This conclusion presents some closing thoughts on the key concepts discussed in the preceding chapters of this book. The book concludes that Turkey is depicted both as an inclusive and an exclusive other, depending largely on political and national background of the speaker. It has been based on the constructivist premise that political/territorial identities, including EU identity, are fundamentally social constructs rather than primordial in nature. The book mainly focuses on elite discourse, public opinion can also play an important role in the accession process, particularly when referenda are involved. It has been carried out on the understanding that elite attitudes to Turkey's EU accession, and, specifically, the arguments used in favour of and against Turkey's membership of the EU can shed light on how the EU itself is perceived. The book tends to concur with Risse's conclusion that two distinct visions of Europe and the EU are on display and are becoming ever more salient in the public spheres'.