Mass in Early Medieval Rome
This chapter focuses on the pope and other members of the clergy sought to map out the boundaries of a new world formed through orthodox Christian liturgy. The clergy would determine and enforce what valid worship was and concomitantly who was a full participant in society. The clergy had spiritual weapons at their disposal to discipline those who refused to follow their moral and liturgical imperatives. The regulations for proper ritual behavior started with the main officiants, the priests who performed the liturgy. The Council in Trullo prescribed the proper ritual role the laity was supposed to perform. Heretics came in many forms, but they all deviated from the proper forms of liturgy and in turn needed to be excluded from orthodox liturgy. The battle against improper worship further extended to the Jewish population. Gregory I stood up for certain Jewish rights, but his letters reveal that not everyone shared his respect for Judaism or its worship.