Trade, aid and migration
The context for such concerns is that national politicians are under increasing pressure from their electorates to supplement failing or compromised systems of border controls (together with associated measures like detentions, deportations and welfare denials), particularly in the light of enhanced security concerns. Proactive measures like targeted development aid, the liberalization of trade regimes, direct foreign investment, the design of rotational migrant labour systems, the creation of transitional zones, ‘safe havens’ and offshore processing of migrants are all receiving attention from researchers and policy-makers. The measures source countries take to promote or impede emigration flows also may have a significant impact on international migration. In this chapter, I concentrate my discussion on the migration effects of trade and aid.