The Second India-Pakistan War 1965
The rationalist bargaining theory of war provides some insights on the Second Kashmir War. Lieutenant-General Harbakhsh Singh was the General Officer Commanding Western Command during the August-September 1965 India-Pakistan War. On 19 February 1954, Pakistan concluded a pact with Turkey, and both countries agreed to closer collaboration in the political, economic and cultural spheres. Because of US military aid to Pakistan, the Pakistan armed forces enjoyed technical superiority over their Indian counterparts. The 1965 India-Pakistan dispute along the Rann was confined to the Great Rann, which measures 160 miles from east to west and 80 miles from north to south. Stanley Wolpert writes that Ayub tested India’s Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri’s resolve in the Rann of Cutch/Kutch. Nevertheless, while the First India-Pakistan War was limited to Kashmir, the Second India-Pakistan War expanded to Punjab. The ninth Jammu and Kashmir Rifles was deployed behind the eighteen Rajputana Rifles.