chapter  24
The Peace of Westphalia: A European Peace
Pages 10

The Peace of Westphalia is undoubtedly a key document for historiography, the culture of remembrance, and public awareness in a number of nation-states, including the Netherlands, Ž›–Š—¢ǰȱŠ—ȱ ’ĵŽ›•Š—ǯȱœȱž›˜™ŽŠ—ȱ—Šž›Žǰȱ’œȱȁž›˜™ŽŠ——ŽœœȂǰȱ˜—ȱ‘Žȱ˜‘Ž›ȱ‘Š—ǰȱ’œȱ —˜ȱšž’Žȱ œ˜ȱ˜‹Ÿ’˜žœǯȱ‘’œȱ Œ‘Š™Ž›ȱ ’••ȱ Šœ”ȱ ‘Ž‘Ž›ȱ ‘ŽȱŽŠŒŽȱ˜ȱŽœ™‘Š•’Šȱ ŠœȱŠȱ ›ž•¢ȱ ž›˜™ŽŠ—ȱ™ŽŠŒŽȱ‹¢ȱŽ¡Š–’—’—ȱ ˜ȱŠœ™ŽŒœDZȱ‘ŽȱŽ¡ȱ’œŽ•ǰȱŠ—ȱ‘Žȱ‘’œ˜›¢ȱ˜ȱ’œȱ›ŽŒŽ™’˜—ǯ

The penultimate paragraph (§ 119) of the Instrumentum Pacis MonasterienseȱǻǼȱŽ¡Ž—œȱ an invitation to all European sovereigns to be included in the Peace on the suggestion of one ˜ȱ‘Žȱ™Š›’Žœȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ›ŽŠ¢ǯȱȱ‘Žȱ’–Žǰȱ‘Šȱ’œǰȱ’—ȱŒ˜‹Ž›ȱŗŜŚŞǰȱ˜—•¢ȱ‘ŽȱŽ™ž‹•’Œȱ˜ȱŽ—’ŒŽǰȱ which was one of the two mediators, took up this invitation, but the intention of opening up the Peace to all (European) polities in this way was to create a sort of potential security ™Š›—Ž›œ‘’™ǯȱ˜ȱœ˜–ŽȱŽ¡Ž—ǰȱ‘’œȱŒ˜ž•ȱ‹ŽȱœŽŽ—ȱŠœȱŠȱœž‹œ’žŽȱ˜›ȱŠȱž›˜™ŽŠ—ȱœŽŒž›’¢ȱœ¢œŽ–ȱ ‹ŠœŽȱ˜—ȱ›ŽŒ˜—’’˜—ȱ˜ȱŽ¡’œ’—ȱ‹˜›Ž›œǰȱ’—ȱ˜‘Ž›ȱ ˜›œǰȱ‘ŽȱœŠžœȱšž˜ǰȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱ’Œ‘Ž•’Žžȱ‘Šȱ Š™™Š›Ž—•¢ȱ‹ŽŽ—ȱ‘’—”’—ȱŠ‹˜žȱ˜›ȱœ˜–Žȱ’–Žǯȱ‘ŽȱInstrumentum Pacis Osnabrugense ǻǼǰȱ ŠŽȱ˜—ȱ‘ŽȱœŠ–ŽȱŠ¢ȱǻŘŚȱŒ˜‹Ž›ȱŗŜŚŞǼȱŠ—ȱ’—ȱ–Š—¢ȱ›Žœ™ŽŒœȱ ’Ž—’ŒŠ•ȱ ’—ȱ ˜›’—ȱŠ—ȱ –ŽŠ—’—ȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱû—œŽ›ȱ˜Œž–Ž—ǰȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱ Šœȱ—Ž˜’ŠŽȱ’—ȱ™Š›Š••Ž•ǰȱ’œȱ–žŒ‘ȱ–˜›Žȱœ™ŽŒ’ęŒȱ ’—ȱ‘’œȱ›Žœ™ŽŒǯȱ—ȱŠ’’˜—ȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ™›’—ŒŽœȱŠ—ȱ›ŽŽȱŒ’’Žœȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱŽ–™’›Žǰȱ‘Žȱ–™Ž›˜›ȱ’—Œ•žŽȱ ǻŠ›’Œ•ŽȱǰȱȗȱŗŖǼȱ‘Žȱ”’—ȱ˜ȱ™Š’—ǰȱ‘Žȱž”Žȱ˜ȱŠŸ˜¢ǰȱ‘Žȱ”’—ȱ˜ȱ—•Š—ǰȱ‘Žȱ”’—ȱ˜ȱ Denmark and all of his large empire, the king of Poland, the duke of Lorraine, all the princes and city-›Ž™ž‹•’Œœȱ˜ȱŠ•¢ǰȱ‘ŽȱŠŽœȱ Ž—Ž›Š•ǰȱ‘Žȱ ’œœȱŒŠ—˜—œȱŠ•˜—ȱ ’‘ȱ ›Šž‹û—Ž—ǰȱ Š—ȱ‘Žȱ™›’—ŒŽȱ˜ȱ›Š—œ¢•ŸŠ—’Šǯȱ‘Žȱ˜‘Ž›ȱ™Š›¢ȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ›ŽŠ¢ǰȱ‘Žȱ Ž’œ‘ȱ›˜ —ǰȱ’—Œ•žŽȱ ’—ȱ’ȱǻŠ›’Œ•ŽȱǰȱȗȱŗŗǼȱ–˜œȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱœŠŽœȱ—Š–ŽȱŠ‹˜ŸŽǰȱŠœȱ Ž••ȱŠœȱ‘Žȱ›Ž—Œ‘ȱ”’—ǰȱ‘Žȱ”’—ȱ of Portugal and his empire (which was, due to the still fragile status of the new Bragança ¢—Šœ¢ǰȱŸŽ‘Ž–Ž—•¢ȱ’œ™žŽǼǰȱŠ—ȱ‘Žȱ›Š—ȱž”Žȱ˜ȱ˜œŒ˜ ǯ

