž¡Š™˜œ’’˜—œȱ  ‘’Œ‘ȱ˜—•¢ȱŠ™™ŽŠ•Žȱ ˜ȱ ‘Žȱœ™ŽŒ’Š•’œȱ ǻŠœœŠ••ŽǰȱŗşŞŝDZȱ™ǯȱŜřǼǯȱŽȱ˜ȱ ‘’œǰȱ Ž¡™•Š—Š˜›¢ȱ›Š™‘’Œȱ™Š—Ž•œȱ Ž›Žȱ›Š›Žǰȱ’—ȱ•’—Žȱ ’‘ȱŠ•›Šž¡Ȃœȱ™‘’•˜œ˜™‘¢ȱ‘Šȱ  ›’ĴŽ—ȱ˜Œž–Ž—Š’˜—ȱœ‘˜ž•ȱ—˜ȱ’—Ž›Ž›Žȱ ’‘ȱ‘ŽȱŒ˜—Ž–™•Š’˜—ȱ˜ȱŠ›ǯȱ‘Žȱ limitations of these early methods of display soon dawned on the organizers  ‘˜ȱ›ŽŠ•’£Žȱ‘Ž¢ȱ‘Šȱ˜ȱ‹Žȱ–˜’ꮍȱǻŠ •ŽœœǰȱŗşŞŜDZȱ™™ǯȱşśȮŜǼǯȱ›ŽœŽ—Š’˜—ȱ in the form of an ‘open labyrinth’ could not easily accommodate certain types of display – small works, drawings, a donation’s ensemble – since the smallest change ultimately led to reorganizing the entire mounting (Ameline, 1990: ™ǯȱ řŜŜǼǯȱ ™Š›ȱ ›˜–ȱ œžŒ‘ȱ œ‘˜›Œ˜–’—œǰȱ ‘Žȱ –Ž›’œȱ ˜ȱ ‘’œȱ Š™™›˜ŠŒ‘ȱ  Ž›Žȱ Œ˜—œ’Ž›Š‹•ŽȱŠœȱŽ›—ŠŽĴŽȱž›¹—ŽǰȱŠ—ȱŠ–’›’—ȱŽŸ˜ŽŽȱ˜ȱ˜—žœȱ ž•Ž—ǰȱ ‘ŠœȱŽœŒ›’‹Žȱ›Ž›˜œ™ŽŒ’ŸŽ•¢ǯȱŒŒ˜›’—ȱ˜ȱ‘Ž›ǰȱ‘’œȱ¢™Žȱ˜ȱ–žœŽž–ȱ’œ™•Š¢ȱ  ŠœȱžœŽȱ˜›ȱ ‘Žȱę›œȱ ’–ŽȱŠȱŽŠž‹˜ž›ȱŠ—ȱŒ˜—œ’žŽœȱŠȱ—Ž ȱŠ’’˜—ȱ˜ȱ Ž¡‘’‹’’˜—ȱ Žœ’—ǯȱ‘Šȱ Šœȱ ˜—ȱ ˜ěŽ›ȱ Šœȱ —˜ȱ ‘Žȱ Œž›Š˜›Ȃœȱ ™˜’—ȱ ˜ȱ Ÿ’Ž ǰȱ œŽŽ”’—ȱ ˜ȱ ’—ĚžŽ—ŒŽȱ Ÿ’œ’˜›œȱ ‹žȱ Šȱ ’œ™•Š¢ȱ–Ž‘˜ȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱ Ž—Š‹•Žȱ ‘Ž–ȱ ˜ȱ Ž•Š‹˜›ŠŽȱ‘Ž’›ȱ˜ —ȱ™˜’—ȱ˜ȱŸ’Ž ȱŠ—ȱ˜ȱ‘’œȱŽ—ȱȁœ™ŠŒŽȱĚŽ¡’‹’•’¢Ȃȱ Šœȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ ž–˜œȱ’–™˜›Š—ŒŽȱǻž›¹—ŽǰȱŘŖŖŖDZȱ™ǯȱŗŜřǼǯ

’ǯȱŞǯŘȱ ›’’—Š•ȱ–žœŽ˜›Š™‘¢ȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱžœ·ŽȱȂ›ȱ˜Ž›—Žȱ’—ȱ‘Žȱ˜–™’˜žȱ Ž—›ŽǰȱŒ˜–‹’—’—ȱ’Š™‘Š—˜žœȱ™•Š£Šœȱ ’‘ȱ›Ž’›’—ȱŒŠ‹’—œȱŒ˜ŸŽ›Žȱ‹¢ȱŠȱŸŽ•ž–ȱ Œ˜—ŒŽŠ•’—ȱ‘ŽȱŸ’Ž ȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱŽŒ‘—’ŒŠ•ȱŽšž’™–Ž—œȱ˜—ȱ‘ŽȱŒŽ’•’—ǯȱȚȱ›Š—Œ’œŒ˜ȬŠŸ’Ž›ȱ Ž›—¤—Ž£ȱŠžŠ•ǯ

žȱ™›ŠŒ’ŒŠ•’¢ǰȱŠœȱŠ• Š¢œǰȱ Šœȱ‘ŽȱŽŽ›–’—’—ȱŠŒ˜›ȱvis-a-vis the building’s œž™™˜œŽȱĚŽ¡’‹’•’¢DZȱ’ȱ Šœȱœ’–™•¢ȱ˜˜ȱŽ¡™Ž—œ’ŸŽȱ˜ȱ”ŽŽ™ȱŒ‘Š—’—ȱ‘Žȱ’œ™•Š¢ȱ infrastructure and so the temporary huts and hanging lines became virtually ™Ž›–Š—Ž—ȱ ę¡ž›Žœǯȱ Žœ’Žœǰȱ ‘Žȱ —˜’˜—ȱ ˜ȱ —Žž›Š•’¢ȱ Šȱ ŽŠž‹˜ž›ȱ  Šœȱ œ˜–Ž‘’—ȱ ˜ȱ Š—ȱ ’••žœ’˜—ȱ œ’—ŒŽȱ ’œȱ ĚŠœ‘¢ȱ Š›Œ‘’ŽŒž›Žȱ œ˜•Žȱ ‘Žȱ œ‘˜ ȱŠ—ȱ ’ȱ  ŠœȱŸŽ›¢ȱ’ĜŒž•ȱ˜›ȱŸ’œ’˜›œȱ˜ȱŒ˜—ŒŽ—›ŠŽȱ˜—ȱ˜›ȱŒ˜—Ž–™•ŠŽȱŠȱ ˜›”ȱ˜ȱŠ›ǯȱ ˜—Š•ȱžȱ’—ȱ‘’œȱŒŠŠ•˜žŽȱ˜›ȱ‘ŽȱŗşŞŘȱDocumenta in Kassel described the ‹ž’•’—ȱŠœȱŠȱ ȁŒ˜œ•¢ȱŠ—ȱ’œ™›˜™˜›’˜—ŠŽȱ–˜—œŽ›ȂǰȱŠ’—ȱ‘Šȱ‘ŽȱŽ’ęŒŽȱ Š—ȱ’œȱŠŠ™Š‹’•’¢ȱ Ž›Žȱ—˜‘’—ȱ‹žȱœŒŽ—ŽȱœŽĴ’—ȱŠ—ȱŠ›’ęŒŽǰȱ‹ŽŒŠžœŽȱ‘Žȱ building imposed changes to the fundamental character of paintings and œŒž•™ž›Žœǰȱ‹žȱ ‘Ž¢ǰȱ˜—ȱ ‘Žȱ˜‘Ž›ȱ‘Š—ǰȱ’ȱ—˜ȱŒ‘Š—Žȱ ǻ˜—Š•ȱ žǰȱ ȁ—ȱ —œŠ••Š’˜—ȂǰȱŒ’Žȱ‹¢ȱ–Ž•’—ŽǰȱŗşşŖDZȱ™ǯȱřŜŜǼǯȱ‘Ž›Žȱ ŠœȱŠ—ȱŠĴŽ–™ȱ˜ȱŠ›Žœœȱ ‘ŽœŽȱ’œœžŽœǰȱŽŸŽ—ȱž—Ž›ȱ‘Žȱ•ŽŠŽ›œ‘’™ȱ˜ȱ˜—žœȱ ž•Ž—ǰȱŠ—ȱ’—ȱŗşŞŖȱŸŽ›¢ȱ Š••ȱ Š••œȱ ’‘ȱ’—Ž™Ž—Ž—ȱ•’‘’—ȱ Ž›Žȱ’—›˜žŒŽȱ˜ȱŒ›ŽŠŽȱŠȱœ‘›’—ŽȱŽěŽŒȱ ˜›ȱ‘Žȱ•Š›ŽȱŒŠ—ŸŠœœŽœȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱŒ‘˜˜•ȱ˜ȱŽ ȱ˜›”ȱǻŠœœŠ••ŽǰȱŗşŞŝDZȱ™™ǯȱŜśȮŝǼǯȱ—ȱ ŗşŞŘǰȱ ‘Ž—ȱ˜–’—’šžŽȱ˜£˜ȱœžŒŒŽŽŽȱ ž•Ž—ȱŠœȱ’›ŽŒ˜›ǰȱ‘ŽȱŒ˜––’œœ’˜—Žȱ ŠŽȱž•Ž—’ǰȱ ’‘ȱ ’Š—˜ȱ Š—ȱ˜Ž›œȂȱ Š™™›˜ŸŠ•ǰȱ ˜ȱ ›Ž˜›Š—’£Žȱ ‘Žȱ–žœŽž–ȱ displays and distinguish more clearly between the building’s architecture and ‘ŽȱŽ–™˜›Š›¢ȱŽ¡‘’‹’’˜—ȱŠ›ŽŠœǯ

Box 8.2 Reforming museum displays at Beaubourg and the MoMA in the 1980s

