The Excise Crisis, the War of the Polish Succession, and British Foreign Policy, 1733
This conclusion presents some closing thoughts on the concepts discussed in the preceding chapters of this book. Foreign policy was an important part of a strategic culture that, in focusing on national security and the navy, devoted increasing attention to commerce and, eventually, empire. The focus on British foreign policy and politics is necessarily on Britain, but it is repeatedly crucial to note the importance and independent existence of international developments. The fiscal policy was different to foreign policy as a matter of political dispute. The impact of parliamentary government on foreign policy therefore was a vexed matter for the French ministers in the dying days of the Anglo-French alliance. Hanover's vulnerability to France and, even more, Prussia was an obvious aspect of the international disruption of the early 1740's. Horatio Walpole was particularly eager on this head, focusing on Prussia.