In the aftermath of the September 11, 2001 (‘9/11’) attacks, US President George W.
Bush launched the ‘war on terror’, calling it the ‘new war of the 21st century’ (Bush,
2004). This is a war, we are told, which is being waged on behalf of ‘free and civilized
people everywhere’ (Chrétien, 2001a) against an invisible and unidentiﬁable enemy
able to ‘melt away into our cities and into our way of life’ (Manley, 2001). The need
to ‘root out’ invisible enemies by identifying who does, and does not, belong to the
community has thus become a pressing concern in the post-9/11 era.