The current orthodoxy in housing policy in developing countries, based on the enablement model, makes a number of assumptions about the role of community participation in housing delivery. Manila is the oldest city in Metro Manila, and has long been densely settled. The city's population has increased marginally in two decades, and the population density exceeds 40,000 people per square kilometer. In 1998, the survey identified a total of 1056 areas ranging in size from a single household to over 15,000 households. Manila city government farmed responsibility for the implementation of the census out to the district level, where a variety of methods were applied. In contrast, Quezon City communities are much more likely to be located on land owned by private individuals. The role of CBOs in water provision and garbage collection tends to be more passive. Local governments are more likely to take primary responsibility, and in only a few cases did CBOs play a direct role.