This conclusion presents keyconcepts discussed in the preceding chapters of this book. The book focuses exclusively on African traders' experiences in Guangzhou. It discusses various members in the African diaspora. The book argues that in order to understand the complexity of anti-black racism in China, one needs to take into account China's role as a strategic vantage point where Africans from diverse backgrounds can find alternative mobility opportunities in comparison to the United States, Europe, and Australia. It examines the connections and tensions between these different sources of racial learning. The book shows that there is no overarching or homogenized discourse of anti-black racism in China, due to the heterogeneity in both the Chinese and African communities and the co-existence of the Chinese and white gazes in defining blackness as a racialized identity. It contributes to literature on South-South migration and the shifting meanings of race in non-Western contexts.