chapter  4
The Spanish Monarchy and the Challenges of the Thirty Years' War
Pages 12

Recent studies on Spain’s role in the Thirty Years’ War have clearly shown that in order to comprehend the successes and failures of the Spanish military campaigns of the time it is necessary to consider the interaction of the following factors: the complex geo-political challenges posed by the vast territorial dispersal of Spanish territories, Spain’s limited economic capabilities in relation to these challenges, and the widespread social malaise ŠěŽŒ’—ȱ–Š—¢ȱ˜ȱ ‘Žȱ™Š—’œ‘ȱ Ž››’˜›’Žœȱ ˜••˜ ’—ȱ ‘Žȱ œ›Š’—œȱ‹›˜ž‘ȱ Š‹˜žȱ‹¢ȱ ‘Žȱ Š›ȱ Žě˜›ǯȱ˜›Ž˜ŸŽ›ǰȱ ™Š’—Ȃœȱ ’—Ÿ˜•ŸŽ–Ž—ȱ ’—ȱ ‘Žȱ‘’›¢ȱŽŠ›œȂȱŠ›ȱ‘Šœȱ‹ŽŽ—ȱŠœœŽœœŽȱ ’‘’—ȱ such wider topics of debate as the ‘military revolution’, the ‘general crisis’ of the seventeenth ŒŽ—ž›¢ǰȱŠ—ȱ‘ŽȱŠ••ŽŽȱȁŽŒ•’—ŽȂȱ˜ȱ™Š’—ǯȱŒŒ˜›’—•¢ǰȱ‘’œȱŒ‘Š™Ž›ȱ ’••ȱ›ŠŒŽȱ‘Žȱ‹Ž••’Œ˜œŽȱ events in which Spain was involved against both foreign powers and rebellious provinces within the Spanish monarchy, as well as the various related scholarly debates, aiming to ™›˜™˜œŽȱŠȱ‹Š•Š—ŒŽȱ›ŽŸ’Ž ȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱœŠŽȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱšžŽœ’˜—ǯ1

To begin with, the chronology of the Thirty Years’ War doesn’t apply well to the Spanish monarchy’s reality when we take into consideration that the war with the Netherlands ’—ŽŽȱŽ—Žȱ’—ȱŗŜŚŞǰȱ‹žȱ’œȱœ™Š—ȱŽ—Œ˜–™ŠœœŽȱŞŖȱ¢ŽŠ›œǯȱ’–’•Š›•¢ǰȱ‘Žȱ Š›ȱ ’‘ȱ›Š—ŒŽȱ‘Šȱ œŠ›Žȱ’—ȱ‘Žȱ–’œȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱŒ˜—Ě’ŒȱǻŗŜřśǼȱ‹žȱ Ž—ȱ˜—ȱž—’•ȱ‘Žȱœ’—’—ȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ›ŽŠ¢ȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ ¢›Ž—ŽŽœȱ’—ȱŗŜśşǯȱ˜›Ž˜ŸŽ›ǰȱŠŒŒ˜›’—ȱ˜ȱ›Š•’—ǰȱŠœȱŠ›ȱŠœȱ™Š’—ȱ ŠœȱŒ˜—ŒŽ›—Žǰȱ’ȱ ˜ž•ȱ ‹Žȱ–˜›ŽȱŠŒŒž›ŠŽȱ˜ȱœ™ŽŠ”ȱ˜ȱŠȱȁꏝ¢ȱ¢ŽŠ›œȱ Š›ȂȱǻŗŜŗŞȮŜŞǼȱ’ȱ ŽȱŠ•œ˜ȱŠ”Žȱ’—˜ȱŠŒŒ˜ž—ȱ‘Žȱ ŸŠ›’˜žœȱŒ˜—Ě’Œœȱ‘Šȱ™Š’—ȱ Šœȱ’—Ÿ˜•ŸŽȱ’—ǰȱ•˜—ȱŠŽ›ȱ‘Žȱœ’—’—ȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱŽŠŒŽȱ˜ȱŽœ™‘Š•’Šȱ  ’‘ȱ ˜›žŠ•ȱ ǻŗŜŚŖȮŜŞǼǰȱ —•Š—ȱ ǻŗŜśŚȮŜŖǼǰȱ Š—ȱ ŠŠ’—ȱ ›Š—ŒŽȱ ǻŗŜŜŝȮŜŞǼǯ2 In this sense, Spain’s deep military involvement throughout the best part of the seventeenth century ›ŽĚŽŒœȱ Ž••ȱ’œȱŸŠœȱŽ››’˜›’Š•ȱŒ˜––’–Ž—œȱ’—ȱž›˜™ŽȱŠ—ȱ’—ȱ’œȱŒ˜•˜—’ŽœǯȱŒŒ˜›’—•¢ǰȱ’ȱ is fundamental to trace the extent of territorial possessions of the Spanish monarchy, and ‘Žȱœ›ŠŽ’Œȱ’–™•’ŒŠ’˜—œȱŽ›’Ÿ’—ȱ›˜–ȱ‘Ž–ȱ˜—ȱ‘ŽȱŽŸŽȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ‘’›¢ȱŽŠ›œȂȱŠ›ǯȱ’›œǰȱ‘Žȱ ™Š—’œ‘ȱ–˜—Š›Œ‘¢ȱ‘Ž•ȱ ‘ŽȱŽ—’›Žȱ ‹Ž›’Š—ȱŽ—’—œž•Šǰȱ ’—Œ•ž’—ȱ˜›žŠ•ȱŠ—ȱ ’œȱ Œ˜•˜—’Žœǯȱ Ž››’˜›’ŽœȱŠ›˜ž—ȱ‘Žȱ›Ž—Œ‘ȱ˜›‹’ȱ’—Œ•žŽȱ˜žœœ’••˜—ǰȱ›Ž—Œ‘ȱŽ›Š—Žȱ’—ȱ‘Žȱ¢›Ž—ŽŽœǰȱ Š—ȱ›Š—Œ‘ŽȬ˜–·ȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱŽŠœȱ˜ȱ›Š—ŒŽǯȱ•œŠŒŽȱ Šœȱ’—ȱ‘Žȱ˜›‹’ȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ ˜•¢ȱ˜–Š—ȱ–™’›Žǯȱ Ž››’˜›’Žœȱ ’—ȱ ‘Žȱ˜ ȱ˜ž—›’Žœȱ ’—Œ•žŽȱŽ•’ž–ȱŠ—ȱž¡Ž–‹˜ž›ǰȱ›˜’œǰȱ Š—ȱ™Š›ȱ˜ȱ

ASHGATE RESEARCH COMPANION

’ŒŠ›¢ǰȱ ‘Ž›ŽŠœȱ‘Žȱ—’Žȱ›˜Ÿ’—ŒŽœǰȱ—˜ ŠŠ¢œȱ ˜••Š—ǰȱ‘Šȱ‹ŽŽ—ȱŒ˜—žŒ’—ȱŠ—ȱ˜™Ž—ȱ ›Ž‹Ž••’˜—ȱŠŠ’—œȱ™Š’—ȱœ’—ŒŽȱŗśŜŞǯȱ‘ŽȱŠ•’Š—ȱŽ››’˜›’Žœȱ’—Œ•žŽȱ‘ŽȱžŒ‘¢ȱ˜ȱ’•Š—ǰȱŠ—ȱ ‘Žȱ ’—˜–œȱ ˜ȱ Š™•Žœǰȱ ’Œ’•¢ȱ Š—ȱ Š›’—’Šǯȱ ‘Žȱ Ž¡›ŠȬž›˜™ŽŠ—ȱ Œ˜•˜—’Žœǰȱ Šž–Ž—Žȱ œ’—ŒŽȱ ŗśŞŖȱ ‹¢ȱ ‘Žȱ˜›žžŽœŽȱ Ž››’˜›’Žœǰȱ ’—Œ•žŽȱ œ˜–Žȱ™˜œœȱ ’—ȱ˜›‘ȱ Š—ȱŽœȱ›’ŒŠǰȱ •Š›Žȱ™Š›œȱ˜ȱ™›ŽœŽ—ȬŠ¢ȱ˜ž‘ǰȱŽ—›Š•ȱŠ—ȱ˜›‘ȱ–Ž›’ŒŠǰȱ’—Œ•ž’—ȱ›Š£’•ǰȱŠ—ȱŸŠ›’˜žœȱ Ž››’˜›’Žœȱ’—ȱ‘Žȱœ’Š—ȱŠŒ’ęŒȱ’—Œ•ž’—ȱ‘Žȱ‘’•’™™’—ŽœȱŠ—ȱ ˜Šǯ

The rule of these immense possessions by the Spanish ‘composite monarchy’ had some clear advantages like the potential availability of vast economic and human resources, and the ›Žœž•’—ȱ–’‘ȱ‘Šȱ ˜ž•ȱŽŽ›ȱ˜‘Ž›ȱž›˜™ŽŠ—ȱ™˜ Ž›œȱ›˜–ȱŒ‘Š••Ž—’—ȱ™Š’—Ȃœȱ™˜œ’’˜—ȱ ˜ȱœž™›Ž–ŠŒ¢ǯřȱ—ȱ‘Žȱ˜‘Ž›ȱ‘Š—ǰȱ‘’œȱœŠ–ŽȱŽ››’˜›’Š•ȱœ™›ŽŠ’—ȱ’—ȱž›˜™Žȱ Šœȱ™Ž›ŒŽ’ŸŽȱ ŠœȱŠȱŒ˜—œŠ—ȱ‘›ŽŠȱ‹¢ȱ‘Žȱ˜‘Ž›ȱž›˜™ŽŠ—ȱ™˜ Ž›œȱȮȱ’—ȱ™Š›’Œž•Š›ȱ›Š—ŒŽȱŠ—ȱ—•Š—ȱȮȱŠȱŠŒȱ ‘Šȱž›—Žȱ™Š’—ȱ’—˜ȱŠȱŒ˜––˜—ȱŽ—Ž–¢ǯȱ˜›Ž˜ŸŽ›ǰȱ‘Žȱ›ŽŠȱ’œ™Ž›œŠ•ȱ˜ȱ•Š—œȱ–ŽŠ—ȱŸŽ›¢ȱ slow communication between the various parts, and the inevitable Spanish vulnerability  ‘Ž—ȱŠĴŽ–™’—ȱ˜ȱŽ—ȱ˜ěȱ–’•’Š›¢ȱ‘›ŽŠœǰȱ™Š›’Œž•Š›•¢ȱ’ȱ‘ŽœŽȱŒŠ–Žȱ›˜–ȱ–ž•’™•Žȱ›˜—œǯȱ In addition, the increasing expenses involved in maintaining the new military capabilities and forms of organisation, which constituted a ‘military revolution’ in early modern times, ™žœ‘Žȱ™Š’—ȱ˜ȱœ™Ž—ȱ Ž••ȱ‹Ž¢˜—ȱ’œȱŽŒ˜—˜–’Œȱ•’–’œǯ4 The combination of these reasons  ’••ȱ‹Žȱ™Š’—ȂœȱŒ›žŒ’‹•Žȱ’—ȱ‘ŽȱŗŜŚŖœȱŠœȱ‘’œȱŒ‘Š™Ž›ȱœ‘Š••ȱŽœŒ›’‹ŽȱŠȱ•Ž—‘ǯ

Spain’s limitations were also manifested by the amount of revenues that the crown  ŠœȱŠ‹•Žȱ˜ȱŽ¡›ŠŒȱ›˜–ȱ’œȱŸŠœȱ™˜œœŽœœ’˜—œǯȱ—ȱ™›ŠŒ’ŒŽǰȱ‘Žȱœ‘Š›Žȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ‹ž›Ž—ȱ‹Ž ŽŽ—ȱ ‘ŽȱŸŠ›’˜žœȱŽ››’˜›’Žœȱ Šœȱž—ŽŸŽ—ǯȱ‘Žȱ›ŽŠȱ‹ž›Ž—ȱ˜ȱŠ¡Š’˜—ȱŠ—ȱ–’•’Š›¢ȱŒ˜—œŒ›’™’˜—ȱ Ž••ȱž™˜—ȱŠœ’•Žǯȱ‘Žȱ Š•’Š—ȱ Ž››’˜›’ŽœȱŠ—ȱ ‘Žȱ™Š—’œ‘ȱŽ‘Ž›•Š—œȱŒŠ–Žȱ—Ž¡ȱ ’—ȱ Ž›–œȱ ˜ȱŒ˜—›’‹ž’˜—ǯȱŠ›Š˜¡’ŒŠ••¢ǰȱ‘Žȱ˜‘Ž›ȱ‹Ž›’Š—ȱ”’—˜–œȱȮȱŠ•Ž—Œ’ŠǰȱŠŸŠ››ŽǰȱŠŠ•˜—’Šǰȱ ›Š˜—ǰȱ Š—ȱ ˜›žŠ•ȱ Ȯȱ Œ˜—›’‹žŽȱ ŸŽ›¢ȱ •’Ĵ•Žǰȱ ’ȱ Šȱ Š••ǰȱ ‹¢ȱ Ž¡Ž›Œ’œ’—ȱ ‘Ž’›ȱ ›Š’’˜—Š•ȱ ™›’Ÿ’•ŽŽœǯȱŠ›’Œž•Š›•¢ȱ’–™˜›Š—ȱ˜›ȱ‘Žȱ™Š—’œ‘ȱŽŒ˜—˜–¢ȱ Ž›Žȱ‘Žȱœž‹œŠ—’Š•ȱšžŠ—’’Žœȱ ˜ȱ œ’•ŸŽ›ȱ ’œ™ŠŒ‘Žȱ ›˜–ȱ ‘Žȱ Ž ȱ ˜›•ǰȱ Š•‘˜ž‘ȱ ‘Žȱ œ‘’™–Ž—œȱ  Ž›Žȱ ’—Ž›–’ĴŽ—ȱ žŽȱ ˜ȱ Ž¡Ž›—Š•ȱ ŠĴŠŒ”œȱ–˜œ•¢ȱ ™Ž›™Ž›ŠŽȱ ‹¢ȱ —•’œ‘ȱ Š—ȱžŒ‘ȱ ™›’ŸŠŽŽ›œǰȱ ˜›ȱ ‹¢ȱ œžŒ‘ȱ ’—Ž›—Š•ȱŠŒ˜›œȱŠœȱŒ˜››ž™’˜—ȱŠ—ȱ›Šžǯȱ‘ŽȱŠ–˜ž—ȱ˜ȱ‹ž••’˜—ȱœ‘›Š—”ȱŒ˜—œ’Ž›Š‹•¢ȱ’—ȱ‘Žȱ seventeenth century, and Spain was forced to turn to the debasement of coinage, a measure ‘Šȱ Œ˜—œŽšžŽ—•¢ȱ ‹›˜ž‘ȱ Ž‹’•’Š’—ȱ Œ¢Œ•Žœȱ ˜ȱ ’—ĚŠ’˜—ȱ Š—ȱ ŽĚŠ’˜—ȱ ’—ȱ ‘Žȱ ‹Ž›’Š—ȱ Ž—’—œž•ŠȱœŠ›’—ȱ’—ȱ‘ŽȱŗŜŘŖœǯȱœȱ˜›ȱ‘ŽȱŠ¡ŽœȱŒ˜••ŽŒŽȱ’—ȱ‘Žȱ–Ž›’ŒŠœǰȱ–žŒ‘ȱ›Ž–Š’—Žȱ ‘Ž›Žȱ˜ȱ‹ž’•ȱŽŽ—ŒŽœȱŠŠ’—œȱ—•’œ‘ǰȱžŒ‘ǰȱŠ—ȱ›Ž—Œ‘ȱŽ—Œ›˜ŠŒ‘–Ž—ǰȱ‘Ž›Ž‹¢ȱžœ’—ȱž™ȱ the funds that the Spanish crown would otherwise have had available for its expenses in ž›˜™Žǯśȱ—ȱ˜‘Ž›ȱ ˜›œǰȱ‘Ž›Žȱ Ž›ŽȱŒ•ŽŠ›ȱ•’–’œȱ˜ȱ™Š—’œ‘ȱ™˜ Ž›ǯȱ‘’œȱŠŒȱ ŠœȱŠ•œ˜ȱŠŒŒŽ™Žȱ and acknowledged by the Spaniards themselves, and it is precisely this self-perception of Ÿž•—Ž›Š‹’•’¢ȱ‘ŠȱŒ˜—’’˜—Žȱ‘Ž’›ȱ˜›Ž’—ȱ™˜•’Œ¢ȱž›’—ȱŽŠ›•¢ȱ–˜Ž›—ȱ’–Žœǯ6