›˜–ȱ ŗşŞŚȱ ‘Žȱ ˜–™’˜žȱ Ž—›Žȱ ž—Ž›˜˜”ȱ Šȱ œŽ›’Žœȱ ˜ȱ ‹ž’•’—ȱ  ˜›”œȱ ˜ȱ –˜ŸŽȱŠ••ȱ‘Žȱ˜ĜŒŽœȱ˜žœ’Žȱ‘Žȱ–Š’—ȱ‹ž’•’—ȱ’—ȱ˜›Ž›ȱ˜ȱ›ŽŽȱœ™ŠŒŽȱ˜›ȱ—Ž ȱ žœŽœǰȱ ˜ȱŒ›ŽŠŽȱŠȱ—Ž ȱŽ—›Š—ŒŽȱ ’—ȱ ‘Žȱœ˜ž‘ȱŒ˜›—Ž›ȱŠ—ȱ ˜ȱ ’–™›˜ŸŽȱ ‘ŽȱĚ˜ ȱ Š—ȱ ˜›’Ž—Š’˜—ȱ ˜ȱ Ÿ’œ’˜›œǯȱ ˜ž•ŠœȱŠŸ’œȱ ™˜’—Žȱ ˜žȱ ’‘ȱ ’›˜—¢ȱ ‘Šȱ ‘Žȱ ‹Žœȱ™›˜˜ȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ‹ž’•’—ȂœȱĚŽ¡’‹’•’¢ȱ Šœȱ’œȱ™›Ž’œ™˜œ’’˜—ȱ˜›ȱ’—Ž›ŸŽ—’˜—œȱ œžŒ‘ȱŠœȱ‘’œȱǻŠŸ’œǰȱŗşşŖDZȱ™ǯȱśśǼǯȱ—ȱŠŒǰȱŽ—£˜ȱ’Š—˜ȱ‘’–œŽ•ȱ˜˜”ȱ˜—ȱ‘ŽȱŠœ”ȱ ˜ȱŽœ’—’—ȱŠ—ȱž—Ž››˜ž—ȱŽ¡Ž—œ’˜—ȱœ™›ŽŠ’—ȱ—˜›‘ǰȱ˜ȱŠŒŒ˜––˜ŠŽȱŠȱ řŖŖȬœŽŠȱŒ’—Ž–ŠǰȱŠ—ȱ™›˜Ÿ’ŽȱŠ’’˜—Š•ȱœ™ŠŒŽȱ˜›ȱŽ–™˜›Š›¢ȱŽ¡‘’‹’’˜—œǰȱ ’—ȱ ™Š›’Œž•Š›ǰȱ‘Žȱ ˜ȱŒ˜—Ž–™˜›Š›¢ȱŠ••Ž›’Žœȱ›ž—ȱ‹¢ȱǯȱ—ȱŗşŞśȱ˜—Žȱ˜ȱ‘ŽœŽȱ  Šœȱœ’Žȱ˜—ȱŠȱ–Ž££Š—’—ŽȱĚ˜˜›ȱ•’—”Žȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ‘Š••ȱ‹¢ȱŠ—ȱŽœŒŠ•Š˜›ǰȱ‘Žȱ˜‘Ž›ȱ Šœȱ ˜—ȱ‘Žȱ›˜ž—ȱĚ˜˜›ȱ—Ž¡ȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ›ŠŸ’—œ”¢ȱ˜ž—Š’—ǯȱ‘ŽœŽȱ‘Šȱ‹ŽŽ—ȱŽŠ›–Š›”Žȱ ˜›ȱœ–Š••ȱŽ¡‘’‹’’˜—œȱ˜—ȱ•’Ĵ•Žȱ”—˜ —ȱŠ›’œœǰȱ–’¡Žȱœ‘˜ œȱ˜›ȱ‘Ž–Š’Œȱ’œ™•Š¢œȱ Š—ȱ’Š—˜ȱ›Ž™•ŠŒŽȱ‘Žȱž‹’šž’˜žœȱŒŠ›™Žœȱ ’‘ȱ ˜˜Ž—ȱĚ˜˜›œȱ˜ȱ’ŸŽȱ‘Ž–ȱ Šȱ’쎛Ž—ȱŽŽ•ǯȱ‘’œȱ–Ž‘˜ȱ˜ȱĚ˜˜›ȱ’쎛Ž—’Š’˜—ȱ ŠœȱŠ˜™Žȱ ’‘’—ȱ‘Žȱ –žœŽž–ȱŠœȱ Ž••ǯȱ œȱ Ž—›Š—ŒŽȱ Šœȱ–˜ŸŽȱ ˜ȱ •ŽŸŽ•ȱ śȱ Š—ȱ ‘Žȱ–žœŽž–ȱ ’œŽ•ȱ ‹Ž—ŽęŽȱ ›˜–ȱ ŠŽȱž•Ž—’Ȃœȱ ˜™ž•Ž—ȱ ›ŽŽœ’—ǯȱ—ȱ ‘Žȱ ˜‘Ž›ȱ ‘Š—ȱ •ŽŸŽ•ȱ Śǰȱ shared with the library, retained its original architectural layout – carpets, œ™˜•’‘’—ȱŠ—ȱ—Šž›Š•ȱ•’‘’—ǰȱ ’‘ȱ ˜›”œȱ‘ž—ȱ›˜–ȱ—Š››˜ ȱŠ˜œǯȱžȱ ˜žŒ‘Žœȱ˜ȱŽ¡™Ž›’–Ž—Š•ȱŽœ’—ȱ Ž›Žȱ’—›˜žŒŽȱŠ™™›˜™›’ŠŽȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱŒ‘Š—’—ȱ Ž¡‘’‹’’˜—œȱ˜ȱ™˜œȬŗşŜŖȱŒ˜—Ž–™˜›Š›¢ȱŠ›ǰȱ ’‘ȱŠ›ŽŠœȱ˜›ȱŸ’Ž˜œǰȱ’—œŠ••Š’˜—œǰȱ Œ˜—Ž–™˜›Š›¢ȱ›Š ’—œȱŠ—ȱŽ•’ŒŠŽȱ ˜›”œǯȱ˜›ȱȱ‘’œȱŽ–™‘Šœ’£Žȱ‘Žȱ ’쎛Ž—ŒŽȱ‹Ž ŽŽ—ȱ‘Žȱ ˜ȱ•ŽŸŽ•œȱȮȱ˜—ŽȱŽŠ•’—ȱ ’‘ȱȁŒ˜—Ž–™˜›Š›¢ȱŠ›Ȃȱ ’‘ȱ

