That Incomparable Moravian
The multiplicity of religious sects in early modern Bohemia and Moravia came to an end as a product of the Thirty Years’ War. Though the rebellion of the Estates involved more than just a Catholic/Protestant binary, the resolution of the conflict reduced matters to basic confessional distinctions. The Habsburg armies and the Catholic League defeated the armies of the Estates at White Mountain, the government executed the ringleaders on Old Town Square, and the Emperor began a program of re-Catholicization of the Czech lands. As a part of this program, non-Catholics in Bohemia and Moravia were given the option in the 1620s to convert or go into exile.1 Many converted, but large congregations of the Unity of the Brethren fled into Poland, including their self-proclaimed last bishop and internationally-renowned scholar, Jan Amos Komenský (Comenius).