’œ™Š—’œœȱ Š›ŽŽȱ ˜—ȱ  ˜ȱ Ž—Ž›Š•ȱ ’›ŽŒ’ŸŽœȱ ž’’—ȱ ‘Žȱ ™Š—’œ‘ȱ Š‹œ‹ž›œȂȱ ˜›Ž’—ȱ ™˜•’Œ¢DZȱ ‘Žȱ–Š’—Ž—Š—ŒŽȱ˜ȱ ™Š—’œ‘ȱ™˜ Ž›ȱ Š—ȱ ’œȱ Ž››’˜›’Žœȱ‹¢ȱ Š¢ȱ˜ȱ–’•’Š›¢ȱŽŽ—ŒŽDzȱ Š—ȱ ‘Žȱ ™›˜ŽŒ’˜—ǰȱ ‹¢ȱ ˜›ŒŽȱ ’ȱ —ŽŒŽœœŠ›¢ǰȱ ˜ȱ ‘Žȱ Œ˜—Žœœ’˜—Š•ȱ ž—’¢ȱ ˜ȱ ž›˜™Žȱ ž—Ž›ȱ ‘Žȱ Š‘˜•’Œȱ ‹Š——Ž›ǯȱ ˜ȱ ‘’œȱ Žȱ œ‘˜ž•ȱ Šȱ ™Š’—Ȃœȱ ŠŸ˜ Žȱ ›Žœ™˜—œ’‹’•’¢ȱ ’—ȱ ™›˜ŽŒ’—ȱ ‘Žȱ Ž’Ž››Š—ŽŠ—ȱœ‘˜›Žœȱ›˜–ȱ‘Žȱ‘›ŽŠȱ˜ȱœ•Š–ǯȱ‘ŽœŽȱ˜‹“ŽŒ’ŸŽœǰȱ‘˜ ŽŸŽ›ǰȱ Ž›Žȱ™ž›œžŽȱŠȱ ’쎛Ž—ȱ•ŽŸŽ•œȱ˜ȱ’—Ž—œ’¢ȱŠȱ’쎛Ž—ȱ’–ŽœǰȱŠœȱŒŠ—ȱ‹ŽȱœŽŽ—ȱ›˜–ȱ‘ŽȱŠ™™Š›Ž—ȱ’œ’—Œ’˜—ȱ between the policies of the two Spanish kings that ruled during the Thirty Years’ War, Philip ȱǻŗśşŞȮŗŜŘŗǼǰȱŠ—ȱ‘’œȱœžŒŒŽœœ˜›ǰȱ‘’•’™ȱȱǻŗŜŘŗȮŜśǼǯȱ—ȱ‘ŽȱŽŸŽȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ‘’›¢ȱŽŠ›œȂȱŠ›ȱ Spain’s government was in a phase of transition, as the duke of Lerma, Philip III’s chief –’—’œŽ›ȱŠ—ȱŠŸ˜ž›’ŽȱǻvalidoǼǰȱ Šœȱ˜žœŽȱ›˜–ȱ™˜ Ž›ȱ’—ȱŗŜŗŞǯȱ—ȱŽ›–œȱ˜ȱŽ›–ŠȂœȱ˜›Ž’—ȱ ™˜•’Œ¢ǰȱ‘Žȱ›Ž•Š’ŸŽ•¢ȱ™ŽŠŒŽž•ȱ›Ž•Š’˜—œ‘’™ȱ ’‘ȱ›Š—ŒŽǰȱ‘Žȱœ’—’—ȱ˜ȱŠȱ™ŽŠŒŽȱ›ŽŠ¢ȱ ’‘ȱ —•Š—ȱ ǻ˜—˜—ǰȱ ŗŜŖŚǼǰȱ Š—ȱ ™Š›’Œž•Š›•¢ȱ ‘Žȱ ŗŘȱ ¢ŽŠ›œȂȱ ›žŒŽȱ ’‘ȱ ‘Žȱ—’Žȱ ›˜Ÿ’—ŒŽœȱ ǻŗŜŖşȮŘŗǼǰȱ–Š›”Žȱ‘’œȱ Ž—¢ȱ¢ŽŠ›œȂȱ›ž•ŽȱǻŗśşŞȮŗŜŗŞǼȱŠœȱŠȱ•˜—ȱ™Ž›’˜ȱ˜ȱ™ŽŠŒŽȱ˜›ȱ™Š’—ǯŝ That said, Lerma’s policies were probably conditioned more by economic constraints than ‹¢ȱ˜ž›’‘ȱȁ™ŠŒ’ęœ–Ȃǯȱ—ȱ‘’œȱœŽ—œŽǰȱœ’—’—ȱ‘Žȱ›žŒŽȱ ’‘ȱ‘ŽȱžŒ‘ȱ’—ȱŗŜŖşȱŒŠ—ȱ‹Žȱ‹ŽĴŽ›ȱ ž—Ž›œ˜˜ȱ  ’‘’—ȱ ‘Žȱ Œ˜—Ž¡ȱ ˜ȱ ™Š’—Ȃœȱ ŽŒ•Š›Š’˜—ȱ ˜ȱ ‹Š—”›ž™Œ¢ȱ ’—ȱ ŗŜŖŝǯ8ȱ ˜ ŽŸŽ›ǰȱ since the truce was only valid for the Low Countries and did not include Spain’s overseas Ž››’˜›’Žœǰȱ‘ŽȱžŒ‘ȱ˜˜”ȱŠŸŠ—ŠŽȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱœ’žŠ’˜—ȱ‹¢ȱŠ”’—ȱ˜ŸŽ›ȱ˜ž™˜œœȱ’—ȱ›Š£’•ȱŠ—ȱ’—ȱ ˜ž‘ȬŠœȱœ’Šǯşȱ—ȱŠ’’˜—ȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱŽŒ˜—˜–’ŒȱŠ–ŠŽȱ’—Ě’ŒŽȱ‹¢ȱ‘ŽȱžŒ‘ǰȱŽ›–ŠȂœȱŒ›’’Œœȱ Šȱ‘˜–Žȱ‹Ž•’ŽŸŽȱ‘Šȱ‘’œȱȁ™ŠŒ’ęŒ’œȂȱ™˜•’Œ’Žœȱ Ž›ŽȱŠ–Š’—ȱ™Š’—Ȃœȱ’—Ž›—Š’˜—Š•ȱ™›Žœ’Žǯȱ ’‘ȱŽ›–Šȱ˜žȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ™’Œž›ŽȱǻŠ•‘˜ž‘ȱ‘’œȱœ˜—ǰȱ‘Žȱž”Žȱ˜ȱŒŽŠǰȱœžŒŒŽŽŽȱ‘’–ȱ˜›ȱŠȱ ‹›’Žȱ™Ž›’˜ǼǰȱŠ—ȱ‘ŽȱŽŠ‘ȱ˜ȱ‘’•’™ȱȱ’—ȱŗŜŘŗǰȱ‘ŽȱœŠŽȱ ŠœȱœŽȱ˜›ȱ‘’•’™ȱȱŠ—ȱ‘’œȱ—Ž ȱ ŠŸ˜ž›’Žǰȱ‘Žȱž”Žȱ˜ȱ•’ŸŠ›ŽœȱǻŒ˜ž—Ȭž”ŽȱœŠ›’—ȱ›˜–ȱŗŜŘśǼǰȱ ‘˜ȱ™›˜–™•¢ȱ™›˜™˜œŽȱŠȱ –˜›ŽȱŠœœŽ›’ŸŽȱ˜›Ž’—ȱ™˜•’Œ¢ȱ˜ȱ›Žœ˜›Žȱ™Š’—ȂœȱŠ–ŠŽȱ›Ž™žŠ’˜—ǯ10

—ȱŽœœŽ—ŒŽǰȱŠŒŒ˜›’—ȱ˜ȱ••’˜Ĵǰȱ•’ŸŠ›ŽœȂȱ˜›Ž’—ȱ™˜•’Œ¢ȱ Šœȱ—˜ȱŸŽ›¢ȱ’쎛Ž—ȱ›˜–ȱ‘Šȱ of his predecessor by being essentially defensive, only that his insistence on keeping Spain’s ›Ž™žŠ’˜—ȱ’—ŠŒȱ–ŽŠ—ȱ‘Šȱȁ ‘Ž‘Ž›ȱ’—ȱ‘ŽȱŽ‘Ž›•Š—œȱ˜›ȱŽ•œŽ ‘Ž›ŽȱȮȱ™ŽŠŒŽȱŠ—ȱœŽŒž›’¢ȱ Œ˜ž•ȱ—˜ȱ‹Žȱ‹˜ž‘ȱŠȱ‘Žȱ™›’ŒŽȱ˜ȱ—Š’˜—Š•ȱ‘˜—˜ž›ǯȂ11ȱ˜›Ž˜ŸŽ›ǰȱŠœȱ•’ŸŠ›Žœȱ–ŠŽȱŒ•ŽŠ›ȱ’—ȱ Šȱ•ŠŽ›ȱ–Ž–˜›Š—ž–ȱž›’—ȱ‘Žȱ‘’›¢ȱŽŠ›œȂȱŠ›ǰȱ™›Žœ’Žȱ Šœȱ—˜ȱ‘Žȱ˜—•¢ȱ‘’—ȱŠȱœŠ”Žǯȱ ‘˜ ’—ȱ ŽŠ”—Žœœȱ ’‘ȱ‘ŽȱžŒ‘ȱŒ˜ž•ȱœŽȱŠ—ȱŽ¡Š–™•Žȱ˜›ȱ˜‘Ž›œȱ˜ȱ›Ž‹Ž•ȱŠŠ’—œȱ™Š’—ǰȱ ‘žœȱŒ›ŽŠ’—ȱŠȱȁ˜–’—˜ȱŽěŽŒȂDZ

‘Žȱę›œȱŠ—ȱ›ŽŠŽœȱŠ—Ž›œȱŠ›Žȱ‘˜œŽȱ‘Šȱ‘›ŽŠŽ—ȱ˜–‹Š›¢ǰȱ‘ŽȱŽ‘Ž›•Š—œȱŠ—ȱ Germany. A defeat in any of these three is fatal for this Monarchy, so much so that if the defeat in those parts is a great one, the rest of the monarchy will collapse; for Ž›–Š—¢ȱ ’••ȱ‹Žȱ˜••˜ Žȱ‹¢ȱŠ•¢ȱŠ—ȱ‘ŽȱŽ‘Ž›•Š—œǰȱŠ—ȱ‘ŽȱŽ‘Ž›•Š—œȱ ’••ȱ‹Žȱ ˜••˜ Žȱ‹¢ȱ–Ž›’ŒŠDzȱŠ—ȱ˜–‹Š›¢ȱ ’••ȱ‹Žȱ˜••˜ Žȱ‹¢ȱŠ™•ŽœȱŠ—ȱ’Œ’•¢ǰȱ ’‘˜žȱ‘Žȱ ™˜œœ’‹’•’¢ȱ˜ȱ‹Ž’—ȱŠ‹•Žȱ˜ȱŽŽ—ȱŽ’‘Ž›ǯ12