—˜ȱę¡ŽȱŒ˜—Ž—ȱ˜›ȱ’’—Ž›Š›¢ǰȱ‘Žȱ˜‘Ž›ȱŽ¡‘’‹’’—ȱ‘Žȱ›ŽŠȱ–ŠœŽ›œȱ˜ȱȁ–˜Ž›—ȱ Š›Ȃȱ ’—ȱ ™Ž›–Š—Ž—ȱ Š••Ž›’Žœǯȱ ‘Ž›Žȱ ‘Žȱ ˜›’’—Š•ȱ ›ŽŽȱ ™•Š—ȱ Šœȱ ›Ž™•ŠŒŽȱ ‹¢ȱ Šȱ compartmentalization of space into as many orthogonal rooms as there were Œ‘Š™Ž›œȱ’—ȱŠ—ȱŠ›ȱ‘’œ˜›¢ȱŽ¡ȱ‹˜˜”ǯ ˜ȱ‹›’—ȱŠ—ȱŽ—ȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ›Ž•Ž—•ŽœœȱŒ˜–™•Š’—œȱ˜ȱœ˜–ŽȱŒ˜••ŽŒ˜›œȱŠ‹˜žȱŽŠž‹˜ž›ǰȱ the interior designer Gae Aulenti opted to return to the ‘white cube’ formula of ’œ™•Š¢ǯȱ‘Žȱ’—œŽ›ŽȱŠ•œŽȱŒŽ’•’—œȱ˜ȱ‘’ŽȱŠ••ȱŽŒ‘—’ŒŠ•ȱŠ™™Š›ŠžœȱŠ—ȱŒ›ŽŠŽȱ œ–Š••Ž›ȱ›˜˜–œȱ˜›ȱ‘Žȱ’œ™•Š¢ȱ˜ȱŽŠ›•¢ȱ Ž—’Ž‘ȬŒŽ—ž›¢ȱavant-garde, as in the MoMA, although she favoured soft, even lighting rather than spotlighting, Ž¡ŒŽ™ȱ’—ȱ‘ŽȱŒŠœŽȱ˜ȱœŒž•™ž›ŽǯȱŽ—£˜ȱ’Š—˜ȱ‘ŠȱŽœ’—ŽȱŠȱœŒž•™ž›ŽȱŽ››ŠŒŽǰȱ ‹žȱ ž•Ž—’ȱ ŠŽȱ Šȱ œŽŒ˜—ȱ ˜—Žȱ Šȱ ‘Žȱ ˜‘Ž›ȱ Ž¡›Ž–’¢ȱ ˜ȱ ‘Žȱ ‹ž’•’—ǰȱ linking the two by a wide corridor, which suggested rather than imposed an ’’—Ž›Š›¢ǰȱ˜™Ž—’—ȱ˜žȱ˜—ȱŽ’‘Ž›ȱœ’Žȱ˜ȱ›˜˜–œȱ˜ȱŸŠ›’˜žœȱœ’£ŽœȱęĴŽȱ ’‘ȱŒŠœŽœȱ ‘˜žœ’—ȱ›Š ’—œǰȱ™‘˜˜›Š™‘œȱŠ—ȱœ–Š••ȱ˜›ȱ›Š’•Žȱ˜‹“ŽŒœǯȱ‘Žȱ™›˜‹•Ž–ȱ˜ȱ ’œ˜›’Ž—Š’˜—ȱ Ž¡™Ž›’Ž—ŒŽȱ ‹¢ȱ ˜ž›’œœȱ Šœȱ ‘Ž›Ž˜›Žȱ ›Žœ˜•ŸŽȱ ‹¢ȱ ›Ž™•ŠŒ’—ȱ ‘Žȱž—œ›žŒž›ŽȱŸ’œ’˜›ȬĚ˜ ȱ ’‘ȱŠȱœ›žŒž›Žȱ’’—Ž›Š›¢ǰȱ’œȱŒ˜—Ž—œȱœ‘Š™Žȱ ‹¢ȱŠ›ȱ‘’œ˜›¢ǯȱ‘Žȱ’’—Ž›Š›¢ȱŒž•–’—ŠŽȱ’—ȱŠȱ˜ž‹•Žȱ‘Ž’‘ȱ›˜˜–ȱŽŸ˜Žȱ˜ȱ ŸŽœȱ •Ž’—Ȃœȱ ˜›”œȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱ’—Ÿ˜”Žȱ’—ę—’Žȱœ™ŠŒŽǰȱ‘Žȱ›˜˜–ȱ™›˜Ÿ’’—ȱŠȱ™ŠœœŠŽȱ to level 4 which could also be reached by an escalator from the museum’s Ž—›Š—ŒŽȱ ’‘˜žȱ‘ŠŸ’—ȱ˜ȱ Š•”ȱ‘›˜ž‘ȱ‘Žȱ ‘˜•Žȱ˜ȱ•ŽŸŽ•ȱśǯ ž›’˜žœ•¢ǰȱŠ••ȱ‘ŽȱŒ‘Š—Žœȱ–ŠŽȱŠȱŽŠž‹˜ž›ȱœŽŽ–Žȱ˜ȱŽŒ‘˜ȱ‘˜œŽȱŒŠ››’Žȱ˜žȱ Šȱ‘Žȱ˜ȱ‹Ž