chapter  9
19 Pages

Small firms and industrial districts: the experience of Italy

Thetoolsandmachineryavailabletothe dependentsub-contractorarenotallofthesame kind,asarethoseofthetraditionalartisan.In somecases,lowwagesandlongworkinghoursenable thedependentsub-contractortostayonthemarket withbackwardmachinery.Moreoften,however-and thiswascertainlythecaseinEmiliaintheearly 1970s-themachineryusedisidenticaltothatin largefirmswhichperformthesameoperations. Indeed,inmanycasesthemachinerywasthesameas thatusedpreviouslyinthelargerfirminthat somemedium-sizedfirmslentorsoldtheirown machinerytotheirownworkmenwhocontinuedas self-employeddoingthesamejobastheyhaddone asemployees.