Spain’s swift choice to get involved in the Thirty Years’ War is a good testimony to ‘ŽȱŠ˜›Ž–Ž—’˜—Žȱ™›Ž˜ŒŒž™Š’˜—œǯȱ‘žœǰȱ Œ•˜œŽ•¢ȱŠŽ›ȱ ‘Žȱ ȁŽŽ—Žœ›Š’˜—ȱ˜ȱ›ŠžŽȂȱ ǻŘřȱ Š¢ȱŗŜŗŞǼȱŠ—ȱ‘Žȱ‹Ž’——’—ȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ˜‘Ž–’Š—ȱŽŸ˜•ȱŠŠ’—œȱŽ›’—Š—ȱ˜ȱ Š‹œ‹ž›ǰȱ”’—ȱ ˜ȱ˜‘Ž–’ŠȱŠ—ȱ–™Ž›˜›ȱ˜ȱ ‘Žȱ ˜•¢ȱ˜–Š—ȱ–™’›Žȱ ›˜–ȱŗŜŗşǰȱ ‘Žȱ™Š—’œ‘ȱ Š‹œ‹ž›œȱ ’—Ž›ŸŽ—Žȱ ’—ȱ Šœœ’œ’—ȱ ‘Ž’›ȱžœ›’Š—ȱ ›Ž•Š’ŸŽœǯȱ ™Š’—Ȃœȱ–˜’ŸŠ’˜—ȱ ˜›ȱ Š’ȱ Šœȱ Œ•ŽŠ›ȱ Ȯȱ Šȱ Protestant victory in the empire posed a direct threat to Spanish interests in the Spanish Ž‘Ž›•Š—œȱ Š—ȱ Š•¢ǯȱ ‘Žȱ Š’ȱ œŠ›Žȱ ˜ěȱ ’‘ȱ ę—Š—Œ’Š•ȱ Šœœ’œŠ—ŒŽǯȱ ‘Žȱ ę›œȱ ’—œŠ•–Ž—ȱ Œ˜–™›’œŽȱ ˜ȱ ŘŖŖǰŖŖŖȱ ‘Š•Ž›œȱ  ‘’Œ‘ȱ  Ž›Žȱ œŽ—ȱ ’—ȱ ž•¢ȱ ŗŜŗŞǯȱ ‘Žȱ –˜—Ž¢ȱ ”Ž™ȱ œ›ŽŠ–’—ȱ œŽŠ’•¢ȱ ›˜–ȱŠ›’ȱ ˜ȱ’Ž——Šȱ Š—ȱ‹¢ȱ ‘Žȱ Ž—ȱ ˜ȱ ŗŜŘŚȱ ‘Žȱ ™Š—’œ‘ȱę—Š—Œ’Š•ȱ Šœœ’œŠ—ŒŽȱ ˜Š••ŽȱŜȱ–’••’˜—ȱ ‘Š•Ž›œǯȱȱ ˜Š•ȱ ˜ȱ ŝǰŖŖŖȱ™Š—’œ‘ȱ ›˜˜™œȱ Ž›ŽȱŠ•œ˜ȱ œŽ—ȱ ˜ȱ ‘Žȱ ›ŽœŒžŽȱŠœȱ œ˜˜—ȱŠœȱŠ¢ȱŗŜŗşǯȱ¢ȱ‘ŽȱŽ—ȱ˜ȱ‘’•’™ȱȂœȱ›Ž’—ǰȱ’—ȱŠ›Œ‘ȱŗŜŘŗǰȱ‘Ž›Žȱ Ž›ŽȱŚŖǰŖŖŖȱ›˜˜™œȱ Šœœ’œ’—ȱ ‘Žȱžœ›’Š—ȱ Š‹œ‹ž›œǯŗřȱ —ȱ ‘ŽœŽȱę›œȱ ¢ŽŠ›œȱ ˜ȱ ‘Žȱ Œ˜—Ě’Œǰȱ ‘Žȱ ™Š—’Š›œȱ Š•œ˜ȱ deployed troops to secure their strategic interests, in particular the means of communication, œž™™•¢ǰȱŠ—ȱĚ˜ ’—ȱ˜ȱ›˜˜™œȱ˜ȱŠ—ȱ›˜–ȱŠ•¢ȱ˜ȱ•Š—Ž›œǯȱ˜›ȱ‘’œȱ›ŽŠœ˜—ǰȱ›˜˜™œȱ›˜–ȱ ˜–‹Š›¢ȱ Ž›ŽȱœŽ—ȱ˜ȱœŽŒž›Žȱ‘Žȱȁ™Š—’œ‘ȱ˜ŠȂȱŠ—ȱ‘Žȱ•œŠŒŽȱŠ›ŽŠȱ’—ȱŗŜŗşǰȱŠ—ȱŠȱ¢ŽŠ›ȱ •ŠŽ›ȱ‘Žȱ™Š—’œ‘ȱ˜ŸŽ›—˜›ȱ˜ȱ’•Š—ȱ˜ŒŒž™’Žȱ‘ŽȱŠ•Ž••’—Žȱ™Šœœȱ’—ȱ‘Žȱ•™œǯȱ’–’•Š›•¢ǰȱ‘Žȱ ˜ ȱ˜ž—›’Žœȱ Š›–¢ǰȱ •Žȱ ‹¢ȱ–‹›˜œ’˜ȱ ™’—˜•Šǰȱ ˜ŒŒž™’Žȱ ‘Žȱ ˜ Ž›ȱ Š•Š’—ŠŽȱ ’—ȱ ˜›Ž›ȱ ˜ȱŒ˜—›˜•ȱ‘Žȱœ›ŠŽ’Œȱ™ŠœœŠŽȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ‘’—Žǯȱ—ȱŠ’’˜—ǰȱ™Š’—Ȃœȱœž™™˜›ȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ–™Ž›˜›ȱ ž›’—ȱ‘ŽȱŗŜŘŖœȱŠ—ȱŗŜřŖœȱ ŠœȱŠ•œ˜ȱ˜—Žȱ ’‘ȱ‘Žȱ‘˜™Žȱ‘Šȱ‘Žȱ ˜ž•ȱ‹ŽȱŠ‹•Žȱ˜ȱ›Žž›—ȱ ‘ŽȱŠŸ˜ž›ȱŠ—ȱœž™™˜›ȱ‘Ž–ȱŠŠ’—œȱ‘ŽȱžŒ‘ȱ˜—ŒŽȱ‘Žȱ˜ȱ›’ȱ˜ȱ‘’œȱŽ—Ž–’Žœǯȱ‘’œȱ ŠœȱŠ—ȱ Ž¡™ŽŒŠ’˜—ȱ‘Šȱ ˜ž•ȱ‹Žȱ–Žȱ˜—•¢ȱ™Š›’Š••¢ǰȱŠœȱ‘Žȱ–™Ž›˜›ȱ—ŽŸŽ›ȱž••¢ȱŒ˜––’ĴŽȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ ™Š—’œ‘ȱŒŠžœŽǰȱŽœ™’ŽȱœŽ—’—ȱ˜”Ž—ȱ–’•’Š›¢ȱœž™™˜›ȱ˜ȱꐑȱ‘ŽȱžŒ‘ǯ14

•ŽŠ›•¢ȱ ‘Ž—ǰȱ ‘Žȱ ’––’—Ž—ȱ Œ˜—›˜—Š’˜—ȱ  ’‘ȱ ‘Žȱ —’Žȱ ›˜Ÿ’—ŒŽœȱ  Šœȱ ‘Žȱ –Š“˜›ȱ Œ˜—ŒŽ›—ȱ ˜ȱ ™Š’—ȱ ž›’—ȱ ‘Žȱ ę›œȱ ¢ŽŠ›œȱ ˜ȱ ‘Žȱ  Š›ǯȱ •’ŸŠ›Žœȱ ‘Šȱ —˜ȱ ’••žœ’˜—œȱ ˜ȱ ‹Ž’—ȱ Š‹•Žȱ ˜ȱ ‹›’—ȱ ‹ŠŒ”ȱ ‘Žȱ žŒ‘ȱ ž—Ž›ȱ ™Š—’œ‘ȱ ›ž•Žǰȱ ‹žȱ ‘Žȱ Šœ™’›Žȱ ˜ Š›œȱ Šȱ ŠŸ˜ž›Š‹•Žȱ ™Ž›–Š—Ž—ȱ™ŽŠŒŽȱœŽĴ•Ž–Ž—ȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱ ˜ž•ȱ¢’Ž•ȱ‹ŽĴŽ›ȱ›Žœž•œȱ‘Š—ȱ‘Žȱ›žŒŽȱ—Ž˜’ŠŽȱ‹¢ȱ ‘’œȱ™›ŽŽŒŽœœ˜›ǰȱ‘Žȱž”Žȱ˜ȱŽ›–Šǯȱ¢ȱŗŜŘŗȱ‘Žȱ›žŒŽȱ ’‘ȱ‘Žȱ—’Žȱ›˜Ÿ’—ŒŽœȱŽ¡™’›ŽȱŠ—ȱ •’ŸŠ›ŽœȂȱ‹Ž••’Ž›Ž—ȱ ’—Ž—’˜—œȱ˜ Š›œȱ‘ŽȱžŒ‘ȱ Ž›Žȱ–ŠŒ‘Žȱ‹¢ȱ‘Žȱ˜ž—Œ’•ȱ˜ȱŠŽǰȱ  ‘’Œ‘ȱ˜™Žȱ—˜ȱ˜ȱŽ¡Ž—ȱ‘Žȱ›žŒŽȱž›‘Ž›ǯȱ’–’•Š›•¢ǰȱ ‘Žȱ˜›žžŽœŽȱ˜ž—Œ’•ȱ™›Žœœž›Žȱ ˜ Š›œȱŠȱ ›Ž—Ž Š•ȱ˜ȱ ‘Žȱ Œ˜—Ě’Œȱ˜ ’—ȱ ˜ȱ ‘ŽȱŠ–ŠŽœȱ ’—Ě’ŒŽȱ‹¢ȱ ‘ŽȱžŒ‘ȱ ’—ȱ›Š£’•ǯȱ œȱ œ’™ž•ŠŽȱ‹¢ȱ¢—Œ‘ǰȱ ’ȱ™›ŽŸ’˜žœ•¢ȱ ‘ŽȱŒ˜—Ě’Œȱ ›ŽŸ˜•ŸŽȱŠ›˜ž—ȱœ˜ŸŽ›Ž’—¢ǰȱ ›Ž•’’˜žœȱ issues, and trade, by the time the truce terminated, Spain’s main concern was its economic œž›Ÿ’ŸŠ•ȱŸ’Šȱ‘ŽȱŽŽ—ŒŽȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ–Ž›’ŒŠ—ȱ›ŠŽǯŗśȱŒŒ˜›’—•¢ǰȱ‘Žȱ™Š—’œ‘ȱ Š›ȱ˜—ȱ‘ŽȱžŒ‘ȱ was mostly done via economic means, like economic embargoes and privateering, with ‘ŽȱŠ’–ȱ˜ȱ‹›’—’—ȱžŒ‘ȱ ›ŠŽȱ ˜ȱ ’œȱ”—ŽŽœǯȱ‘ŽœŽȱ˜‹“ŽŒ’ŸŽœȱ Ž›Žȱ ˜ȱ‹Žȱ–ŽȱŸ’ŠȱŠȱŒ•˜œŽȱ Œ˜••Š‹˜›Š’˜—ȱ ’‘ȱ‘Žȱžœ›’Š—ȱ Š‹œ‹ž›œǯȱ—ȱŠŒǰȱ•’ŸŠ›ŽœȱŽ—Ÿ’œŠŽȱŠȱ Š‹œ‹ž›ȱ•ŽŠžŽȱ ˜ȱ’—Œ•žŽȱ™Š’—ǰȱ‘Žȱ–™Ž›˜›ȱŠ—ȱ‘Žȱ Ž›–Š—ȱŠ‘˜•’Œȱ™›’—ŒŽœǯȱœȱŠȱ™Š›ȱ˜ȱ‘’œȱŠ••’Š—ŒŽȱ •’ŸŠ›Žœȱ™•Š——ŽȱŠȱ Š‹œ‹ž›ȱ–Ž›Œ‘Š—ȱ‹ŠœŽȱ’—ȱ‘ŽȱŠ•’Œȱ˜ȱ›’ŸŠ•ȱ‘ŽȱžŒ‘ȱ–˜—˜™˜•¢ȱ‘Ž›Žǰȱ  ‘’Œ‘ȱ‘Žȱ›’Žȱ˜ȱŠŒ’ŸŠŽȱ’—ȱ‘Žȱ¢ŽŠ›œȱŗŜŘŜȮŘŞǯȱ‘ŽȱœŒ‘Ž–Žǰȱ‘˜ ŽŸŽ›ǰȱŠ’•Žȱ˜ȱ–ŠŽ›’Š•’œŽȱ because the various prospective partners either lacked the commitment or were unable to ™›˜Ÿ’Žȱ‘Žȱ—ŽŽŽȱ›Žœ˜ž›ŒŽœȱ˜›ȱ‘ŽȱŽœ’—ȱ˜ȱ ˜›”ǯȱ›˜—’ŒŠ••¢ǰȱ˜—Žȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱž—Žœ’›ŽȱŽěŽŒœȱ ˜ȱ‘Žȱ™›˜™˜œŽȱœŒ‘Ž–Žǰȱ›˜–ȱŠȱ Š‹œ‹ž›ȱ™Ž›œ™ŽŒ’ŸŽǰȱ Šœȱ‘Šȱ’ȱ™žœ‘Žȱ‘Žȱ Ž’œ‘ȱ›ž•Ž›ȱ žœŠŸȱ˜•™‘ȱ˜ȱ “˜’—ȱ‘ŽȱŠ—’Ȭ Š‹œ‹ž›ȱŒ˜Š•’’˜—ǰȱŠœȱ ‘Žȱ™Š—’œ‘ȱ–ŠŒ‘’—Š’˜—œȱ˜ŸŽ›ȱ ‘Žȱ

Š•’Œȱ Ž›Žȱ™Ž›ŒŽ’ŸŽȱ Šœȱ Šȱ™˜Ž—’Š•ȱ Ž—Œ›˜ŠŒ‘–Ž—ȱ ˜—ȱ  Ž’œ‘ȱ ’—Ž›Žœœǯȱ—ȱ ‘Žȱ™˜œ’’ŸŽȱ œ’ŽǰȱŠŒŒ˜›’—ȱ˜ȱœ›ŠŽ•ǰȱ‘Žȱ™Š—’Š›œȱ Ž›ŽȱŠ‹•Žȱ˜ȱŽěŽŒ’ŸŽ•¢ȱ‹•˜Œ”ȱ‘ŽȱžŒ‘ȱ›ŠŽȱ›˜–ȱ ‘ŽȱŗŜŘŖœȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ•ŠŽȱŗŜŚŖœǰȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ‹Ž›’Š—ȱŽ—’—œž•Šǰȱ˜ȱŠ•¢ǰȱŠ—ȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱŽŸŠ—ȱȮȱŠȱŠŒȱ‘Šȱ ’›ŽŒ•¢ȱŠŸ˜ž›Žȱ—•’œ‘ȱ›ŠŽȱŠȱ‘ŽȱŽ¡™Ž—œŽȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱžŒ‘ȱ’—ȱ‘ŽȱŗŜřŖœǯ16

•˜—œ’Žȱ ‘Žȱ ŽŒ˜—˜–’Œȱ ‹•˜Œ”ŠŽœȱ ‘Žȱ ™Š—’Š›œȱ Œ˜—žŒŽȱ Šȱ œžŒŒŽœœž•ȱ –’•’Š›¢ȱ ŒŠ–™Š’—ȱ’—ȱ‘ŽȱŽŠ›•¢ȱŗŜŘŖœǯȱ—ȱŗŜŘŖȱ‘Ž¢ȱ‘Ž•™Žȱ‘Žȱ’–™Ž›’Š•ȱ›˜˜™œȱ˜ȱŽŽŠȱ‘Žȱ˜‘Ž–’Š—ȱ ›Ž‹Ž•œȱŠȱ‘Žȱ‹ŠĴ•Žȱ˜ȱ‘’Žȱ˜ž—Š’—ǯȱ’–’•Š›•¢ǰȱœ™ŽŒŠŒž•Š›ȱŸ’Œ˜›’Žœȱ Ž›ŽȱŠŒ‘’ŽŸŽȱ’—ȱŗŜŘśǰȱ Ž—Š‹•Žȱę—Š—Œ’Š••¢ȱ‹¢ȱŠȱ™Š›’Œž•Š›•¢ȱ›Ž–Š›”Š‹•ŽȱŽ•’ŸŽ›¢ȱ˜ȱ‹ž••’˜—ȱ›˜–ȱ‘Žȱ–Ž›’ŒŠœȱ’—ȱ the previous year, like the rendition of Breda in the Low Countries, the recapture of Bahia ’—ȱ›Š£’•ȱ ›˜–ȱ‘Žȱ‘Š—œȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱžŒ‘ǰȱ‘Žȱ›Ž™ž•œ’˜—ȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ›’’œ‘ȱĚŽŽȱ ’—ȱŠ’£ǰȱŠ—ȱ‘Žȱ ›Ž™ž•œ’˜—ȱ˜ȱŠȱ›Ž—Œ‘ȱ’—ŸŠœ’˜—ȱ’—ȱ‘ŽȱŠ•Ž••’—Žǯŗŝȱ ˜ ŽŸŽ›ǰȱ‘’—œȱ˜˜”ȱŠȱž›—ȱ˜›ȱ‘Žȱ ˜›œŽȱ ž›’—ȱ‘Žȱ¢ŽŠ›œȱŗŜŘŝȮŘşȱ ’‘ȱ‘Žȱ™Š—’œ‘ȱ’—Ž›ŸŽ—’˜—ȱ’—ȱ‘ŽȱžŒ‘¢ȱ˜ȱŠ—žŠȱȮȱŠȱŽŒ’œ’˜—ȱ ‘Šȱ ‹˜›Žȱ Žœ›žŒ’ŸŽȱ ›Žœž•œǯȱ ’‘ȱ ‘Žȱ ŽŠ‘ȱ ˜ȱ ‘Žȱ Œ‘’••Žœœȱ ž”Žȱ ˜ȱ Š—žŠǰȱ ‘Žȱ ‹Žœȱ ™›˜œ™ŽŒȱ˜ȱœžŒŒŽŽ’—ȱ‘’–ȱ Ž—ȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ›Ž—Œ‘ȱŒ•Š’–Š—ǰȱ‘Žȱž”Žȱ˜ȱŽŸŽ›œǯȱŽŠ›’—ȱ‘Žȱ œ›ŠŽ’ŒȱŒ˜–™›˜–’œŽȱ˜ȱ™Š—’œ‘ȱ’—Ž›Žœœȱ ’—ȱ—˜›‘Ž›—ȱŠ•¢ǰȱ•’ŸŠ›ŽœȱœŽ—ȱ‘Žȱ˜ŸŽ›—˜›ȱ˜ȱ ’•Š—ȱ˜ȱ˜ŒŒž™¢ȱ‘Žȱ˜—Ž››ŠǰȱŠȱŠ—žŠ—ȱ›Ž’˜—ȱ‹˜›Ž›’—ȱ’•Š—ȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ Žœǯȱ—ȱ›ŽŠŒ’˜—ǰȱ Šȱ›Ž—Œ‘ȱŠ›–¢ȱ ŠœȱœŽ—ȱ ˜ȱ ‘Žȱ˜ŒŒž™’Žȱ›Ž’˜—ǰȱ›Žœž•’—ȱ ’—ȱŠȱ •˜—ȱŠ—ȱ’—Œ˜—Œ•žœ’ŸŽȱ Š›ȱ ‘Šȱ•ŠœŽȱž—’•ȱ™›’•ȱŗŜřŗǯȱ•’ŸŠ›ŽœȂȱŽ¡™ŽŒŠ’˜—œȱ˜ȱŠȱœ‘˜›ȱŒŠ–™Š’—ȱ Ž›Žȱ‘žœȱœ‘ŠĴŽ›Žǰȱ •ŽŠŸ’—ȱ™Š’—ȱ ’—ȱ›ŽŠŽ›ȱę—Š—Œ’Š•ȱ ›ž’—ȱŠœȱ ‘ŽȱŒ›˜ —Ȃœȱœ‘Š›Žȱ˜ȱ ‘Žȱ —’Žœȱ‹ž••’˜—ȱ Ž—ȱ ˜ȱ ę—Š—ŒŽȱ‘ŽȱŠ•’Š—ȱ›˜—ǯ18ȱ—ȱŠ’’˜—ǰȱ’—ȱŗŜŘŞȱŠȱ‘ŽŠŸ¢ȱ‹•˜ ȱ Šœȱ’—Ě’ŒŽȱ˜—ȱ™Š—’œ‘ȱ™›Žœ’Žȱ Š—ȱŽŒ˜—˜–’Œȱ›Žœ˜ž›ŒŽœȱ‹¢ȱ‘ŽȱžŒ‘ȱœšžŠ›˜—ȱ˜ȱ’Žȱ Ž¢—ǰȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱ ŠœȱŠ‹•Žȱ˜ȱŒŠ™ž›Žȱ‘Žȱ Ž—’›Žȱ™Š—’œ‘ȱœ’•ŸŽ›ȱĚŽŽȱ ’—ȱž‹Šǯȱ‘’œȱ œ›’—ȱ˜ȱ–’œ˜›ž—Žœȱ Šœȱ™›˜•˜—Žȱ‹¢ȱŠȱžŒ‘ȱ ĚŽŽȱŠ”’—ȱŽŒ’Žȱ’—ȱ›Š£’•ǯŗş To the strain placed on the Spanish regime by these external events one needs to add internal strife in Castile, where the economy entered a new phase of ›ŽŒŽœœ’˜—ȱ˜••˜ ’—ȱŠȱœ›’—ȱ˜ȱ™˜˜›ȱ‘Š›ŸŽœœȱŠ—ȱ›’œ’—ȱ˜˜ȱ™›’ŒŽœǯ20