ŽŽ—ȱŗşŞŖȱŠ—ȱŗşŞŚǰȱž—Ž›ȱ‘Žȱ’›ŽŒ’˜—ȱ˜ȱŽœŠ›ȱŽ••’ǰȱ˜¢Ž—ȱ ˜ȱŠ•ŽȂœȱŒ‘˜˜•ȱ˜ȱ›Œ‘’ŽŒž›Žǯȱ‘Žȱ‹ž’•’—ȱ˜ȱŠȱœ™ŽŒŠŒž•Š›ȱśŘȬĚ˜˜›ȱ˜ĜŒŽȱ Š—ȱ›Žœ’Ž—’Š•ȱ˜ Ž›ȱę—Š—ŒŽȱ‘Žȱ–žœŽž–Ȃœȱ™•Š—œ1 and the small museum ‘Š••ȱ Šœȱ’—Œ›ŽŠœŽȱ˜ȱŠ’›™˜›ȱ™›˜™˜›’˜—œȱŠŽ›ȱ’ȱ‘Šȱ‹ŽŽ—ȱęĴŽȱ ’‘ȱŠȱ•Šœœȱ Š›’ž–ȱŠ—ȱ‘žŽȱŽœŒŠ•Š˜›œǯȱ‘ŽœŽȱ˜ěŽ›Žȱ ’–™›Žœœ’ŸŽȱŸ’Ž œȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱœŽŽ–Žȱ ˜ȱ Œ˜–™ŽŽȱ  ’‘ȱ ŽŠž‹˜ž›ǯȱ —ȱ ›Žž›—ǰȱ ŽŠž‹˜ž›ȱ ‘Šȱ ‹˜››˜ Žȱ Ž••’Ȃœȱ idea from the MoMA of creating a distinction between carpets and wooden Ě˜˜›’—ǰȱŠ•‹Ž’ȱ ’‘ȱŠ—ȱ’—ŸŽ›Žȱ–ŽŠ—’—DZȱŠȱ‘Žȱ˜ȱŒŠ›™ŽŽȱŠ›ŽŠœȱ Ž›Žȱ reserved for paint and sculpture masterpieces prior to 1960; the opposite was ‘ŽȱŒŠœŽȱŠȱŽŠž‹˜ž›ǯȱ—ȱŽ ȱ˜›”ǰȱ ˜˜Ž—ȱĚ˜˜›œǰȱŠœȱ’—ȱ˜‘˜ȱ•˜œǰȱœ’—Š••Žȱ Š›ŽŠœȱŽŠ•’—ȱ ’‘ȱ–˜›Žȱ›ŽŒŽ—ȱŠ›ȱǻ’—›Ž’—‘˜Ž›ǰȱŗşşŝDZȱ™ǯȱŗşŞǼǯȱ—ȱ‹˜‘ȱŒŠœŽœȱ the aim was to distinguish between ‘modern art’ and ‘contemporary art’, and Š•œ˜ȱ˜ȱ›Š ȱŠȱ•’—Žȱ‹Ž ŽŽ—ȱ‘Žȱ˜›’’—Š•ȱ‹ž’•’—ȱŠ—ȱœž‹œŽšžŽ—ȱŠ’’˜—œǯȱ—ȱ Š›’œǰȱ‘˜ ŽŸŽ›ǰȱ‘Žȱ’—Ž›ŸŽ—’˜—ȱ‘Šȱœ˜ž‘ȱ˜ȱ›Ž›Žœœȱ ‘Šȱ Šœȱ—˜ȱ ˜›”’—ȱ ™›˜™Ž›•¢ȱ’—ȱ’Š—˜ȱŠ—ȱ˜Ž›œȂȱŠ›Œ‘’ŽŒž›Žȱ ‘Ž›ŽŠœȱŽ••’ȱ‘ŠœȱŠ• Š¢œȱ’—œ’œŽ

1ȱ ȱȁ•ŽŽ’—ȱ˜› Š›Ȃȱ’œȱŠȱœ›ŠŽ¢ȱœ‘Š›Žȱ‹¢ȱ–Š—¢ȱ–Ž›’ŒŠ—ȱ–žœŽž–œȱ’—ȱ’–Žœȱ ˜ȱ›ŽŒŽœœ’˜—ǰȱ™Š›’Œž•Š›•¢ȱ ‘Žȱ˜ǯȱ‘Žȱ–˜›ŽȱŸ’œ’˜›œȱ ‘Ž¢ȱ‘Šȱ‘Žȱ–˜›ŽȱŽ—Ž›˜žœȱ ‘Žȱ œž‹œ’’Žœȱ Š—ȱ ‘Žȱ –˜›Žȱ ’—Œ˜–Žȱ ‘Ž¢ȱ ›ŽŒŽ’ŸŽȱ ‘›˜ž‘ȱ ’Œ”Žœȱ Š—ȱ œ‘˜™ȱ œŠ•Žœǯȱ žȱ ’—ȱ˜›Ž›ȱ ˜ȱŠĴ›ŠŒȱŠ—ȱ Ž•Œ˜–Žȱ •Š›Žȱ—ž–‹Ž›œȱ˜ȱŸ’œ’˜›œǰȱ ‘Ž¢ȱ‘Šȱ ˜ȱ ’—ŸŽœȱ ’—ȱ Š›Œ‘’ŽŒž›Š•ȱŽ¡Ž—œ’˜—œǯȱȱœŽŽ–œȱ‘Šȱ’—ȱ‘ŽȱŗşŜŖœǰȱ ‘Ž—ȱ‘’•’™ȱ˜‘—œ˜—ȱ ŠœȱŒ‘Š›Žȱ  ’‘ȱŽ¡Ž—’—ȱ‘Žȱ˜ǰȱ‘Žȱ–žœŽž–ȱ‘ŠȱŠȱŽęŒ’ȱ˜ȱŠȱ–’••’˜—ȱ˜••Š›œȱŠȱ¢ŽŠ›ǯȱ‘Žȱ ŽŒ˜—˜–’Œȱœ’žŠ’˜—ȱ ŠœȱŠ•œ˜ȱ’›Žȱ ‘Ž—ȱ‘Žȱ–žœŽž–ȱŒ˜––’œœ’˜—ŽȱŽ••’ȱ˜ȱŽœ’—ȱ‘’œȱ Ž¡Ž—œ’˜—ǰȱ ‘˜œŽȱ ”Ž¢ȱ ˜ Ž›ȱ Ž—Ž›ŠŽȱ Š—ȱ ’—Œ˜–Žȱ ›˜–ȱ ‘Žȱ ›Ž—œȱ ˜ȱ ŘŜřȱ Š™Š›–Ž—œȱ ǻ˜˜•’ŽǰȱŗşŞşǰȱ™ǯȱŞśǼǯ