‘Žȱ ȁž›˜™ŽŠ——ŽœœȂȱ ˜ȱ ‘Žȱ ŽŠŒŽȱ ˜ȱ Žœ™‘Š•’Šǰ1 which did not exclude any of the ‘›’œ’Š—ȱ œŠŽœȱ ˜ȱ ž›˜™Žǰȱ ’œȱ ›ŽĚŽŒŽȱ Šȱ ‘Žȱ ‹Ž’——’—ȱ ˜ȱ ‹˜‘ȱ Instrumenta, where the state of peace is extended beyond the two parties to the treaty to include all their allies and œž™™˜›Ž›œǰȱŠȱ•ŽŠœȱ’—ȱ‘ŽȱŒ˜—ŸŽ—’˜—Š•ȱ˜›–ȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ˜™Š’ŸŽDZȱȁ™Š¡ȱœ’ȱŒ‘›’œ’Š—Šǰȱž—’ŸŽ›œŠ•’œǰȱ ™Ž›™ŽžŠǯȂȱœȱŠ••ȱ‘Žȱ™˜•’’Žœȱ’—Ÿ˜•ŸŽȱ’—ȱ‘Žȱ Š›ȱ‘Šȱ‹ŽŽ—ȱŒ˜——ŽŒŽȱ ’‘ȱ˜—Žȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ ˜ȱ camps, the validity of the Peace was, in fact, intended to include the whole continent, with ‘ŽȱŽ¡ŒŽ™’˜—ǰȱ˜ȱŒ˜ž›œŽǰȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱĴ˜–Š—ȱ–™’›Žǯ

ASHGATE RESEARCH COMPANION

—ȱ‘ŽȱřśŖ‘ȱŠ——’ŸŽ›œŠ›¢ȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱŽŠŒŽȱ˜ȱŽœ™‘Š•’Šȱ’—ȱŒ˜‹Ž›ȱŗşşŞǰȱ—˜ȱŽ Ž›ȱ‘Šȱŗşȱ heads of state – monarchs and presidents – of the states involved in the war or their successor states,2ȱ Š‘Ž›Žȱ ’—ȱ ‘ŽȱŽœ™‘Š•’Š—ȱ Œ˜—›Žœœȱ Œ’¢ȱ ˜ȱû—œŽ›ȱ ˜ȱ ›Ž–Ž–‹Ž›ȱ Šȱ™ŽŠŒŽȱ ‘Šǰȱ ’—ȱ Œ˜—Ž–™˜›Š›¢ȱ œ™ŽŽŒ‘Žœǰȱ Šœȱ‘Ž•ȱž™ȱ Šœȱ Šȱ œ˜›ȱ ˜ȱ ‹’›‘ȱ ŒŽ›’ęŒŠŽȱ ˜›ȱ–˜Ž›—ȱž›˜™Žǯȱ ‘ŽœŽȱ’—’Š›’Žœȱ Ž›Žȱ‘Žȱę›œȱ˜ȱŸ’œ’ȱ‘Žȱ–Š“˜›ȱŽ¡‘’‹’’˜—ǰř distributed over a number of œ’Žœǰȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱ Šœȱ˜›Š—’œŽȱ˜ȱ–Š›”ȱ‘ŽȱŠ——’ŸŽ›œŠ›¢ǯȱ˜ȱ‹¢ȱŒ‘Š—ŒŽȱ Šœȱ’ȱ‘Ž•ȱž—Ž›ȱ‘Žȱ ™Š›˜—ŠŽȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ˜ž—Œ’•ȱ˜ȱž›˜™Žǯȱ‘ŽȱŸ’œ’˜›œȱ—˜Žǰȱ ’‘ȱœ˜–ŽȱœŠ’œŠŒ’˜—ǰȱ‘Šȱ’—ȱ‘Ž’›ȱ respective home countries many commemorations of an academic and public nature were ‘Ž•DZȱ’—ȱ ’ĵŽ›•Š—ȱŠœȱ’—ȱ˜•Š—ǰȱ’—ȱ™Š’—ȱŠœȱ’—ȱ‘ŽȱŽ‘Ž›•Š—œǰȱ’—ȱ ŽŽ—ȱŠœȱ’—ȱ›Š—ŒŽǯȱ There will be no further mention here of Germany and the many events held there, and not only in the two cities associated with the congresses: the conferences, special exhibitions, ™ž‹•’ŒŠ’˜—œǰȱ˜›ȱ‘Žȱœ™ŽŒ’Š•ȱŒ˜––Ž–˜›Š’ŸŽȱœŠ–™œȱŠ—ȱŒ˜’—œȱ’œœžŽȱ˜ȱŠŒŒ˜–™Š—¢ȱ‘Ž–ǯ4

