Globalization, international migration and everyday cosmopolitanism
As shared forces and exchanges powerfully structure our lives, so the world is becoming one place and one system. With all this comes a radical shift in our understanding of space and time. Harvey (1989: 240−54) is especially helpful in explaining this characteristic of globaliz-
ation. He argues that in pre-modern societies, space was understood in terms of concrete localities. Movement was dangerous and difficult while war, pestilence and famine often made social life unpredictable. For most individuals it was safer to remain in those places where they and their families enjoyed fixed and unchanging rights and obligations. Similarly, the memory of past disasters, the passing of the seasons and the cycle of agricultural work determined understandings of time.