Žœ™’ŽȱŠ••ȱ‘ŽœŽȱž™‘ŽŠŸŠ•œǰȱ‘Žȱ˜–™’˜žȱŽ—›Žȱ‘Šœȱ›Ž–Š’—ŽȱŠȱ›ŽŽ›Ž—ŒŽȱ point around the globe, like the icon of a rebellious youth, or old rockers trying to ›˜ ȱ˜•ȱ ’‘˜žȱ‹Ž›Š¢’—ȱŽŠ›•¢ȱ’ŽŠ•œȱǻ•Š’›ǰȱŗşşŘDzȱŠž¡Ž›˜’œǰȱŗşşŜDzȱž›¹—Žǰȱ ŘŖŖŝDzȱ•Žž›¢ǰȱŘŖŖŝǼǯȱžȱ›Š‘Ž›ȱ‘Š—ȱŠ”’—ȱ˜—ȱ‘Žȱ›˜•Žȱ˜ȱ–˜Ž•ǰȱŽŠž‹˜ž›ȱ‘Šœȱ ‹ŽŒ˜–ŽȱŠ—ȱ‘’œ˜›’ŒŠ•ȱœ¢–‹˜•ȱ˜›ȱ‘Žȱ›Š—œ’’˜—ȱ›˜–ȱŠȱŒ˜ž—Ž›ȬŒž•ž›Žȱ—˜Žȱ˜›ȱ ’œȱŠ—’Ȭ–žœŽž–ȱŠ™™›˜ŠŒ‘ȱ˜ȱŠȱ™‘ŠœŽȱŒ‘Š›ŠŒŽ›’£Žȱ‹¢ȱŠȱ ˜›•Ȭ ’Žȱ™Šœœ’˜—ȱ ˜›ȱ–žœŽž–œǯȱ‘’œȱ ’œȱŒ•ŽŠ›ȱ›˜–ȱ‘Žȱœž‹’•Žȱ˜ȱ˜ž•ŠœȱŠŸ’œȂȱ‹˜˜”ȱDesign and Culture in the Post-Pompidou Age which deals with grand architectural ›ŽŒ˜—ꐞ›Š’˜—œȱŠ—ȱ–žœŽž–œȱ‹ž’•ȱ’—ȱ‘ŽȱŗşŞŖœȱǻŠŸ’œǰȱŗşşŖǼǯȱ—ȱ›Š—ŒŽǰȱ‘Žȱ period saw the proliferation of new museums and centres for contemporary Š›œDZȱ¢˜—ǰȱ˜›ŽŠž¡ǰȱ’••Ž—ŽžŸŽȱȂœšǰȱž—”Ž›šžŽǰȱŠ’—Ȭ1’Ž——Žǰȱ ›Ž—˜‹•Žȱ Š—ȱ˜‘Ž›œȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱ˜ěŽ›Žȱ™•Š˜›–œȱ˜ȱŠ›’œœȱœžŒ‘ȱŠœȱ˜›˜—’ǰȱž›Ž—ǰȱŠ›”’œȱŠ—ȱ ˜•Š—œ”’ǯȱ ˜ ŽŸŽ›ǰȱ—˜—Žȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ–žœŽž–œȱŠĴŽ–™Žȱ˜ȱ˜••˜ ȱœŒ›ž™ž•˜žœ•¢ȱ ‘Žȱ–žœŽ˜›Š™‘¢ȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ˜–™’˜žȱŽ—›ŽǯȱŸŽ—ȱ˜—žœȱ ž•Ž—ȱœŽŽ›ŽȱŒ•ŽŠ›ȱ ˜ȱ‘’œȱ˜™’Š—ȱ–˜Ž•ȱ’—ȱœž‹œŽšžŽ—ȱ™›˜“ŽŒœȱŠ—ȱ—˜—Žȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ™›˜Žœœ’˜—Š•œȱ  ‘˜ȱ•ŽȱŽŠž‹˜ž›ȱ˜›ȱ—Ž ȱŠŸŽ—ž›ŽœȱœžŒ‘ȱŠœȱŽŠ—Ȭ ž‹Ž›ȱŠ›’—ǰȱŠ—’Ž•ȱ ‹Š’Žǰȱ•›ŽȱŠŒšžŽ–Ž—ǰȱŽŠ—ȱ•Š’›ȱ˜›ȱ Ž›–Š’—ȱ’ŠĴŽǰȱž›—Žȱ’—˜ȱ ž•Ž—Ȃœȱ