—ȱŽ‹›žŠ›¢ȱŗŜřŗǰȱ’—ȱŠȱŽœ™Ž›ŠŽȱŠĴŽ–™ȱ˜ȱ›ŽŸŽ›œŽȱ™Š’—Ȃœȱ˜›ž—Žœǰȱ•’ŸŠ›ŽœȱŽœ’—Žȱ Šȱ—Ž ȱ›Š—ȱœŒ‘Ž–Žȱ’—Ÿ˜•Ÿ’—ȱ‘’•’™ȱȂœȱ ˜ȱ‹›˜‘Ž›œDZȱ‘Š›•Žœȱ Šœȱ˜ȱ˜ȱ˜ȱ˜›žŠ•ȱŠ—ȱ ŠœœŽ–‹•ŽȱŠȱĚŽŽȱ˜ȱ›ŽŒŠ™ž›Žȱ‘Žȱ›Š£’•’Š—ȱ™˜œœŽœœ’˜—œȱŠ”Ž—ȱ‹¢ȱ‘ŽȱžŒ‘ǰȱ ‘’•ŽȱŽ›’—Š—ǰȱ the Cardinal-Infante, would be sent to the Southern Netherlands to lead the Spanish troops, Š’–’—ȱ ˜ȱ ›Žœ˜›Žȱ ‘Žȱ ™Š—’œ‘ȱ ›Ž™žŠ’˜—ȱ ŠŽ›ȱ ‘Žȱ–Š—¢ȱ •˜œœŽœȱ ’—Ě’ŒŽȱ ˜—ȱ ™Š’—ȱ ‹¢ȱ ‘Žȱ žŒ‘ȱ ›˜–ȱŗŜŘşȮřřȱ ’—ȱ ‘Žȱ˜ ȱ˜ž—›’Žœǯȱ —ȱ ŠŒǰȱ ŠŒŒ˜›’—ȱ ˜ȱ œ›ŠŽ•ǰȱ ȁ‹¢ȱ ŗŜřřȱ ™Š—’œ‘ȱ prestige in the Low Countries stood lower than at any time since the disastrous collapse of ‘Žȱ•ŠŽȱŗśŝŖœȂǯ21ȱ‘Š›•Žœȱ˜ȱ Š‹œ‹ž›ȱ’ŽȱŽ—ȱ›˜žŽȱ’—ȱŗŜřŘȱ‹Ž˜›Žȱ›ŽŠŒ‘’—ȱ˜›žŠ•ǰȱŠ—ȱ

‘ŽȱĚŽŽȱ‘ŠȱŽŸŽ—žŠ••¢ȱœŽȱœŠ’•ȱ˜›ȱ›Š£’•ȱ’—ȱŗŜřśȱ ŠœȱŽŽŠŽȱ‹¢ȱ‘ŽȱžŒ‘ǯ22 The Cardinal-—Š—Žȱ ŠœȱŒ˜—œ’Ž›Š‹•¢ȱ–˜›ŽȱœžŒŒŽœœž•ǯȱž›’—ȱŗŜřřȮřŚȱ‘ŽȱŠœœŽ–‹•ŽȱŠȱ™˜ Ž›ž•ȱŠ›–¢ȱ’—ȱ ˜–‹Š›¢ȱŽœ’—Žȱ˜›ȱ Ž›–Š—¢ǰȱ ‘Ž›ŽȱŠȱ—Ž ȱ‘›ŽŠȱ™›Ž˜ŒŒž™’Žȱ™Š—’œ‘ȱ’—Ž›ŽœœȱȮȱŠȱ‘Žȱ Ž—ȱ˜ȱŗŜřŗȱ‘Žȱ ŽŽœǰȱ ‘˜ȱ‘Šȱ“˜’—Žȱ‘Žȱ›˜ŽœŠ—ȱŒŠžœŽȱ’—ȱ Ž›–Š—¢ȱ‘Žȱ™›ŽŸ’˜žœȱ¢ŽŠ›ǰȱ ’—ŸŠŽȱ‘Žȱ˜ Ž›ȱŠ•Š’—ŠŽǯȱ‘Žȱ ˜ȱ Š‹œ‹ž›ȱ‹›Š—Œ‘Žœȱ Ž›Žȱ—˜ ȱ›Žœ˜•ŸŽȱ˜ȱŒ˜••Š‹˜›ŠŽȱ more closely to push back the Swedish menace as they signed a mutual collaboration treaty ’—ȱŽŠ›•¢ȱŗŜřŘǯȱ—ȱŗŜřŚȱ‘ŽȱŠ›’—Š•Ȭ—Š—ŽȂœȱŠ›–¢ȱ’—ŸŠŽȱ‘Žȱ‘’—Ž•Š—ǰȱŠ—ȱ‘Žȱ“˜’—ȱ˜›ŒŽœȱ ˜ȱ’–™Ž›’Š•ȱŠ—ȱ™Š—’œ‘ȱ›˜˜™œȱŠŒ‘’ŽŸŽȱŠ—ȱ’–™›Žœœ’ŸŽȱŸ’Œ˜›¢ȱŠȱ‘ŽȱŠĴ•Žȱ˜ȱ㛍•’—Ž—ȱ ŠŠ’—œȱ‘Žȱ›˜ŽœŠ—ȱŠ›–¢ȱ˜ȱ ŽŽœȱŠ—ȱ Ž›–Š—œȱǻ‘Žȱ Ž’•‹›˜——ȱŽŠžŽǼǯȱŠ›Š˜¡’ŒŠ••¢ǰȱ ‘’œȱŸ’Œ˜›¢ȱ–ŠŽȱ‘’—œȱ ˜›œŽȱ˜›ȱ™Š’—ȂœȱŒŠžœŽǯȱŠ‘Ž›ȱ‘Š—ȱœŽ›Ÿ’—ȱŠœȱŠȱ™›˜™Ž••Ž›ȱ˜ȱŠȱ“˜’—ȱ Š‹œ‹ž›ȱŽě˜›ȱŠŠ’—œȱ‘ŽȱžŒ‘ȱŠ—ȱ‘Žȱ›˜ŽœŠ—œȱ’—ȱ‘Žȱ—˜›‘ǰȱ‘ŽȱŽŸŽ—œȱŠȱ㛍•’—Ž—ȱ ę—Š••¢ȱŒ˜—Ÿ’—ŒŽȱ‘Žȱ›Ž—Œ‘ȱ˜ȱ“˜’—ȱ‘Žȱ Š›ȱŠŠ’—œȱ‘Žȱ Š‹œ‹ž›œǰȱ˜™Ž—’—ȱŠȱ™Š›’Œž•Š›•¢ȱ ˜›–’Š‹•Žȱ›˜—ȱ˜›ȱ™Š’—ǯŘř

—ȱ ŠŒǰȱ Š”’—ȱ ’—˜ȱ ŠŒŒ˜ž—ȱ ‘Žȱ ŽŸŽ›Ȭ™›ŽœŽ—ȱ ›’ŸŠ•›¢ȱ ‹Ž ŽŽ—ȱ ™Š’—ȱ Š—ȱ ›Š—ŒŽǰȱ ’ȱ ’œȱ œž›™›’œ’—ȱ ‘Šȱ ˜ŸŽ›ȱ Š›Š›Žȱ ‘Šȱ—˜ȱ œŠ›Žȱ ŽŠ›•’Ž›ǯȱ ‘Žȱ ›Ž•Š’ŸŽ•¢ȱ Š–’ŒŠ‹•Žȱ ›Ž•Š’˜—œȱ ‹Ž ŽŽ—ȱ‘Žȱ ˜ȱž›’—ȱ‘Žȱę›œȱ ˜ȱŽŒŠŽœȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱœŽŸŽ—ŽŽ—‘ȱŒŽ—ž›¢ȱŒŽŠœŽȱ ’‘ȱ‘Žȱ ŠŒŒŽœœ’˜—ȱ˜ȱ™˜ Ž›ȱ˜ȱ˜ž’œȱȂœȱ–’—’œŽ›ǰȱ ‘ŽȱŠ›’—Š•ȱ˜ȱ’Œ‘Ž•’Žžǰȱ ’—ȱŗŜŘŚǯȱ›˜–ȱ‘Ž—ȱ ˜—ȱ›Š—ŒŽȱœŠ›Žȱœž‹œ’’œ’—ȱ‘ŽȱŸŠ›’˜žœȱ™Š›’Žœȱ’—Ÿ˜•ŸŽȱ’—ȱ‘ŽȱŠ—’Ȭ Š‹œ‹ž›ȱŒ˜Š•’’˜—ǯȱ ›Š—ŒŽȂœȱ ’›ŽŒȱ –’•’Š›¢ȱ ’—Ÿ˜•ŸŽ–Ž—ȱ  Šœȱ ŽŸŽ—žŠ••¢ȱ ›’Ž›Žȱ ‹¢ȱ ™Š’—Ȃœȱ ŽŒ’œ’˜—ȱ ˜ȱ œž™™˜›ȱ–˜›Žȱ ŸŽ‘Ž–Ž—•¢ȱ ‘Ž’›ȱžœ›’Š—ȱ ›Ž•Š’ŸŽœǰȱ ‹žȱ •’ŸŠ›ŽœȂȱ ’—Ž›ŸŽ—’˜—ȱ ’—ȱŠ—žŠȱ ‘ŠȱŠ•›ŽŠ¢ȱœ’—Š••Žȱ ˜ȱ’Œ‘Ž•’Žžȱ ‘Žȱ™Š‘ȱ ˜ȱ Š›ǰȱŠœȱ ’ȱŒ˜—ę›–Žȱ‘’œȱ–’œ›žœȱ ’—ȱ™Š’—ǰȱ  ‘’Œ‘ȱ‘Žȱ™Ž›ŒŽ’ŸŽȱŠœȱŠ—ȱŠ›Žœœ’ŸŽȱŠ—ȱ’–™Ž›’Š•’œȱ™˜ Ž›ȱ‘Šȱ—ŽŽŽȱ˜ȱ‹Žȱ”Ž™ȱ’—ȱŒ‘ŽŒ”ǯȱ ŒŒ˜›’—•¢ǰȱ ’—ȱ ‘Žȱ ŗŜřŖœȱ ‹˜‘ȱ ‘Žȱ ›Ž—Œ‘ȱ Š—ȱ ™Š—’œ‘ȱ ˜ŸŽ›—–Ž—œȱ œŠ›Žȱ–˜‹’•’œ’—ȱ ›Žœ˜ž›ŒŽœȱ˜ Š›œȱ‘Žȱ’––’—Ž—ȱŠ—ȱ’—ŽŸ’Š‹•ŽȱŒ•Šœ‘ǯȱ—ȱ™Š’—ȱ‘’œȱ›Š—œ•ŠŽȱ’—˜ȱ›˜ ’—ȱ ęœŒŠ•ȱŽ–Š—œȱ˜—ȱŠœ’•’Š—ȱ Š¡Ȭ™Š¢Ž›œȱŠœȱ Ž••ȱŠœȱ˜—ȱ‘Žȱ—˜‹’•’¢ǰȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱ ŠœȱŒŠ••Žȱž™˜—ȱ ˜ȱ™›˜Ÿ’ŽȱŸ˜•ž—Š›¢ȱ Œ˜—›’‹ž’˜—œȱ˜ȱ ž—œȱ ˜ Š›œȱ ‘Žȱ Š›ȱ Žě˜›ǯȱ —ȱ ŠŒǰȱ ŠŒŒ˜›’—ȱ ˜ȱ ›Š•’—ǰȱœŠ›’—ȱ›˜–ȱŗŜřśǰȱ‹ŽŒŠžœŽȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ’›ŽŒȱŠ—ȱ’—’›ŽŒȱ‹ŽŠ›’—ȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ Š›ȱŽě˜›ȱ˜—ȱ all aspects of social life throughout the Spanish territories, the Spanish monarchy entered Šȱ ™Ž›’˜ȱ ˜ȱ ˜Š•ȱ Š›ǯȱ ‘’œȱ Šœȱ–Š—’ŽœŽȱ ’—ȱ•’ŸŠ›ŽœȂȱ Ž¡™•˜’Š’ŸŽȱ ŠĴŽ–™œȱ Šȱ Š¡Š’˜—ȱ ‘›˜ž‘˜žȱ‘Žȱ™Š—’œ‘ȱ™˜œœŽœœ’˜—œǰȱŠœȱ Ž••ȱŠœȱ‘Žȱ‹ŠĴ•Žȱ£˜—Žœȱ‘Ž–œŽ•ŸŽœȱ‘ŠȱŽ¡Ž—ŽȱŠ••ȱ ˜ŸŽ›ȱ‘Žȱ•˜‹Žǰȱ˜ ’—ȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱœžœŠ’—ŽȱžŒ‘ǰȱ›Ž—Œ‘ȱŠ—ȱ—•’œ‘ȱŠĴŽ–™œȱ˜ȱŽ—Œ›˜ŠŒ‘ȱ˜—ȱ ™Š—’œ‘ȱŠ—ȱ˜›žžŽœŽȱŒ˜•˜—’Š•ȱ’—Ž›Žœœǯ24 The extent of Spain’s want at these stages of the  Š›ȱ’œȱ Ž••ȱŽ¡Ž–™•’ꮍȱ‹¢ȱ‘ŽȱŽ›ŽŽȱ˜ȱ’—’œŒ›’–’—Š’˜—ȱ’—ȱ’œȱŒ˜—œŒ›’™’˜—ȱ™˜•’Œ¢ǯȱŒŒ˜›’—ȱ to Parker, the Spanish army had no choice but to draft vagrants, disabled men, teenagers, old –Ž—ǰȱŠ—ȱŽŸŽ—ȱŒ˜—Ÿ’ŒŽȱŒ›’–’—Š•œǰȱ™Š›˜—Žȱ’—ȱŽ¡Œ‘Š—Žȱ˜›ȱ–’•’Š›¢ȱœŽ›Ÿ’ŒŽǯŘś