We will leave these two observations without comment for the moment, and concentrate ˜—ȱ ‘Šȱ™›ŽŒŽŽȱ‘ŽȱŽŠŒŽǰȱŠ—ȱ ‘Šȱ ’ȱ Šœȱ ’—Ž—Žȱ˜ȱŽ—ǰȱ—Š–Ž•¢ǰȱ ‘Žȱ‘’›¢ȱŽŠ›œȂȱ Š›ǯȱ‘’œȱ Šœȱ—˜ȱŠȱŒ˜—’—Ž—Š•ȱ Š›ȱ ’—ȱ ‘ŽȱœŠ–ŽȱœŽ—œŽȱŠœȱ ‘Žȱ’›œȱ˜›•ȱŠ›ȱ‹ŽŒŠžœŽȱ ’ȱ Š• Š¢œȱ’œ™•Š¢ŽȱŸŠ›’˜žœȱ ȁ‘ŽŠ›Žœȱ˜ȱ Š›ȂǰȱŽŸŽ—ȱŠȱ’쎛Ž—ȱ ’–Žœǰȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱ˜Ž—ȱ‘Šȱ˜—•¢ȱ Š—ȱ’—’›ŽŒȱŒ˜——ŽŒ’˜—ȱ ’‘ȱ‘Žȱ–’•’Š›¢ȱŽŸŽ—œȱ‘Š™™Ž—’—ȱ’—ȱŽ—›Š•ȱŠ—ȱŽœŽ›—ȱž›˜™Žǯȱ The present volume gives an impression of the various European theatres of war, without ŽŸŽ—ȱ’—Œ•ž’—ȱ‘Žȱ–˜•Ž—œ”ȱŠ›ȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱŽŠ›•¢ȱŗŜřŖœǰȱ‘Šȱ’œǰȱžœœ’ŠȂœȱšžŠ››Ž•ȱ ’‘ȱ‘Žȱ˜•’œ‘ȱ ˜––˜— ŽŠ•‘ǰȱ Š—ȱ žœœ’ŠȂœȱ ›Ž•Š’˜—œȱ  ’‘ȱ  ŽŽ—ȱ  ‘’Œ‘ȱ ‘Žȱ žœœ’Š—ȱ ‘’œ˜›’Š—ȱ ˜›’œȱ ǯȱ˜›œ‘—ŽŸȱ’—Ž›™›ŽœȱŠœȱŠ—ȱ’—Ž›Š•ȱ™Š›ȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ‘’›¢ȱŽŠ›œȂȱŠ›ǰśȱŠ•‘˜ž‘ȱ˜‘Ž›œȱ’œŠ›ŽŽǯȱ But contemporaries already saw this war as a whole, as a complex of disputes that were all somehow connected because, in one way or another, they touched on the interests of the •ŽŠ’—ȱ™˜ Ž›œȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ’–Žǯȱ›˜–ȱ‘’œȱ™˜’—ȱ˜ȱŸ’Ž ǰȱ‘Žȱ’œŒžœœ’˜—ȱ‘Šȱ ŠœȱŒ˜—žŒŽȱœ˜–Žȱ ’–ŽȱŠ˜ȱŠ‹˜žȱ‘ŽȱŽœ’—Š’˜—ȱȁ‘’›¢ȱŽŠ›œȂȱŠ›ȂǰȱŠœ”’—ȱ ‘Ž‘Ž›ȱ’ȱ ŠœȱŒ˜—Ž–™˜›Š›¢ȱ˜›ȱ —˜ǰȱ Šœȱ—˜ȱ–Ž›Ž•¢ȱ™•Š¢ž•ǯȱŒŠŽ–’ŒŠ••¢ȱ’ȱ ŠœȱžœŽž•ȱ‹ŽŒŠžœŽȱ’ȱ™›˜Ÿ’ŽȱŠ—ȱ’—œ’‘ȱ’—˜ȱ ‘Žȱ–Ž—Š•’¢ȱ˜ȱŒ˜—Ž–™˜›Š›’ŽœǯŜȱ••ȱ˜ȱ ‘ŽœŽȱ›Ž’˜—Š•ȱŒ˜—Ě’Œœȱ˜ȱ •’–’Žǰȱ—˜ȱž›˜™ŽŠ—ǰȱ œŒ˜™Žǰȱ–Š¢ȱ‘ŠŸŽȱ‹ŽŽ—ȱŒ˜—Œ•žŽȱ‹¢ȱœŽ™Š›ŠŽȱ™ŽŠŒŽȱ›ŽŠ’ŽœȱœžŒ‘ȱŠœȱ‘Ž›ŠœŒ˜ǰȱ›ã–œŽ‹›˜ǰȱ ŽŒǯǰȱ  ‘’Œ‘ȱ  Ž›Žȱ —˜ȱ Ž¡™•’Œ’•¢ȱ ’—œŽ›Žȱ ’—˜ȱ ‘Žȱ ŽŠŒŽȱ ˜ȱŽœ™‘Š•’Šǯȱ ˜—Ž‘Ž•Žœœǰȱ ‘Ž¢ȱ ˜›–Žȱ™Š›ȱ˜ȱŠȱœ›ž•Žȱ˜›ȱ™˜ Ž›ȱŠ—ȱŠȱ™ŠŒ’ęŒŠ’˜—ȱ™›˜ŒŽœœȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱ›Žœ‘Š™Žȱ‘ŽȱŒ˜—˜ž›œȱ ˜ȱž›˜™ŽȱŠ—ǰȱ’—ȱ‘Žȱ•˜—ȱŽ›–ǰȱŽŽ›–’—Žȱ‘Žȱ™•ŠŒŽȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ™˜ Ž›œȱ’—ȱ‘ŽȱŠ–’•¢ȱ˜ȱœŠŽœǯ

