Gazel Poetry and Garden Rituals (1453–1730): Ideal and Real Gardens of Love
Gardens and garden parties constituted an important part of Ottoman arts and culture. Garden parties displayed vivid images of the Ottoman cultural life and anchored Ottoman social order. They asserted divine and imperial cosmography by means of rituals. Garden parties acknowledge how gardens became expressions of divine and imperial orders according to the orthodox laws of the Sharia. Thus, gardens and their representations became expressions of imperial ideology and places of its practice.