ȱ™˜’—ȱ˜ȱŒ˜—Ž—’˜—ȱŠ–˜—ȱ‘’œ˜›’Š—œȱ›ŽŠ›’—ȱ‘Žȱ›Š—Œ˜Ȭ™Š—’œ‘ȱ Š›ȱ’œȱ‘Žȱ˜›Ž›ȱ ˜ȱ™›’˜›’¢ȱ’—ȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱ™Š’—ȱ™•ŠŒŽȱ’ǯȱŒŒ˜›’—ȱ˜ȱ Ž——Ž¢ȱŠ—ȱ›Š•’—ǰȱ›˜–ȱŠȱ™Š—’œ‘ȱ ™˜’—ȱ˜ȱŸ’Ž ǰȱ‘Žȱ Š›ȱ ’‘ȱ‘ŽȱžŒ‘ȱ•˜œȱ™›ŽŒŽŽ—ŒŽȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ—Ž ȱ›Ž—Œ‘ȱŒ‘Š••Ž—Žȱ›˜–ȱ‘Žȱ ŸŽ›¢ȱ˜žœŽȱȮȱŠȱŒ•Š’–ȱœž™™˜›Žȱ‹¢ȱ‘Žȱœ›˜—ȱ™Š—’œ‘ȱ˜ěŽ—œ’ŸŽȱ˜ȱŗŜřŜȱŠŠ’—œȱ›Š—ŒŽǯ26 Israel’s assertion, on the other hand, is that this change in strategic emphasis took place only ’—ȱ‘ŽȱŗŜŚŖœǰȱ ‘’•Žȱ‘ŽȱžŒ‘ȱ›˜—ȱ›Ž–Š’—Žȱ‘Žȱ–Š’—ȱ˜ěŽ—œ’ŸŽȱœŠŽȱ˜›ȱ™Š—’œ‘ȱ–’•’Š›¢ȱ ˜™Ž›Š’˜—œȱ ‘›˜ž‘˜žȱ ‘ŽȱŗŜřŖœȱŠ—ȱ ‘ŽȱŽŠ›•¢ȱŗŜŚŖœǯȱ‘žœǰȱ ‘ŽȱŠ›’—Š•Ȭ—Š—ŽȂœȱŽě˜›œȱ

Œ˜—ŒŽ—›ŠŽȱ˜—ȱ‘ŽȱžŒ‘ȱ›˜–ȱŗŜřŚȱ˜ȱŗŜřŜǯȱ‘ŽȱŠĴŠŒ”ȱ˜—ȱ›Š—ŒŽȱ’—ȱ‘Žȱœž––Ž›ȱ˜ȱŗŜřŜǰȱ rather than being part of a new Spanish grand scheme, was an improvised, secondary ˜™Ž›Š’˜—ǰȱ‘Šȱ ŠœȱŠ”Ž—ȱ‹¢ȱ‘ŽȱŠ›’—Š•Ȭ—Š—ŽȱǻŒ˜—›Š›¢ȱ˜ȱ‘’œȱŽ—Ž›Š•ȱ’›ŽŒ’ŸŽœȱ›˜–ȱ Š›’ǼȱŠœȱŠȱ›Žœ™˜—œŽȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ–™Ž›˜›ȂœȱœžŽ—ȱ™›Žœœž›Žȱ˜ȱŠĴŠŒ”ȱ›Š—ŒŽǯȱ˜‘ȱ–Ž—ȱ‹Ž•’ŽŸŽȱ ‘Šȱ ’ȱ ŠœȱŠȱ›Š›Žȱ˜™™˜›ž—’¢ȱ˜ȱ “˜’—ȱ ’–™Ž›’Š•ȱŠ—ȱ™Š—’œ‘ȱ˜›ŒŽœȱ ’—ȱ˜›Ž›ȱ˜ȱŒ˜—ŒŽ—›ŠŽȱ ˜—ȱ‘Žȱ›Ž—Œ‘ȱŠŽ›ȱ‘Žȱ ’‘›Š Š•ȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ ŽŽœȱŠ—ȱ‘Žȱ›˜ŽœŠ—ȱŽ•ŽŒ˜›œȱ›˜–ȱ‘Žȱ Š›ǯȱ ŒŒ˜›’—•¢ǰȱ‘ŽȱŠ›’—Š•Ȭ—Š—Žȱ’—ŸŠŽȱ›Š—ŒŽȱ›˜–ȱ‘Žȱ—˜›‘ǰȱŠ—ȱŠŽ›ȱŠ”’—ȱ˜›‹’Žȱ ‘Žȱ‘Šȱ ‘Žȱ›˜žŽȱ ˜ȱŠ›’œȱ˜™Ž—ǯȱ ˜ ŽŸŽ›ǰȱ‘Žȱ ŠœȱŽŸŽ—žŠ••¢ȱœ˜™™ŽȱŠŽ›ȱœ›˜—ȱ›Ž—Œ‘ȱ ›Žœ’œŠ—ŒŽǯȱ™Š›ȱ›˜–ȱ‘’œȱž•’–ŠŽ•¢ȱž—œžŒŒŽœœž•ȱ™Š›Ž—‘Žœ’œǰȱ˜›ȱ‘Žȱ›Žœȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱŽŒŠŽȱ‘Žȱ ™Š—’Š›œȱ›Ž–Š’—Žȱ˜ŒžœŽȱ˜—ȱ˜ěŽ—œ’ŸŽȱŽě˜›œȱŠŠ’—œȱ‘ŽȱžŒ‘ȱ˜‹“ŽŒ’ŸŽœǰȱ ‘’•Žȱ•’–’’—ȱ ‘Ž–œŽ•ŸŽœȱ˜ȱŽŽ—œ’ŸŽȱŠĴŽ–™œȱ˜ȱ›Ž™ž•œŽȱ›Ž—Œ‘ȱ’—’’Š’ŸŽœǯŘŝ

ȱ‘’œȱœŠŽǰȱ‘˜ ŽŸŽ›ǰȱœ‘˜›•¢ȱŠŽ›ȱ‘ŽȱŠ’•Žȱ’—ŸŠœ’˜—ǰȱ‘Žȱ™Š—’Š›œȱ›ŽŒŽ’ŸŽȱŠȱ‹›’Žȱ ‹˜˜œȱ’—ȱŒ˜—ꍮ—ŒŽȱŠœȱ‘Žȱ›Ž—Œ‘ȱ Ž›Žȱ˜›ŒŽȱ˜ȱ™ž••ȱ˜›ŒŽœȱ›˜–ȱŸŠ›’˜žœȱ›˜—œȱ˜••˜ ’—ȱ ’—Ž›—Š•ȱ›Ž‹Ž••’˜—œǯȱ’–’•Š›•¢ǰȱ‘ŽȱŽŠ‘ȱ˜ȱ›Š—ŒŽȂœȱŠ••’Žœȱ’—ȱ—˜›‘Ž›—ȱŠ•¢ǰȱ‘ŽȱŠ—žŠ—ȱŠ—ȱ ŠŸ˜’Š›ȱ›ž•Ž›œȱ ’—ȱŗŜřŝǰȱ ’—ȱŠ—Ž–ȱ ’‘ȱ‘Žȱ™Š—’œ‘ȱœŽ’£ž›Žȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱŠ•Ž••’—Žǰȱ–Š›”Žȱ‘Žȱ ‹›ŽŠ”˜ —ȱ˜ȱ›Ž—Œ‘ȱŠœ™’›Š’˜—œȱ ’—ȱŠ•¢ǯȱ˜—œŽšžŽ—•¢ǰȱ’Œ‘Ž•’Žžȱ™›˜™˜œŽȱŠȱ›žŒŽȱ ’‘ȱ ™Š’—ǰȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱ Šœȱ›Ž“ŽŒŽȱ‹¢ȱ•’ŸŠ›Žœǰȱ ‘˜ȱŽ•ȱ‘Šȱ‘Žȱ›Ž—Œ‘ȱ™›˜™˜œŠ•ȱŒŠ–Žȱ›˜–ȱŠȱŽŽ™ȱ  ŽŠ”—Žœœȱ‘ŠȱŒ˜ž•ȱ‹ŽȱŽ¡™•˜’Žȱ˜ȱŠŒ‘’ŽŸŽȱŠȱŒ˜—Ÿ’—Œ’—ȱŸ’Œ˜›¢ǯȱ‘ŽœŽȱ‘˜™Žœȱ Ž›Žȱ˜ȱ‹Žȱ ›žœ›ŠŽȱ Šœȱ ™Š’—ȱ œž‹œŽšžŽ—•¢ȱ œžěŽ›Žȱ Šȱ œ›’—ȱ ˜ȱ ™Š’—ž•ȱ ŽŽŠœȱ Šȱ ‘Žȱ ‘Š—œȱ ˜ȱ ‘Žȱ ›Ž—Œ‘ȱŠ—ȱ ‘ŽȱžŒ‘ǯȱ—ȱ ‘’œȱ—˜Žǰȱ ‘ŽȱŽŒŠŽȱŒŠ–Žȱ ˜ȱŠȱŒ•˜œŽȱ ’‘ȱ ‘ŽȱŠŸŠ•ȱŠĴ•Žȱ˜ȱ ˜ —œȱǻŗŜřşǼǰȱ ‘Ž›Žȱ‘ŽȱžŒ‘ȱŽěŽŒ’ŸŽ•¢ȱŽœ›˜¢Žȱ™Š’—Ȃœȱ˜›‘ȱ•Š—’ŒȱĚŽŽǯ28ȱŽœ™’Žȱ the grave losses, the Spaniards were still able to preserve the sea-link with the Spanish Ž‘Ž›•Š—œǯȱ ˜›Ž˜ŸŽ›ǰȱ ŠŒŒ˜›’—ȱ ˜ȱ ›Š•’—ǰȱ ‘Žȱ ›žœ›Š’˜—ȱ ˜ȱ ™Š’—Ȃœȱ Šœ™’›Š’˜—œȱ to control the northern waters should be placed in context, as she remained in control of ‘Žȱ•Š—’ŒȱŠ—ȱ‘ŽȱŽ’Ž››Š—ŽŠ—ǰȱŒ˜—œ’œŽ—•¢ȱœžŒŒŽŽ’—ȱ’—ȱ›Ž™Ž••’—ȱ›Ž—Œ‘ȱ–Š›’’–Žȱ Œ‘Š••Ž—Žœȱ‘›˜ž‘˜žȱ‘ŽȱŗŜŚŖœǯŘş

The year 1640 has been marked as an Š——žœȱ‘˜››’‹’•’œ in Spanish history, for in this year ‘Žȱ ™Š—’œ‘ȱ Š‹œ‹ž›œȱ ˜ž—ȱ ‘Ž–œŽ•ŸŽœȱ ‘ŠŸ’—ȱ ˜ȱ ŽŠ•ȱ  ’‘ȱ ‘Žȱ ’—Ž›—Š•ȱ ›Ž‹Ž••’˜—œȱ ˜ȱ ŠŠ•˜—’ŠȱŠ—ȱ˜›žŠ•ȱ˜—ȱ ˜™ȱ˜ȱ ‘ŽȱŽ¡’œ’—ȱ–’•’Š›¢ȱ ›˜—œǯȱ —ȱ˜›Ž›ȱ ˜ȱž—Ž›œŠ—ȱ ‘Žȱ ‹Ž›’Š—ȱ ›Ž‹Ž••’˜—œȱ Žȱ —ŽŽȱ ˜ȱ Š”Žȱ Šȱ œŽ™ȱ ‹ŠŒ”ȱ Š—ȱ Ž¡Š–’—Žȱ•’ŸŠ›ŽœȂȱ Œ˜—ŒŽ™’˜—ȱ ˜ȱ ‘Žȱ —’˜—ȱ˜ȱ›–œȱǻ—’˜—ȱŽȱ›–ŠœǼǰȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱ‘ŽȱŠ’–Žȱ˜ȱ’–™•Ž–Ž—ȱœŠ›’—ȱ›˜–ȱŗŜŘŜǯȱ‘Žȱ idea was to create a closer cohesion and coordination between the Spanish monarchy’s ŸŠ›’˜žœȱ™Š›œǰȱ’—ȱŠȱ Š¢ȱ‘Šȱ‘Žȱ‹ž›Ž—ȱ˜ȱ’œȱŽŽ—ŒŽȱ ˜ž•ȱ‹Žȱœ‘Š›Žȱ‹¢ȱŠ••ȱ–˜›ŽȱŽšž’Š‹•¢ǯȱ The existing arrangement whereby Castile carried most of the weight, somewhat supported by taxes wrung from the Italian States, the Spanish Netherlands, as well as the uneven œ›ŽŠ–’—ȱ˜ȱ–Ž›’ŒŠ—ȱ‹ž••’˜—ǰȱ—˜ȱ•˜—Ž›ȱœžĜŒŽȱ˜ȱ–Š’—Š’—ȱ‘Žȱ’—Œ›ŽŠœ’—ȱ–’•’Š›¢ȱŠ—ȱ ęœŒŠ•ȱŽ–Š—œȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ‘’›¢ȱŽŠ›œȂȱŠ›ǯȱ‘ŽȱŽ—ȱ˜‹“ŽŒ’ŸŽȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ—’˜—ȱ˜ȱ›–œȱ Šœȱ˜ȱ˜›–ȱ a standing army of 140,000 soldiers made up of the total economic investment and draft of ›˜˜™œȱ›Žœž•’—ȱ›˜–ȱ‘Žȱšž˜ŠœȱŠ••˜ŒŠŽȱ˜ȱŽŠŒ‘ȱ™Š—’œ‘ȱŽ››’˜›¢ǯȱ‘ŽœŽȱ—ž–‹Ž›œȱ Ž›Žȱ ˜ȱ‹ŽȱŠ••˜ŒŠŽȱŠœȱ˜••˜ œDZȱŠœ’•ŽȱŠ—ȱ‘Žȱ—’ŽœǰȱŚŚǰŖŖŖDzȱ›Š˜—ǰȱŗŖǰŖŖŖDzȱŠŠ•˜—’ŠǰȱŗŜǰŖŖŖDzȱ Š•Ž—Œ’Šǰȱ ŜǰŖŖŖDzȱ ˜›žŠ•ǰȱ ŗŜǰŖŖŖDzȱ Š™•Žœǰȱ ŗŜǰŖŖŖDzȱ ’Œ’•¢ǰȱ ŜǰŖŖŖDzȱ ’•Š—ǰȱ ŞǰŖŖŖDzȱ ‘Žȱ ˜ ȱ ˜ž—›’ŽœǰȱŗŜǰŖŖŖDzȱŠ›’—’Šǰȱ‘ŽȱŠ•ŽŠ›’ŒȱŠ—ȱ‘ŽȱŠ—Š›¢ȱœ•Š—œǰȱŜǰŖŖŖǯȱ‘Žȱ—’˜—ȱ˜ȱ›–œȱ  Šœȱ˜ȱ‹Žȱ™•ŠŒŽȱ ’‘’—ȱ•’ŸŠ›ŽœȂȱ•Š›Ž›ȱŠ’–ȱ˜ȱ›Ž˜›–’—ȱ‘Žȱ™Š—’œ‘ȱŽŒ˜—˜–¢ȱŠœȱŠȱ–ŽŠ—œȱ ˜ȱ‹›’—’—ȱ™›˜œ™Ž›’¢ȱ˜ȱŠ—ȱŽŒ˜—˜–’ŒŠ••¢ȱŠ—ȱ™œ¢Œ‘˜•˜’ŒŠ••¢ȱŽ¡‘ŠžœŽȱ—Š’˜—ǯřŖ Contrary