that his controversial intervention at the MoMA was made with proper respect ˜›ȱ Œ˜—’—ž’¢ȱ ’—ȱ–žœŽž–ȱŽœ’—ǯ1 It is true to say that despite modifying ‘ŽȱŠ³ŠŽǰȱ’Ÿ’—ȱŠȱœŽ™Š›ŠŽȱŽ—›Š—ŒŽȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ™Š’—’—ȱŠ—ȱœŒž•™ž›ŽȱŠ••Ž›’Žœȱ Š—ȱ˜‘Ž›ȱŠ›œȱȮȱ™›ŽŸ’˜žœ•¢ȱ’—ȱŒž•ȬŽȬœŠŒœȱȮȱŽ••’ȱ›ŽŠ’—Žȱ‘Žȱ˜•ȱ ’—˜ •Žœœȱ  ‘’Žȱ Š••œȱȮȱŽ¡ŒŽ™ȱ˜›ȱ‘Žȱœ™ŠŒŽȱŠ••˜ŒŠŽȱ˜ȱ˜—ŽȂœȱNénuphars where an Ž—˜›–˜žœȱ‹Š¢ȱ Šœȱ™’Ž›ŒŽȱ‘›˜ž‘ȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱŠ›Ž—ǯȱ‘ŽȱœŠ–Žȱœ™˜•’‘ȱ›ŠŒ”œȱ and other minimalist decorative features were retained as was the former –Š£ŽȬ•’”Žȱ’’—Ž›Š›¢ȱ‹ŠœŽȱŠ›˜ž—ȱŠȱœžŒŒŽœœ’˜—ȱ˜ȱœ–Š••ȱ›˜˜–œȱ ‘˜œŽȱ—ž–‹Ž›ȱ  Šœȱ’—Œ›ŽŠœŽȱ ‘Ž—ȱŠ’’˜—Š•ȱœ™ŠŒŽȱ ŠœȱŒ›ŽŠŽǯȱ—ȱ‘Žȱ˜‘Ž›ȱ‘Š—ǰȱ‘ŽȱœŽ—œŽȱ of claustrophobia was alleviated by adding openings: originally some of the rooms for the permanent collection of modern painting and sculpture had a œŽ™Š›ŠŽȱŽ—›Š—ŒŽȱŠ—ȱŽ¡’ȱ‹žȱ—˜ ȱ‘Ž¢ȱ Ž›ŽȱęĴŽȱ ’‘ȱ‘›ŽŽȱŠ—ȱœ˜–Ž’–Žœȱ ŽŸŽ—ȱ ˜ž›ȱ ˜˜›œȱ œ˜ȱ ‘Šȱ ’ȱ ‹ŽŒŠ–Žȱ™˜œœ’‹•Žȱ ˜ȱ ˜ȱ ›˜–ȱ ›˜˜–ȱ řȱ ǻȁžž›’œ–ǰȱ ŠžŸ’œ–ȱ Š—ȱ ¡™›Žœœ’˜—’œ–ȂǼȱ ˜ȱ ›˜˜–ȱ Ŝȱ ǻȁ˜—œ›žŒ’Ÿ’œ–ǰȱ ž™›Ž–Š’œ–ȱ Š—ȱŠŠȂǼȱŠ—ȱ›˜–ȱ‘Ž›Žȱ ˜ȱ˜˜–ȱşȱ ǻȁ‹œ›ŠŒȱ¡™›Žœœ’˜—’œ–ȂǼǯȱ‘’œȱ Šœȱ acknowledging the spirit of postmodernity, which preached independence Š—ȱŠȱ–ž•’™•’Œ’¢ȱ˜ȱ’’—Ž›Š›’Žœǯ

1ȱ ȱ˜ȱŠ’—ȱœ˜–Žȱ’ŽŠȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱŒ˜—›˜ŸŽ›œ¢ȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱ‘ŽȱŽ¡Ž—œ’˜—ȱŒ›ŽŠŽǰȱ ŽȱŒ˜ž•ȱ compare the version of events from the institution’s point of view as told by the –žœŽž–ȱ’›ŽŒ˜›ȱǻ•Ž—‹ž›ǰȱŗşŞŚǰȱ™ǯȱřřǼȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱŒ›’’Œ’œ–œȱ–ŠŽȱ‹¢ȱ˜žœ’Žȱ˜‹œŽ›ŸŽ›œȱ ǻ’—ȱ™Š›’Œž•Š›ǰȱŠ••ŠŒ‘ǰȱŗşşŞǰȱ™™ǯȱŞŘȮŝǼǯȱȱ Šœȱ ’•˜—ȱ ›Š–Ž›ȱ ‘˜ȱ›ŽŠ•’£Žȱ‘Šȱ ‘Šȱ  Šœȱ—Ž ȱŠȱ ‘Žȱ˜ȱŠŽ›ȱ ’œȱ Ž¡Ž—œ’˜—ǰȱ Šœȱ—˜ȱ œ˜ȱ–žŒ‘ȱ ‘ŽȱŠ’—ȱ˜ȱ Ž¡›Šȱ œ™ŠŒŽȱ as the break between historical and contemporary modern art: ‘As a result, the new ˜ȱ’œȱ—˜ȱ•˜—Ž›ȱŠȱœ’—•Žȱ–žœŽž–ȱ ’‘ȱŠȱž—’ꮍȱ™ž›™˜œŽȱŠ—ȱ˜ž•˜˜”ǰȱ‹žȱ ˜ȱǻ˜›ȱ –˜›ŽǼȱ–žœŽž–œȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱ™ž›œžŽȱŸŠœ•¢ȱ’쎛Ž—ȱ ˜‹“ŽŒ’ŸŽœȱ Š—ȱž™‘˜•ȱŸŽ›¢ȱ’쎛Ž—ȱ œŠ—Š›œȂȱǻŒ’Žȱ‹¢ȱ˜ ›¢ȱ’—ȱ•Ž›ęŽ•ǰȱŗşşŞǰȱ™ǯȱşŖǼǯ

Š™˜œ•Žœǯȱžȱ‘’œȱ’ȱ—˜ȱ™›ŽŸŽ—ȱ‘Ž–ȱ›˜–ȱ™žĴ’—ȱ˜—ȱœž›™›’œ’—ȱŽ¡‘’‹’’˜—œȱ ’—ȱ‘Žȱ’—œ’ž’˜—œȱ‘Ž¢ȱ“˜’—Žȱ’ǯŽǯȱ‘ŽȱžœŽž–ȱ˜ȱ›’ŒŠ—ȱŠ—ȱŒŽŠ—’Œȱ›œǰȱ ‘ŽȱŽžȱŽȱŠž–Žǰȱ‘Žȱ’ŒŠœœ˜ȱžœŽž–ȱŠ—ȱ‘ŽȱŠ—’—’ȱžœŽž–ȱ’—ȱŠ›œŽ’••Žǯȱ —ȱ›ŽŠ•’¢ǰȱ’ȱ™›˜ŸŽȱ’ĜŒž•ȱ˜ȱ–Š’—Š’—ȱ‘Žȱ™˜™ž•’œȱ–˜–Ž—ž–ȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱ‘Šȱ ‹›˜ž‘ȱ‘ŽȱŽ—›Žȱ˜ȱ›ž’’˜—ǯȱŽ›ȱŠȱ—Ž ȱ™‘ŠœŽȱ˜ȱ‹ž’•’—ȱ ˜›”œȱ˜ȱŽŠ•ȱ  ’‘ȱ’œȱ’—Ž›—Š•ȱŠ›Œ‘’ŽŒž›Žǰȱ‘ŽȱŽ—›Žȱ›Ž˜™Ž—Žȱ˜—ȱŗȱŠ—žŠ›¢ȱŘŖŖŖȱ ’‘ȱ˜—•¢ȱ  ˜ȱŠ›ŽŠœȱ ’‘ȱ›ŽŽȱŽ—›¢DZȱ‘Žȱ˜›ž–ȱŠ—ȱ‘Žȱȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱ—˜ ȱ‘ŠȱŠȱœŽ™Š›ŠŽȱ Ž—›Š—ŒŽǰȱœ˜ȱ‘Šȱ‘ŽȱŠ™™ŽŠ•’—ȱŽœŒŠ•Š˜›œȱ Ž›Žȱ›ŽœŽ›ŸŽȱ˜›ȱ‘˜œŽȱ ‘˜ȱ™Š’ǯȱ ’Ĵ•Žȱ›Ž–Š’—œȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱž—ȬŠ’›ȱŠ–˜œ™‘Ž›Žȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱ˜Š¢ȱ‘Šœȱ–ŠŽȱ Š¢ȱ˜›ȱ¢Žȱ Š—˜‘Ž›ȱŽ–™•Žȱ˜ȱ›’ž–™‘Š—ȱŒŠ™’Š•’œ–ǯȱœȱ—Ž ȱŠŒ’•’’Žœȱ’—Œ•žŽȱŠȱde luxe ›ŽœŠž›Š—ȱœ’ŽȱŠ‹˜ŸŽȱ‘Žȱž™™Ž›ȱŽ¡‘’‹’’˜—ȱŠ••Ž›’ŽœǰȱŠȱ–˜Ž›—ȱŒŠ·ȱ•ŽŠœŽȱ˜ȱ ‘Žȱ›˜ž™ȱ˜œŽœǰȱ‘Žȱ˜›ž–Ȃœȱ›ŽŠȱ‹˜˜”œ‘˜™ȱ›ž—ȱ‹¢ȱŠȱŠ–˜žœȱ™ž‹•’œ‘Ž›ȱŠ—ȱ ‘ŽȱŽœ’—ȱ‹˜ž’šžŽȱ˜™Ž›ŠŽȱ‹¢ȱŠȱ›ŽŠȱŠ›’œ’Š—ȱœ˜›Žǯ