Research on decision-making in organizational settings has a long history and has been taken up by a range of academic disciplines including economics, management and cognitive psychology. Decision-making has been widely viewed as a key management process and normative theories have led to the development of a range of practical aids and training courses on improved decision-making. This chapter also presents an overview of the key concepts in the subsequent chapters of this book. The book presents some theoretical background on the key ideas used in the analysis of decision-making. It discusses the implications for organizations and for regulators, including some suggestions of how to support operational decision-makers in practical ways. The book also discusses the dual organizational identities of the operational managers – as employees and as professionals. It looks at the form of the experienced-based judgements made by the operational managers.