Negotiating Religious Freedom in China
This chapter contrasts the African Christian experiences in Living Water and Yide Lu. It explores two major issues, likely how the local state's immigration control impacted the religious practices of African migrants in Guangzhou, and how African Christian leaders managed to cultivate alternative religious spaces catering to the needs of their black congregations and the burgeoning mission of evangelism among Chinese. The chapter discusses the comparison between African Christian diaspora in China and in Europe. Most underground African pastors proclaim China to be their mission field and encourage their congregation to reach out to Chinese. The African religious experience in China is unique because it does not conform to the assimilation model in the United States, nor does it echo the reverse mission movement of the African Pentecostal diaspora in Europe. The religious activities of African migrants in Guangzhou have the potential to challenge existing stereotypes against black Africans in China.