˜ȱ•’ŸŠ›ŽœȂȱ’—Ž—’˜—œǰȱ‘˜ ŽŸŽ›ǰȱ‘Žȱœ›˜—ȱ’—Ž›—Š•ȱ›Žœ’œŠ—ŒŽȱ˜ȱ‘’œȱ™•Š—ȱ ’‘’—ȱ‘Žȱ‹Ž›’Š—ȱ ”’—˜–œǰȱŽŸŽ›ȱ“ŽŠ•˜žœȱ˜ȱ‘Ž’›ȱ™›’Ÿ’•ŽŽœǰȱ˜›ŒŽȱ‘’–ȱ˜ȱœ‘Ž•ŸŽȱ’ǯȱ‘Ž—ȱ‘Žȱ›’Žȱ˜ȱ›ŽŸ’ŸŽȱ’ȱ ’—ȱ˜›Ž›ȱ˜ȱŠŒŽȱ‘Žȱ›Ž—Œ‘ȱ‘›ŽŠȱ’ȱŽŸŽ—žŠ••¢ȱŒ˜—›’‹žŽȱ˜ȱ›’Ž›ȱ‘Žȱ›ŽŸ˜•œȱ˜ȱŠŠ•˜—’Šȱ Š—ȱ˜›žŠ•ǯ

‘ŽȱŠŠ•Š—ȱ›ŽŸ˜•ȱœŠ›ŽȱŠœȱŠ—ȱ˜ěȬœ‘˜˜ȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱŒ˜—Ě’Œȱ ’‘ȱ›Š—ŒŽǯȱ—ȱŗŜřşȱ’Œ‘Ž•’Žžȱ ŽŒ’Žȱ˜ȱŠĴŠŒ”ȱ™Š’—ȱ›˜–ȱ‘Žȱ™˜˜›•¢ȱŽŽ—ŽȱŠŠ•Š—ȱ˜ —œȱ’—ȱ‘Žȱ¢›Ž—ŽŽœǯȱ˜••˜ ’—ȱ ‘Žȱ›Ž—Œ‘ȱœŽ’£ž›Žȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ˜››Žœœȱ˜ȱŠ•œŽœǰȱ•’ŸŠ›Žœȱ™žȱ™›Žœœž›Žȱ˜—ȱ‘ŽȱŠŠ•Š—œȱ˜ȱŠ’ȱ ’‘ȱ –Š—™˜ Ž›ȱŠ—ȱę—Š—ŒŽœǯȱ˜›Ž˜ŸŽ›ǰȱ‘ŽȱœŽ’£Žȱ‘’œȱ˜™™˜›ž—’¢ȱ˜ȱ›ŽŸ’ŸŽȱ‘’œȱ—’˜—ȱ˜ȱ›–œȱ ™›˜“ŽŒǰȱŽ–Š—’—ȱ˜ȱ‹’••ŽȱŠȱŠŠ•Š—ȱ˜›ŒŽȱ˜ȱŜǰŖŖŖȱ›˜˜™œȱ˜ȱŠ’ȱ’—ȱ‘Žȱ–’•’Š›¢ȱŽě˜›ȱ’—ȱŠ•¢ǯȱ ‘ŽœŽȱ ŠŒ’˜—œȱ Ž—Ž›ŠŽȱ–žŒ‘ȱ •˜ŒŠ•ȱ ›Žœ’œŠ—ŒŽǯȱŠ›’˜žœȱ •˜ŒŠ•ȱ ›˜ž™œǰȱ ’—Œ•ž’—ȱŸ’••ŠŽ›œǰȱ agricultural seasonal workers and outlaws, clashed with Castilian troops during the early –˜—‘œȱ˜ȱŗŜŚŖǯȱ–‹˜•Ž—Žȱ‹¢ȱ‘Ž’›ȱœžŒŒŽœœŽœȱŠ—ȱŠ’Žȱ‹¢ȱž›‹Š—ȱœž™™˜›Ž›œǰȱ‘Ž¢ȱŽ—Ž›Žȱ ‘ŽȱŒŠ™’Š•ǰȱŠ›ŒŽ•˜—ŠǰȱŠœȱ Ž••ȱŠœȱ˜‘Ž›ȱ˜ —œǰȱ ‘Ž›Žȱ‘Ž¢ȱŠĴŠŒ”Žȱ›˜¢Š•ȱ˜ĜŒ’Š•œȱŠ—ȱ•˜ŒŠ•ȱ Œ’’£Ž—œȱ•˜¢Š•ȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱŒ›˜ —ǯȱ‘ŽœŽȱŠŒ’˜—œȱŒž•–’—ŠŽȱ’—ȱž—Žǰȱ ‘Ž—ȱ‘ŽȱŸ’ŒŽ›˜¢ǰȱ‘Žȱ˜ž—ȱ˜ȱ Š—Šȱ˜•˜–Šǰȱ ŠœȱŠœœŠœœ’—ŠŽȱŠ•˜—œ’Žȱ˜‘Ž›ȱ–Ž–‹Ž›œȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ›˜¢Š•ȱ‹ž›ŽŠžŒ›ŠŒ¢ǯȱ‘ŽœŽȱ clear acts of open rebellion were later backed by the local elites, which sought and received ›Ž—Œ‘ȱœž™™˜›ȱȮȱŠȱ–˜ŸŽȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱž›—Žȱ’ȱ’—˜ȱŠȱ›Ž—Œ‘ȱŽ™Ž—Ž—Œ¢ȱ‹¢ȱŠ—žŠ›¢ȱŗŜŚŗǯȱ‘Žȱ ’—œŠ••Žȱ›Ž—Œ‘ȱ›Ž’–Žǰȱ‘˜ ŽŸŽ›ǰȱ Šœȱ–Žȱ‹¢ȱ‘Žȱ•˜ŒŠ•ȱ™˜™ž•Š’˜—ȱ ’‘ȱ‘ŽȱœŠ–ŽȱŠ—’™Š‘¢ȱ Šœȱœ‘˜ —ȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ™›ŽŸ’˜žœȱ›Ž’–Žǯȱ’—’ęŒŠ—•¢ǰȱ“žœȱŠœȱ‘Ž¢ȱ‘Šȱ ’‘ȱ•’ŸŠ›Žœǰȱ‘ŽȱŠŠ•Š—œȱ ›ŽžœŽȱ ˜ȱ ™›˜Ÿ’Žȱ ›˜˜™œȱ ŠŠ’—œȱ Šœ’•’Š—ȱ ŠĴŠŒ”œǯȱ ‘Žȱ ™Š—’œ‘ȱ Žě˜›œȱ ™Š’ȱ ˜ěǰȱ Š—ȱ ŽŸŽ—žŠ••¢ȱ’—ȱŗŜśŘȱŠ›ŒŽ•˜—Šȱ Šœȱ›ŽŒŠ™ž›ŽȱŠ—ȱŠŠ•˜—’Šȱ Šœȱ›Ž’—œ’žŽȱ’—˜ȱ‘Žȱ™Š—’œ‘ȱ –˜—Š›Œ‘¢ǰȱ–’—žœȱ‘ŽȱŠ›ŽŠœȱ˜ȱ˜žœœ’••˜—ȱŠ—ȱŽ›Š—Žǰȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱ›Ž–Š’—Žȱ’—ȱ›Ž—Œ‘ȱ‘Š—œǯřŗ

‘Žȱ˜›žžŽœŽȱ›ŽŸ˜•ȱœŠ›Žȱ’—ȱŠȱœ’–’•Š›ȱŠœ‘’˜—ȱ˜ȱ‘Šȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱŠŠ•Š—œǯȱ‘Ž—ȱ•’ŸŠ›Žœȱ ordered the Portuguese to aid the Castilian troops to recapture Catalonia in 1640, the duke ˜ȱ›ŠŠ—£Šǰȱ‘Žȱ•ŽŠ’—ȱŠ›’œ˜Œ›Šȱ’—ȱ‘ŽȱŒ˜ž—›¢ǰȱ‘ŽŠŽȱ‘Žȱ˜›žžŽœŽȱ—˜‹’•’¢ȱ˜ȱꐑȱ ˜›ȱ ’—Ž™Ž—Ž—ŒŽȱ ›˜–ȱ™Š’—ǯȱ‘Žȱę›œȱŠŒœȱ˜ȱ ›Ž‹Ž••’˜—ȱ ’—Œ•žŽȱ‘ŽȱœŽ’£ž›Žȱ˜ȱ ‘Žȱ›˜¢Š•ȱ ™Š•ŠŒŽȱ ’—ȱ’œ‹˜—ǰȱ ‘ŽȱŽ¡ŽŒž’˜—ȱ˜ȱ™Š—’œ‘ȱ˜ĜŒ’Š•œǰȱŠ—ȱ ‘Žȱ™›˜Œ•Š–Š’˜—ȱ˜ȱ›ŠŠ—£ŠȱŠœȱ ’—ȱ˜‘—ȱǯȱ—ȱŠŒǰȱ‘Žȱ˜›žžŽœŽȱ‘ŠȱŸŠ›’˜žœȱ›ŽŠœ˜—œȱ˜ȱ›Ž‹Ž•ǯȱ’”Žȱ–Š—¢ȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ™Š—’œ‘ȱ Ž››’˜›’Žœȱ ’—ȱ ‘˜œŽȱ¢ŽŠ›œǰȱ ‘Ž¢ȱ Ž›Žȱ œžěŽ›’—ȱ ›˜–ȱ‘’‘ȱ Š¡Š’˜—ȱŠ—ȱ ‘Žȱ ›Žœž•’—ȱœ˜Œ’Š•ȱ ’œŒ˜—Ž—ǯȱ‘Žȱ˜›žžŽœŽȱ Ž›ŽȱŠ•œ˜ȱŠ——˜¢Žȱ‹¢ȱ‘Žȱ›˜ ’—ȱ—ž–‹Ž›œȱ˜ȱŠœ’•’Š—œȱŠ”’—ȱ up positions of power at the expense of the local elites, as well as by the steady decline of ‘Ž’›ȱ˜ŸŽ›œŽŠœȱŽ–™’›ŽǰȱŽ—Œ›˜ŠŒ‘Žȱž™˜—ȱ‹¢ȱ‘ŽȱžŒ‘ȱ’—ȱ‘Žȱ–Ž›’ŒŠœȱŠ—ȱ˜ž‘ȬŠœȱœ’Šǯȱ Ž›ȱŸŠ›’˜žœȱŠ‹˜›’ŸŽȱŠĴŽ–™œȱ˜ȱ›ŽŒ˜ŸŽ›ȱ˜›žŠ•ȱž›’—ȱŠ•–˜œȱ‘›ŽŽȱŽŒŠŽœǰȱ™Š’—ȱ Šœȱ ŽŸŽ—žŠ••¢ȱ˜›ŒŽȱ˜ȱŠŒ”—˜ •ŽŽȱ’œȱ’—Ž™Ž—Ž—ŒŽȱ’—ȱŗŜŜŞǯřŘ

‘Žȱ ™Ž›œ’œŽ—ŒŽȱ ˜ȱ ‘Žȱ ŠŠ•Š—ȱ Š—ȱ ˜›žžŽœŽȱ ›Ž‹Ž••’˜—œȱ ž•’–ŠŽ•¢ȱ •Žȱ ˜ȱ •’ŸŠ›ŽœȂȱ Ž–’œŽǰȱŠœȱ‘Žȱ Šœȱ ˜›ŒŽȱ ˜ȱ ›Žœ’—ȱ ’—ȱ Š—žŠ›¢ȱŗŜŚřȱ‹¢ȱ‘’•’™ȱ ǯȱ‘Žȱ”’—ȱ¢’Ž•Žȱ ˜ȱ ‘Žȱ ›˜ ’—ȱ ™›Žœœž›Žȱ Œ˜–’—ȱ ›˜–ȱ •’ŸŠ›ŽœȂȱ —ž–Ž›˜žœȱ Ž—Ž–’Žœȱ Šȱ Œ˜ž›ǰȱ  ‘˜ȱ ™›˜ŽœŽȱ ŠŠ’—œȱ‘Žȱ’œŠœ›˜žœȱ›Žœž•œȱ˜ȱ‘’œȱŒŽ—›Š•’œ’Œȱ™˜•’Œ’ŽœǯȱŒŒ˜›’—ȱ˜ȱ••’˜Ĵǰȱ•’ŸŠ›ŽœȂȱŠ••ȱ ŒŠ—ȱ‹Žȱ’—Ž›™›ŽŽȱŠœȱŠȱ”’—ȱ˜ȱ‹•˜˜•Žœœȱ›ŽŸ˜•ž’˜—ȱŠŒ‘’ŽŸŽȱ‹¢ȱ‘ŽȱŠœ’•’Š—ȱŽ•’ŽœȱȮȱ˜—Žȱ ‘Šȱœž™™•Š—Žȱ‘Žȱ—ŽŽȱ˜›ȱŠ—ȱ˜ž›’‘ȱ›ŽŸ˜•ȱ‘Ž›Žǯȱ—ŽŽǰȱ™Š’—ȂœȱŠ‹’•’¢ȱ˜ȱœž›Ÿ’ŸŽȱ‘Žȱ multiple crises of the 1640s depended, to a large extent, on the fact that Castile remained loyal Š—ȱŒ˜˜™Ž›Š’ŸŽǯȱ—ȱŠŒǰȱŠœȱ’—ȱ‘ŽȱŒŠœŽȱ˜ȱŠŠ•˜—’ŠȱŠ—ȱ˜›žŠ•ǰȱŠœ’•Žȱœ‘˜ ŽȱŒ•ŽŠ›ȱœ’—œȱ of discontent, or preconditions for revolution, which could have easily led to a revolutionary

˜ž‹ž›œǯřřȱŠœ’•ŽȂœȱŽŒ˜—˜–¢ȱ‘Šȱ‹ŽŽ—ȱŒ˜—œŠ—•¢ȱŽŒ•’—’—ȱœ’—ŒŽȱ‘Žȱ•ŠŽȱœ’¡ŽŽ—‘ȱŒŽ—ž›¢ȱȮȱ a fact supported by many studies clearly showing that the Castilian industry and exports virtually ceased to exist during the years of the war, agricultural production was seriously Š–ŠŽǰȱŠ—ȱ‘Žȱ™˜™ž•Š’˜—ȱ ŠœȱŒ˜—œŠ—•¢ȱ›ŽžŒ’—ǯřŚ

