chapter  10
1618-1629
Pages 12

Germany, as opposed to France, which had been torn apart by civil war between 1562 Š—ȱ ŗśşŞǰȱ ‘Šȱ ‹ŽŽ—ȱ •Š›Ž•¢ȱ œ™Š›Žȱ ‘Žȱ Œ‘Š˜œȱ ˜ȱ •Š›ŽȬœŒŠ•Žȱ ˜–Žœ’Œȱ Œ˜—Ě’Œȱ ’—ȱ ‘Žȱ •ŠŽ›ȱ sixteenth century. The Peace of Augsburg (1555) despite its shortcomings had provided the empire, at least for the time being, with the means to defuse the religious tensions which threatened to undermine order and stability. Moreover the fact that both the Habsburg ˜–’—’˜—œȱŠ—ȱ‘ŽȱŽ–™’›Žȱ’œŽ•ȱ Ž›Žȱ‘›ŽŠŽ—Žȱ‹¢ȱ‘Žȱ™˜ Ž›ž•ȱĴ˜–Š—ȱ–™’›Žȱ’—ȱ‘Žȱ late sixteenth century created a bond which united both Protestants and Catholics. The Œ˜—Žœȱ ’‘ȱ‘ŽȱĴ˜–Š—œȱ‘ŠȱŒž•–’—ŠŽȱ’—ȱ‘Žȱœ˜ȬŒŠ••Žȱȁ˜—ȱž›”’œ‘ȱŠ›Ȃȱ˜ȱŗśşřȮŗŜŖŜǯȱ ‘Žȱ›ŽŠ¢ȱ˜ȱœ’ŸŠ˜›˜”ȱǻŗŜŖŜǼȱŽ—Žȱ‘ŽȱŒ˜—Ě’ŒȱŠ—ȱ–Š›”Žȱ‘Žȱ‹Ž’——’—ȱ˜ȱŠȱ™›˜›ŠŒŽȱ ™Ž›’˜ȱ ‘Ž—ȱ ‘Žȱž•Š—ȱ Œ˜—ŒŽ—›ŠŽȱ‘’œȱ ˜›ŒŽœȱ˜—ȱ ‘Žȱ ŽŠœȱ Š—ȱ ‘Žȱꐑȱ ŠŠ’—œȱŽ›œ’Šǯ1 ˜ ŽŸŽ›ǰȱ ‘Žȱ ŠŒȱ ‘Šȱ ‘Žȱ ‘›ŽŠȱ ›˜–ȱ ‘Žȱ˜•ȱ Ž—Ž–¢ȱ—˜ ȱ ›ŽŒŽŽȱ ’—˜ȱ ‘Žȱ‹ŠŒ”›˜ž—ȱ ‘Šȱ—˜ȱ˜—•¢ȱ‹Ž—ŽęŒ’Š•ȱŒ˜—œŽšžŽ—ŒŽœǯȱžžŠ••¢ȱ‘˜œ’•Žȱ™˜•’’ŒŠ•ȱŠ—ȱ›Ž•’’˜žœȱŠŒ’˜—œȱ‹˜‘ȱ in the Habsburg dominions and in the empire at large could now feel free to pursue their grievances with far less restraint than in the past. The situation was exacerbated by the fact ‘Šȱ‘ŽȱŠŽȱ–™Ž›˜›ȱž˜•™‘ȱǰȱ ‘˜ȱ›ž•Žȱ‹˜‘ȱ˜‘Ž–’ŠȱŠ—ȱ’œȱŽ™Ž—Ž—ȱ™›’—Œ’™Š•’’Žœȱ Š—ȱ™™Ž›ȱŠ—ȱ˜ Ž›ȱžœ›’ŠȱŠœȱ Ž••ȱŠœȱ ž—Š›¢ȱǻ’—œ˜Š›ȱŠœȱ ’ȱ Šœȱ—˜ȱ˜ŒŒž™’Žȱ‹¢ȱ‘Žȱ ž›”œǼǰȱ’—Œ›ŽŠœ’—•¢ȱ•˜œȱ‘’œȱ›’™ȱ˜—ȱŽŸŽ—œȱȮȱŠ—ȱž˜•™‘ȱ‘Šȱ—ŽŸŽ›ȱ‹ŽŽ—ȱ‘Žȱ–˜œȱŽ—Ž›Ž’Œȱ ˜ȱ›ž•Ž›œǯȱ Žȱ‘Šǰȱ‘˜ ŽŸŽ›ǰȱ‹ŽŽ—ȱŽŽ›–’—Žȱ˜ȱ™›˜•˜—ȱ‘Žȱ Š›ȱŠŠ’—œȱ‘Žȱž›”œȱŠ—ȱ˜ȱ œž‹žŽȱ‘Žȱ›˜ŽœŠ—œȱ’—ȱ ž—Š›¢ȱ’—ȱŗŜŖŜȱ‹žȱ‘Šȱ‹ŽŽ—ȱ˜›ŒŽȱ‹¢ȱ‘’œȱ‹›˜‘Ž›ȱŠĴ‘’Šœȱ˜ȱ Š‹Š—˜—ȱ‘’œȱ™˜•’Œ¢ǯȱ Žȱœž‹œŽšžŽ—•¢ȱ—˜ȱ˜—•¢ȱ•˜œȱŒ˜—›˜•ȱ˜ŸŽ›ȱ–˜œȱ˜ȱ‘’œȱ˜–’—’˜—œȱ˜ȱ ŠĴ‘’Šœǰȱ‘ŽȱŠ•œ˜ȱ‘Šȱ˜ȱ™ŠŒ’¢ȱ‘Žȱž—›ž•¢ȱ›˜ŽœŠ—ȱœŠŽœȱ˜ȱ˜‘Ž–’Šȱ‹¢ȱ›Š—’—ȱ‘Ž–ȱ Ž¡Ž—œ’ŸŽȱ™›’Ÿ’•ŽŽœȱŠ—ȱ˜ĜŒ’Š•ȱ›Ž•’’˜žœȱ˜•Ž›Š’˜—ǯȱ‘Ž—ȱ‘Žȱ’Žȱ’—ȱŗŜŗŘȱ’–™Ž›’Š•ȱŠž‘˜›’¢ȱ ‘Šȱ—˜ȱ˜—•¢ȱ‹ŽŽ—ȱŠŽž••¢ȱ ŽŠ”Ž—Žȱ ’‘’—ȱ‘Žȱ Š‹œ‹ž›ȱ–˜—Š›Œ‘¢ȱ‹žȱŠ•œ˜ȱŠ—ȱ™›˜‹Š‹•¢ȱ ŽŸŽ—ȱ–˜›Žȱœ˜ȱ ’—ȱ‘ŽȱŽ–™’›ŽȱŠœȱŠȱ ‘˜•Žǯȱ’‘ȱ‘Žȱ™˜ Ž›ȱŸŠŒžž–ȱŠȱ ‘Žȱ˜™ȱ˜‘Ž›ȱ™•Š¢Ž›œȱ ‘Šȱ‹Žž—ȱ˜ȱ˜–’—ŠŽȱ‘Žȱꎕȱ’—ȱ‘ŽȱŽ–™’›Žǰȱ’—ȱ™Š›’Œž•Š›ȱ‘ŽȱŠ–‹’’˜žœȱž”Žȱ˜ȱŠŸŠ›’Šǰȱ Š¡’–’•’Š—ǰȱ ‘˜ȱ‘Šȱ‹ŽŒ˜–Žȱ‘Žȱ•ŽŠŽ›ȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱŠ‘˜•’Œȱ™›’—ŒŽœȱŠ—ȱ‘Žȱ•ŽŒ˜›œȱŠ•Š’—Žȱ’—ȱ Ž’Ž•‹Ž›ǰȱę›œȱ›ŽŽ›’Œ”ȱȱǻǯȱŗŜŗŖǼȱŠ—ȱ‘Ž—ȱ‘’œȱœ˜—ȱ›ŽŽ›’Œ”ȱǰȱ‹˜‘ȱŠ•Ÿ’—’œœȱ ‘˜ȱ organised an alliance of Protestant imperial cities and princes (the Union of 1608) against the ™Ž›ŒŽ’ŸŽȱ‘›ŽŠȱ˜ȱŠȱŠ‘˜•’Œȱ›˜••Ȭ‹ŠŒ”ǯȱ‘Žȱ•ŽŒ˜›œȱŠ•Š’—ŽȱŽ—“˜¢Žȱ˜˜ȱ›Ž•Š’˜—œȱ ’‘ȱ the Dutch Republic and the French Huguenots whom they had supported in the French Š›œȱ˜ȱŽ•’’˜—ǯȱ˜›Ž˜ŸŽ›ȱ ‘Žȱ¢˜ž—ȱ•ŽŒ˜›ȱ›ŽŽ›’Œȱȱ‘Šȱ ’—ȱŗŜŗřȱ–Š››’Žȱ•’£Š‹Ž‘ǰȱ ‘ŽȱŠž‘Ž›ȱ˜ȱŠ–Žœȱȱ˜ȱ—•Š—ǯȱ ŽȱŠ—ȱ‘’œȱŠŸ’œ˜›œȱŒŽ›Š’—•¢ȱœŠ ȱ‘ŽȱŠ•Š’—ŠŽȱŠœȱŠȱ

ASHGATE RESEARCH COMPANION

œŽ›’˜žœȱ™•Š¢Ž›ȱ—˜ȱ“žœȱ˜—ȱ‘Žȱ Ž›–Š—ȱ‹žȱ˜—ȱ‘Žȱž›˜™ŽŠ—ȱœŠŽǯȱ—ȱ Ž’Ž•‹Ž›ȱŠȱœŽ—œŽȱ˜ȱ a providential mission and dynastic ambition formed a heady brew, as the years to come were to show.2