Legislation and Regulation
This chapter outlines the foreseen regulations that impact on energy and utility use. It focuses on the UK regulations, all of which are driven by European Union (EU) legislation. The United Kingdom (UK) policy on climate change has evolved through several steps since the signature of the Kyoto Protocol in 1997. The steps were as follows: Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change Levy (CCL), EU Emissions Trading Scheme, EU Energy Performance of Buildings Directive, and EU Directive on Energy End-use Efficiency and Energy Services. The Kyoto Protocol, which was signed in 1997, and which is the most often talked about international law in connection with global warming, is actually an amendment to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Following the Kyoto Protocol, the UK government introduced the CCL, an additional tax on businesses that is added to energy bills.