chapter  12
19 Pages

Aspirations, incentives, and hopelessness

In the preceding three chapters we explored depression with theories that have some basic overview of human psychic life. All of them (except Kohut) are based strongly in evolution theory of one form or another. In the next three chapters we explore theories that have moved away from or ignored questions of evolutionary heritage, basic human dispositions, and social needs. In my view something is lost in this avoidance of our “basic nature”. We lose a certain richness and complexity in understanding the basic biological infrastructure of human life. We also lose the issue of integration of the personality and the concepts of internal teleological transformation. Nevertheless, as we shall see we can greatly advance our understanding of depression by placing issues of human nature in the background. The theories reviewed in the next three chapters articulate different aspects of the processes of depression not necessarily alternative ones to those expressed previously. I will let the reader judge for themselves whether they are easily integrated with our evolutionary theories or not.