While the Iberian revolts engaged the Castilian forces, the Spanish army in the Low ˜ž—›’Žœȱ Œ˜—’—žŽȱ ‹ŠĴ•’—ȱ ˜—ȱ ŠŠ’—œȱ ‘Žȱ ›Ž—Œ‘ǯȱ Ž›ȱ ‘Žȱ ™›Ž–Šž›Žȱ ŽŠ‘ȱ ˜ȱ ‘Žȱ Š›’—Š•Ȭ—Š—Žȱ’—ȱŗŜřşǰȱ‘ŽȱŒ˜––Š—ȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱŠ›–¢ȱŠ—ȱ‘Žȱ™Š—’œ‘ȱŽ‘Ž›•Š—œȱ™ŠœœŽȱ˜ȱ ‘Žȱ˜›žžŽœŽȱ›Š—Œ’œŒ˜ȱŽȱŽ•˜ǯȱ ’œȱŒŠ–™Š’—œȱ’—ȱŗŜŚŗȮŚŘȱ Ž›ŽȱœžŒŒŽœœž•ǰȱ’—ȱ™Š›’Œž•Š›ȱ ‘ŽȱŸ’Œ˜›¢ȱ˜ȱ ˜——ŽŒ˜ž›ȱ’—ȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱ‘Žȱ›Ž—Œ‘ȱ•˜œȱřǰŖŖŖȱ–Ž—ǰȱŠ—ȱŠ—ȱŽšžŠ•ȱ—ž–‹Ž›ȱ Ž›Žȱ ŒŠ™ž›Žǯȱ ˜ ŽŸŽ›ǰȱ˜—•¢ȱŠȱ¢ŽŠ›ȱ•ŠŽ›ǰȱŽ•˜ȂœȱŠ›–¢ȱ Šœȱ˜ȱœžěŽ›ȱŠȱ™Š›’Œž•Š›•¢ȱ™Š’—ž•ȱ•˜œœǯȱ ’Žȱ‹¢ȱŠȱœž™Ž›’˜›ȱŒŠŸŠ•›¢ǰȱ‘Žȱ›Ž—Œ‘ȱŠ›–¢ȱŠŒ‘’ŽŸŽȱŠȱ™›Žœ’’˜žœȱŸ’Œ˜›¢ȱŠȱ˜Œ›˜’ǰȱ‹¢ȱ decimating the legendary Spanish infantry, the terciosǯȱ‘ŽȱŽŽŠȱŠȱ˜Œ›˜’ȱ‘Šœȱ‹ŽŽ—ȱ™Ž›ŒŽ’ŸŽȱ Šœȱ–Š›”’—ȱ‘ŽȱŽ—ȱ˜ȱ™Š’—Ȃœȱ–’•’Š›¢ȱ™˜ Ž›ȱ’—ȱž›˜™Žǯȱ‘’œȱ™˜’—ȱ‘Šœȱ‹ŽŽ—ȱ’œ™žŽȱ‹¢ȱ ¢—Œ‘ǰȱ ‘˜ȱŽ—’Žœȱ ‘Žȱ™˜œœ’‹’•’¢ȱ˜ȱŠȱ–ŽŠ—’—ž•ȱ ’–™ŠŒȱ‹ŠœŽȱ˜—ȱŠȱœ’—•Žȱ‹ŠĴ•Žȱ ’—ȱ ‘Žȱ –’•Žȱ˜ȱŠȱ •˜—ȱŒ˜—Žœȱ ’‘ȱ›Š—ŒŽǰȱ˜—Žȱ‘Šȱ ˜ž•ȱ ’—ŽŽȱ˜ȱ˜—ȱ˜›ȱŠ—˜‘Ž›ȱŗśȱ¢ŽŠ›œǯȱ Moreover, despite Rocroi’s resounding defeat, Spain was able to maintain her position in ‘Žȱ˜ž‘Ž›—ȱŽ‘Ž›•Š—œǯřśȱ’–’•Š›•¢ǰȱŠŒŒ˜›’—ȱ˜ȱ›Š•’—ǰȱ‘ŽȱŽ™’ŒȱŽŽŠœȱ˜ȱ˜ —œȱŠ—ȱ Rocroi can be regarded as symbols of Spain’s collapse, but in fact, as they took place only half-way through the prolonged confrontation, ‘they tell us more about Spain’s strength ‘Š—ȱŠ‹˜žȱ‘Ž›ȱ ŽŠ”—ŽœœǰȱŽ¡™•Š’—’—ȱ‘Ž›ȱœž›Ÿ’ŸŠ•ȱ›Š‘Ž›ȱ‘Š—ȱ‘Ž›ȱŽŒ•’—ŽǯȂřŜ

—ŽŽǰȱ—Ž ȱŒ‘Š••Ž—Žœȱ Ž›Žȱ˜ȱŽœȱ™Š’—Ȃœȱ˜›’žŽȱŠœȱ‘ŽȱŗŜŚŖœȱž—˜•Žǯȱ‘ŽȱęœŒŠ•ȱ ‹ž›Ž—œȱ ’–™˜œŽȱ˜—ȱ™Š—’œ‘ȱ Ž››’˜›’Žœȱ ’—ȱ ˜›Ž›ȱ ˜ȱę—Š—ŒŽȱ ‘Žȱ Š•›ŽŠ¢ȱ—ž–Ž›˜žœȱ ›˜—œȱ that Spain was engaged in during this period caused deep discontent also in Naples and ’Œ’•¢ǯȱ—ȱŠ’’˜—ȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱęœŒŠ•ȱ‹ž›Ž—ȱ‘Žȱ’Œ’•’Š—ȱ›ŽŸ˜•ȱ ŠœȱŽȱ‹¢ȱŽ—Ÿ’›˜—–Ž—Š•ȱ’œŠœŽ›œǯȱ ˜››Ž—’Š•ȱ›Š’—œȱ’—ȱŗŜŚśȱŠ—ȱŗŜŚŜȱŽœ›˜¢ŽȱŒ›˜™œǰȱ•ŽŠ’—ȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ›’œŽȱ˜ȱ‹›ŽŠȱ™›’ŒŽœǰȱŠ—ȱ Š•œ˜ȱŒŠžœŽȱŽœ›žŒ’ŸŽȱĚ˜˜œȱ •ŽŠŸ’—ȱ—ž–Ž›˜žœȱ™Ž˜™•Žȱ‘˜–Ž•Žœœȱ‘›˜ž‘˜žȱ ‘Žȱ ’œ•Š—ǯȱ ‘Žȱ–Šœœ’ŸŽȱ›Š’—œȱ Ž›Žȱ˜••˜ Žȱ‹¢ȱ›Šž‘ȱ›˜–ȱ‘ŽȱŠžž–—ȱ˜ȱŗŜŚŜȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱœ™›’—ȱ˜ȱŗŜŚŝǯȱ ž›’—ȱ‘ŽœŽȱ’ĜŒž•ȱ¢ŽŠ›œȱ‘Žȱ•˜ŒŠ•ȱŠž‘˜›’’Žœȱœž‹œ’’œŽȱ‘Žȱ™›’ŒŽȱ˜ȱ ‘ŽŠȱ’—ȱŠ•Ž›–˜ȱ’—ȱ ˜›Ž›ȱ˜ȱŠ••ŽŸ’ŠŽȱ‘Žȱ‹ž›Ž—ǯȱžȱ—Ž ȱ˜›Ž›œȱ›˜–ȱ‘Žȱ”’—ǰȱŠ››’Ÿ’—ȱ’—ȱ‘Žȱœž––Ž›ǰȱę›–•¢ȱ Ž–Š—ŽȱŠȱ‘Š•ȱ˜ȱ‘’œȱ™›ŠŒ’ŒŽǯȱœȱŠȱŒ˜—œŽšžŽ—ŒŽȱ‘ŽȱŸ’ŒŽ›˜¢ȱ’—œ›žŒŽȱ‘ŽȱŒ’¢Ȃœȱ‹Š”Ž›œȱ ˜ȱ›ŽžŒŽȱ‘Žȱœ’£Žȱ˜ȱ‹›ŽŠȱ›˜••œȱ‹¢ȱŗśȱ™Ž›ȱŒŽ—ǰȱŠȱŽŒ’œ’˜—ȱ‘Šȱ™›˜ŸŽȱ˜ȱ‹Žȱ‘Žȱ•Šœȱœ›Š ǯȱ ž—›Žœȱ˜ȱ™Ž˜™•Žȱ˜˜”ȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱœ›ŽŽœǰȱ •˜˜’—ȱ‘Žȱ™›˜™Ž›¢ȱ˜ȱ ŽŠ•‘¢ȱŒ’’£Ž—œǰȱ‹ž›—’—ȱ ˜ —ȱ‘Žȱ›ŽŠœž›¢ȂœȱŠ›Œ‘’ŸŽœǰȱŠ—ȱ›ŽŽ’—ȱ–˜›Žȱ‘Š—ȱŠȱ‘˜žœŠ—ȱ™›’œ˜—Ž›œǯȱ‘Žȱ›Žœ™˜—œŽȱ˜ȱ the viceroy, desperate to restore the peace, was to yield to popular demand by reinstating ‘Žȱœž‹œ’¢ȱ˜ȱ‹›ŽŠǰȱŠ‹˜•’œ‘’—ȱ‘ŽȱŠ¡Žœȱ˜—ȱęŸŽȱ‹Šœ’ŒȱŸ’ŒžŠ•œǰȱŠ—ȱ™Š›˜—’—ȱ‘Žȱ›’˜Ž›œǯȱ ‘ŽȱŽŠœŽȱ ’‘ȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱŠ•Ž›–˜ȂœȱŒ’’£Ž—œȱŠŒ‘’ŽŸŽȱ‘ŽœŽȱŒ˜—ŒŽœœ’˜—œȱŽ—Œ˜ž›ŠŽȱ–˜œȱ’Œ’•’Š—ȱ ž›‹Š—ȱŒŽ—›Žœȱ˜ȱ˜••˜ ȱœž’ǯȱŠ•Ž›–˜ȱ‘Ž—ȱœŠ ȱŠȱœŽ›’Žœȱ˜ȱœž‹œŽšžŽ—ȱ›ŽŸ˜•œȱŠ—ȱ ˜ž•ȱ—˜ȱ ‹Žȱę—Š••¢ȱ™ŠŒ’ꮍȱ‹Ž˜›Žȱ‘ŽȱŠžž–—ȱ˜ȱŗŜŚŞǰȱ ‘Ž—ȱ‘Žȱ™Š—’Š›œȱŒ˜ž•ȱœŽ—ȱŠȱ›Ž•’ŽȱĚŽŽȱ˜ȱ ›ŽŠœœŽ›ȱ‘Ž’›ȱ›ž•Žǯřŝ

The news from the May revolts in Sicily soon reached the Neapolitans who felt that ’ŸŽ—ȱ‘Ž’›ȱ‘ŽŠŸ¢ȱ‹ž›Ž—ȱ‘Ž¢ȱ‘ŠȱŽŸŽ—ȱ‹ŽĴŽ›ȱ›ŽŠœ˜—œȱ˜ȱ›Ž‹Ž•ȱŠŠ’—œȱ‘Ž’›ȱ™Š—’œ‘ȱ›ž•Ž›œǯȱ —ȱŠŒǰȱ‘ŽȱŗŜŚŝȮŚŞȱ›ŽŸ˜•ȱ‘Šȱ‹ŽŽ—ȱ‹›Ž ’—ȱ˜›ȱœ˜–Žȱ’–ŽǯȱŒŒ˜›’—ȱ˜ȱ’••Š›’ȱ’—ȱ‘’œȱŒ•Šœœ’Œȱ study of the Neapolitan revolt, the crises of the Thirty Years’ War changed the relations of ™˜ Ž›ȱ‹Ž ŽŽ—ȱ‘Žȱ™Š—’œ‘ȱœŠŽȱŠ—ȱ‘Žȱ•˜ŒŠ•ȱ™˜•’’ŒŠ•ȱŠ—ȱœ˜Œ’Š•ȱ˜›ŒŽœǯȱ‘Žȱ–˜—Š›Œ‘’ŒŠ•ȱ government, entering an extended period of mounting economic and political crisis due to ‘Žȱœ’–ž•Š—Ž˜žœȱŠ—ȱŽ¡Ž—Žȱ Š›œȱ’ȱ‘Šȱ˜ȱŒ˜—Ž—ȱ ’‘ȱ‹Ž ŽŽ—ȱŗŜřŜȱŠ—ȱŗŜŚŝǰȱŠ••˜ Žȱ ‘ŽȱŠ›’œ˜Œ›Š’ŒȱŽ•’Žȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ ’—˜–ȱ˜ȱŠ™•Žœȱ˜ȱ’—Œ›ŽŠœŽȱ’œȱ™›Žœœž›Žȱ˜—ȱ‘Žȱ•˜ Ž›ȱœ›ŠŠȱ˜ȱ ‘Žȱ™˜™ž•Š’˜—ǰȱ’—ȱŠȱ™›˜ŒŽœœȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱ‘Žȱ•Š‹Ž••Žȱȁ›ŽŽžŠ•’œŠ’˜—ȂǯȱŸŽ—žŠ••¢ǰȱ‘ŽȱŒ˜—ŒŽ›Žȱ ˜™™›Žœœ’˜—ȱ ˜ȱ ‘Žȱ •Š—Žȱ Š›’œ˜Œ›ŠŒ¢ȱ Š—ȱ ‘Žȱ ęœŒŠ•ȱ ‹ž›Ž—ȱ ’–™˜œŽȱ ‹¢ȱ ‘Žȱ ™Š—’Š›œȱ Ž¡™•˜Žȱ’—ȱŠȱ•Š›ŽȬœŒŠ•Žȱ›ŽŸ˜•ȱ‘ŠȱŠěŽŒŽȱ—˜ȱ˜—•¢ȱ‘ŽȱŒ’¢ȱ˜ȱŠ™•ŽœȱŠ—ȱ’œȱœž››˜ž—’—ȱ Œ˜ž—›¢œ’Žǰȱ‹žȱ‘ŽȱŽ—’›Žȱž›‹Š—ȱŠ—ȱ›ž›Š•ȱœ˜ž‘ȱ˜ȱŠ•¢ǯřŞ In a similar fashion to the Sicilian ›ŽŸ˜•ǰȱ ‘ŽȱœŒŠ•Žœȱ Ž›Žȱ’™™Žȱ‹¢ȱ‘Žȱ’–™˜œ’’˜—ȱ˜ȱŠȱ—Ž ȱŠ¡ȱ˜—ȱ›ž’œȱ ’—ȱ‘ŽȱŒŠ™’Š•ǯȱŽȱ ‹¢ȱ˜––Šœ˜ȱ—’Ž••˜ȱ˜ȱ–Š•ęȱǻ™˜™ž•Š›•¢ȱ”—˜ —ȱŠœȱŠœŠ—’Ž••˜ǼǰȱŠȱŒ‘Š›’œ–Š’Œȱęœ‘Ž›–Š—ǰȱ large crowds of Neapolitan plebeians rallied to the royal palace demanding from the viceroy ‘ŽȱŠ‹˜•’’˜—ȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱŠ‹‘˜››ŽȱŠ¡Žœȱ˜—ȱ‹Šœ’Œȱ˜˜œžěœǯȱŽ›ȱ’—’’Š•ȱŠĴŽ–™œȱŠȱ—Ž˜’Š’˜—ȱ the Spanish authorities were forced to leave the city, backed by a meagre army of 1,200 ›˜˜™œȱ ’—œŽŠȱ˜ȱ ‘Žȱ›Žž•Š›ȱ ˜›ŒŽȱ˜ȱśǰŖŖŖȱ ›˜˜™œȱŠ—ȱ ‘ŽȱœšžŠ›˜—ȱ˜ȱŠ••Ž¢œȱ ‘Šȱ Ž›Žȱ Ž–™˜›Š›’•¢ȱ›ŽŽ™•˜¢ŽȱŽ•œŽ ‘Ž›Žǯȱ‘Žȱ›ŽŸ˜•ȱ‘Šȱ‘ŠȱœŠ›Žȱ’—ȱž•¢ȱŗŜŚŝȱŒ˜—’—žŽȱž—’•ȱ ™›’•ȱŗŜŚŞǰȱ ‘Ž—ȱ‘Žȱ™Š—’œ‘ȱ–Š—ŠŽȱ˜ȱ›ŽŠ”Žȱ‘ŽȱŒ’¢ȱ ’‘ȱ‘Žȱ‘Ž•™ȱ˜ȱŠȱ™Š—’Š›œȱĚŽŽȱ ‘ŽŠŽȱ‹¢ȱ˜‘—ȱ˜ȱžœ›’Šǰȱ‘’•’™ȱȂœȱ’••Ž’’–ŠŽȱœ˜—ǯřş

