Spirituality and Creativity: Theory and Practice
Contemporary society is indeed stressful, and pain is a part of life. While anxiety may be inherent in the human condition, both psychotherapists and theologians distinguish between pathological and normal forms. Many persons who suffer from anxiety are reluctant to see a psychiatrist or psychologist due to cost or stigma. Potential indicators of risk factors for adult anxiety disorders include: genetic factors, childhood psychopathology, temperamental factors, cognitive predispositions, behavioral tendencies, parental influences, life events, and peers. Manic depression strikes millions of persons in North America and Europe. Classified as an affective disorder, manic depression is characterized by mania and, but not always, depression. Moreover, manic depression is one of the few psychiatric illnesses in which 'shadow syndromes', such as bipolar II and cyclothymia, have been established. Religious themes and mystical experiences pervade the language of manic-depressive illness, 'conveying an extraordinary degree and type of experience, one beyond adequate control, comprehension, or adequate description'.