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This conclusion presents some closing thoughts on the key concepts discussed in the preceding chapters of this book. The book aims to refocus efforts to maintain international peace and security by emphasising the economic and social dimensions of conflict and peace. It shows that the linking of socio-economic conditions to a peaceful order is not new, as theorists, and then States, through the adoption of law and policy, recognised the benefits of a healthy, educated and adequately remunerated workforce. The book provides evidence of the extent to which such collaboration has taken place, as well as concern and resistance expressed by some members of the Security Council at the blurring of the roles of the three organs. It explains the need to understand the particular role and contribution of economic and social rights to allow for a recalibration of peacebuilding and peacekeeping that more fully incorporates economic and social rights.