ŸŽ—žŠ••¢ǰȱ ‘Žȱ‹Ž›’Š—ȱŠ—ȱŠ•’Š—ȱ›ŽŸ˜•œȱ˜ȱ ‘ŽȱŗŜŚŖœȱ™žœ‘Žȱ‘Žȱ™Š—’Š›œȱ˜ȱ–Š”Žȱ Œ˜—ŒŽœœ’˜—œȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱžŒ‘ǰȱŽŠ›’—ȱ˜ȱ•˜œŽȱ‘ŽȱŸŽ›¢ȱŒ˜›Žȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ–˜—Š›Œ‘¢ǯȱȱœŽĴ•Ž–Ž—ȱ ’‘ȱ the United Provinces was also facilitated by the Portuguese revolt, since the restitution of the ›Š£’•’Š—ȱŽ››’˜›’ŽœȱŠ”Ž—ȱ‹¢ȱ‘ŽȱžŒ‘ȱ Šœȱ—˜ȱ•˜—Ž›ȱŠȱ™›Žœœ’—ȱ–ŠĴŽ›ȱ˜›ȱ™Š’—ǯȱ—ȱŗŜŚŞǰȱ ŠŽ›ȱ’›ŽŒȱ—Ž˜’Š’˜—œǰȱŠ—ȱŠŠ’—œȱ ‘Žȱ ’••ȱ˜ȱ ‘Ž’›ȱ›Ž—Œ‘ȱŠ••’Žœǰȱ ‘ŽȱžŒ‘ȱœ’—Žȱ ‘Žȱ ›ŽŠ¢ȱ ˜ȱû—œŽ›ȱ ’‘ȱ ‘Žȱ ™Š—’Š›œǯȱŒŒ˜›’—ȱ ˜ȱ ‘Žȱ ›ŽŠ¢ǰȱ ‘Žȱ ™Š—’œ‘ȱ Ž›Žȱ ˜›ŒŽȱ ˜ȱ˜›–Š••¢ȱ›ŽŒ˜—’œŽȱ‘Žȱ—’Žȱ›˜Ÿ’—ŒŽœȱŠœȱŠ—ȱ’—Ž™Ž—Ž—ȱ›Ž™ž‹•’ŒǰȱŠ—ȱ‘Ž¢ȱ˜ĜŒ’Š••¢ȱ ŠŒŒŽ™Žȱ‘ŽȱžŒ‘ȱ˜ŒŒž™Š’˜—ȱ˜ȱ˜›žžŽœŽȱŽ››’˜›’Žœȱ’—ȱ‘Žȱ–Ž›’ŒŠœǯ40 With the signature ˜ȱ‘Žȱ›ŽŠ¢ǰȱ™Š’—Ȃœȱ›˜•Žȱ’—ȱ‘Žȱ‘’›¢ȱŽŠ›œȂȱŠ›ȱ Šœȱ˜ĜŒ’Š••¢ȱ˜ŸŽ›ǯ

In sum, Spain’s participation in the Thirty Years’ War, after encountering some notable œžŒŒŽœœȱ’—ȱ‘ŽȱŗŜŘŖœȱŠ—ȱŗŜřŖœǰȱŽŸŽ—žŠ••¢ȱŒ˜—Œ•žŽȱ ’‘ȱ‘ŽȱŸ’Œ˜›¢ȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱŠ—’Ȭ Š‹œ‹ž›ȱ Œ˜Š•’’˜—ǰȱ •Žȱ‹¢ȱ ‘Žȱ ›Ž—Œ‘ȱ Š—ȱ ‘ŽȱžŒ‘ǯȱ Ž——Ž¢ȱ ŽěŽŒ’ŸŽ•¢ȱ œž––Š›’œŽœȱ ‘Žȱ ›ŽŠœ˜—œȱ ˜›ȱ‘Žȱ Š‹œ‹ž›œȂȱŠ’•ž›Žȱ˜ȱ”ŽŽ™ȱ‘Ž’›ȱ™˜ Ž›ȱ’—ŠŒDZȱę›œǰȱ‘Ž›Žȱ Šœȱ‘Žȱ’—Œ›ŽŠœŽȱ’—ȱŒ˜œœǰȱ œŒŠ•ŽȱŠ—ȱ–Š—ŠŽ–Ž—ȱ‹›˜ž‘ȱŠ‹˜žȱ‹¢ȱ‘ŽȱŽŠ›•¢ȱ–˜Ž›—ȱȁ–’•’Š›¢ȱ›ŽŸ˜•ž’˜—Ȃȱ’—ȱž›˜™Žȱ œŠ›’—ȱ›˜–ȱ‘ŽȱŗśŘŖœȱ˜— Š›œǯȱȱ’œȱ™›ŽŒ’œŽ•¢ȱ‘Žȱœ™’›Š••’—ȱŒ˜œœȱ’—ȱ–’•’Š›¢ȱŽ—ŽŠŸ˜ž›œǰȱ Œ˜ž™•Žȱ ’‘ȱŠȱ œŽŽ™ȱ ›ŠŽȱ˜ȱ ’—ĚŠ’˜—ȱ ‘Šȱ”Ž™ȱ ‘Žȱ Š‹œ‹ž›œȱ ’—ȱŠȱ Œ˜—œŠ—ȱ œ›ž•Žȱ ˜›ȱ ŽŒ˜—˜–’Œȱ œž›Ÿ’ŸŠ•ǯȱ ŒŒ˜›’—•¢ǰȱ ™Š’—Ȃœȱ –’•’Š›¢ȱ ŒŠ–™Š’—œȱ  Ž›Žȱ Œ˜—œ›Š’—Žȱ ‹¢ȱ ’œȱ ŽŒ˜—˜–’Œȱ•’–’Š’˜—œǯȱ‘Ž—ȱœ‘Žȱ ŠœȱŠ‹•Žȱ˜ȱ ›’—ȱŽ—˜ž‘ȱŠ¡Žœȱ›˜–ȱ‘Ž›ȱœž‹“ŽŒœȱ˜›ȱ˜‹Š’—ȱ ‹ž••’˜—ȱ ›˜–ȱ‘Žȱ–Ž›’ŒŠœǰȱŠ–‹’’˜žœȱŒŠ–™Š’—œǰȱ •’”Žȱ ‘ŽȱŠ›’—Š•Ȭ—Š—ŽȂœȱ ’—Ž›ŸŽ—’˜—ȱ ’—ȱ Ž›–Š—¢ȱ ’—ȱ ŗŜřŚȮřśǰȱ Œ˜ž•ȱ ‹Žȱ ˜›Š—’œŽǯȱ žȱ ‘Žȱ Œ˜—œŠ—ȱ Ž–Š—œȱ ›˜–ȱ ‘Ž›ȱ–Š—¢ȱ ›˜—œȱ•’–’Žȱ‘ŽȱŽěŽŒȱ˜ȱœ‘˜›ȬŽ›–ȱŸ’Œ˜›’ŽœǰȱŠ—ȱŒ˜—œŠ—•¢ȱŽ›˜Žȱ™Š’—ȂœȱŒŠ™Š‹’•’’Žœǯȱ ˜›Ž˜ŸŽ›ǰȱ‘Žȱ‘ŽŠŸ¢ȱŠ¡ȱ‹ž›Ž—ȱ™•ŠŒŽȱ˜—ȱ‘Ž›ȱŸŠ›’˜žœȱ™›˜Ÿ’—ŒŽœȱŽŸŽ—žŠ••¢ȱ‹ŠŒ”ꛎȱ ‘Ž—ȱ

–Š—¢ȱ˜ȱ ‘ŽœŽȱ ž›—Žȱ›Ž‹Ž••’˜žœǯȱ•’–ŠŽ•¢ǰȱ™Š’—Ȃœȱ–’•’Š›¢ȱŒ‘Š••Ž—Žœȱ Ž›Žȱ œ’–™•¢ȱ ˜˜ȱ –žŒ‘ȱ˜ȱ‘Š—•Žǯȱ‘Žȱ’––Ž—œŽȱ™Š—’œ‘ȱ–˜—Š›Œ‘¢ȱ™›˜Ÿ’Žȱȁ˜—Žȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ›ŽŠŽœȱŽ¡Š–™•Žœȱ ˜ȱœ›ŠŽ’ŒŠ•ȱ˜ŸŽ›œ›ŽŒ‘ȱ’—ȱ‘’œ˜›¢Dzȱ˜›ȱ‘Žȱ™›’ŒŽȱ˜ȱ™˜œœŽœœ’—ȱœ˜ȱ–Š—¢ȱŽ››’˜›’Žœȱ Šœȱ‘Žȱ Ž¡’œŽ—ŒŽȱ˜ȱ—ž–Ž›˜žœȱ ˜ŽœǯȂ41 In fact, for the Spaniards the war was far from being over ŠŽ›ȱŽœ™‘Š•’ŠǰȱŠœȱ‘Ž’›ȱŒ˜—›˜—Š’˜—ȱ ’‘ȱ‘ŽȱŠŠ•Š—œǰȱ‘Žȱ˜›žžŽœŽǰȱŠ—ȱ‘Žȱ›Ž—Œ‘ȱ Œ˜—’—žŽȱ˜ȱ•˜˜–ȱ•Š›Žȱ’—˜ȱ‘Žȱ—Ž¡ȱŽŒŠŽǯ

•ŒŠ•¤ȬŠ–˜›Šȱ¢ȱž’Ž™˜ȱŽȱ•Š—˜ǰȱǯǰȱEspaña, Flandes, y el Mar del Norte (1618-1639): la última ofensiva europea de los Austrias madrileñosȱǻŠ›ŒŽ•˜—ŠǰȱŗşŝśǼǯ

••’˜Ĵǰȱǯ ǯǰȱThe Count-Duke of Olivares: The Statesman in an Age of DeclineȱǻŽ ȱ ŠŸŽ—ȱŠ—ȱ ˜—˜—ǰȱŗşŞŜǼǯ

Ž›—¤—Ž£ȱ•ŸŠ›Ž£ǰȱŠ—žŽ•ǰȱȁ•ȱ›ŠŒŠœ˜ȱŽȱ•Šȱ‘ŽŽ–˜—’Šȱœ™ŠÛ˜•ŠȱŽ—ȱž›˜™ŠȂǰȱ’—ȱǯȱ˜–¤œȱ ¢ȱŠ•’Ž—ŽȱǻŽǯǼǰȱHistoria de España Ramón Menédez Pidal, vol. 25: La España de Felipe IV. El ˜‹’Ž›—˜ȱŽȱ•Šȱ–˜—Š›šžÇŠǰȱ•ŠȱŒ›’œ’œȱŽȱŗŜŚŖȱ¢ȱŽ•ȱ›ŠŒŠœ˜ȱŽȱ•Šȱ‘ŽŽ–˜—ÇŠȱŽž›˜™ŽŠȱǻŠ›’ǰȱŗşŞŘǼǰȱ ™™ǯȱŜřśȮŝŞşǯ

œ›ŠŽ•ǰȱ ǯǯǰȱ ȁ•’ŸŠ›Žœǰȱ ‘Žȱ Š›’—Š•Ȭ—Š—Žȱ Š—ȱ ™Š’—Ȃœȱ ›ŠŽ¢ȱ ’—ȱ ‘Žȱ ˜ ȱ ˜ž—›’Žœȱ ǻŗŜřśȮŗŜŚřǼDZȱ‘Žȱ˜Šȱ˜ȱ˜Œ›˜’Ȃǰȱ’—ȱǯȱ ŠŠ—ȱŠ—ȱ ǯȱŠ›”Ž›ȱǻŽœǼǰȱSpain, Europe and the •Š—’Œȱ˜›•DZȱœœŠ¢œȱ’—ȱ ˜—˜ž›ȱ˜ȱ˜‘—ȱ ǯȱ••’˜ĴȱǻŠ–‹›’ŽǰȱŗşşśǼǰȱ™™ǯȱŘŜŝȮşśǯ

Š–Ž—ǰȱ ǯǰȱSpain’s Road to Empire: The Making of a World Power, 1492-1763ȱǻ˜—˜—ǰȱŘŖŖŘǼǯ Ž——Ž¢ǰȱ ǯǰȱ ‘Žȱ ’œŽȱ Š—ȱ Š••ȱ ˜ȱ ‘Žȱ ›ŽŠȱ ˜ Ž›œDZȱ Œ˜—˜–’Œȱ ‘Š—Žȱ Š—ȱ’•’Š›¢ȱ ˜—Ě’Œȱ

from 1500 to 2000ȱǻ˜—˜—ǰȱŗşŞşǼǯ ¢—Œ‘ǰȱ ǯǰȱ The Hispanic World in Crisis and Change, 1598-1700ȱ ǻ¡˜›ȱ Š—ȱ Š–‹›’Žǰȱ

ŠœœǯǰȱŗşşŘǼǯ Š›”Ž›ǰȱ ǯǰȱǻŽǯǼǰȱThe Thirty Years’ Warȱǻ˜—˜—ǰȱŗşŞŚǼǯ Š›”Ž›ǰȱ ǯǰȱEurope in Crisis, 1598-1648 ǻŘ—ȱŽ—ǰȱ¡˜›ǰȱŘŖŖŗǼǯ Š›”Ž›ǰȱ ǯǰȱ ȁ˜œȱ™›˜‹•Ž–ŠœȱŽȱ •Šȱ–˜—Š›šžÇŠǰȱ ŗŜŚřȮŗŜŚŞȂǰȱ ’—ȱ ǯȱŠ›”Ž›ȱ ǻŽǯǼǰȱLa crisis de la

monarquía de Felipe IVȱǻŠ›ŒŽ•˜—ŠǰȱŘŖŖŜǼǰȱ™™ǯȱŗŖśȮŚŖǯ ›Š•’—ǰȱǯǯǰȱPhilip IV and the Government of Spain, 1621-1665ȱǻŠ–‹›’ŽǰȱŗşŞŞǼǯ ›Š•’—ǰȱǯǯǰȱǻŽǯǼǰȱSpain’s Struggle for Europe, 1598-1668ȱǻ˜—˜—ǰȱŗşşŚǼǯ