•‘˜ž‘ȱ’ȱœŠ›ŽȱŠœȱŠȱ Ž›–Š—ȱ›Ž•’’˜žœȱŠ—ȱŒ˜—œ’ž’˜—Š•ȱŒ˜—Ě’Œǰȱ‘Žȱ‘’›¢ȱŽŠ›œȂȱ Š›ȱ–žœȱ‹ŽȱŒ•Šœœ’ꮍȱŠœȱŠȱž›˜™ŽŠ—ȱ Š›ȱŽœ™’Žȱ ’œȱ–ž•’™Š›’Žȱ—Šž›Žǯȱȱ ŠœȱŠȱ Š›ȱ˜ȱ œŠŽȬ‹ž’•’—ȱ‘Šȱ ŠœǰȱŠȱ‘ŽȱœŠ–Žȱ’–ŽǰȱŠȱ Š›ȱ˜ȱœŠŽȬ˜›–Š’˜—ȱŠ—ȱœ¢œŽ–Ȭ‹ž’•’—ǯȱ—ȱ ‘’œȱ–žœȱŠ•œ˜ȱŠ™™•¢ȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱŽŠŒŽȱ’—ȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱ’ȱŽ—Žǯȱ›ȱ Šœȱ‘’œȱ—˜ȱœ˜ǵ

ŽŠ›•Žœœȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ˜‹œŽ›ŸŠ’˜—ȱ–ŠŽȱŠȱ‘Žȱ‹Ž’——’—ȱ˜ȱ‘’œȱŽœœŠ¢ȱ‘Šȱ‘Žȱ ˜ȱ˜Œž–Ž—œȱ ˜ȱ ŘŚȱŒ˜‹Ž›ȱ ŗŜŚŞǰȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱ ˜Ž‘Ž›ȱ Š›Žȱ ”—˜ —ȱŠœȱ ‘ŽȱŽŠŒŽȱ ˜ȱŽœ™‘Š•’Šǰȱ Œ˜—Š’—Žȱ Š—ȱ

invitation to all partners of those concluding the treaty to allow themselves to be included ’—ȱ‘ŽȱŽŠŒŽǰȱ’ȱœ‘˜ž•ȱę›œȱ‹Žȱ—˜Žȱ‘Šȱ‹¢ȱ—˜ȱ–ŽŠ—œȱ’ȱŠ••ȱ‘Žȱ™˜ Ž›œȱ’—Ÿ˜•ŸŽȱ’—ȱ‘Žȱ Š›ȱ make their peace with everyone, as was the case later, when all parties to war concluded ‹’•ŠŽ›Š•ȱ™ŽŠŒŽȱ›ŽŠ’Žœȱ’—ȱ’“–ŽŽ—ȱǻŗŜŝŞ-7şǼȱŠ—ȱ›ŽŒ‘ȱǻŗŝŗřǼǯȱ—Žȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ–Š’—ȱ Š››’—ȱ ™Š›’Žœǰȱ‘Žȱ™Š—’œ‘ȱ›˜ —ǰȱ‹›˜ž‘ȱ’œŽ•ȱ˜ȱœ’—ȱŠȱœŽ™Š›ŠŽȱ™ŽŠŒŽȱ˜—•¢ȱ ’‘ȱ‘Žȱ›Ž‹Ž••’˜žœȱ Netherlands, the Vrede van Munster ˜ȱ řŖȱ Š—žŠ›¢ȱ ŗŜŚŞǯȱ ‘’œȱ ˜›–Š••¢ȱ ›ŽŒ˜—’œŽȱ ‘Žȱ Ž‘Ž›•Š—œȂȱ’—Ž™Ž—Ž—ŒŽȱŠ—ȱŒ˜—œ’žŽȱ‘Ž–ȱŠœȱŠȱœž‹“ŽŒȱ˜ȱ’—Ž›—Š’˜—Š•ȱ•Š ȱǻœ˜–Ž‘’—ȱ  ‘’Œ‘ȱ‘Ž¢ȱ‘Šȱ•˜—ȱ‹ŽŽ—ȱ’—ȱ›ŽŠ•’¢Ǽǯȱ‘Žȱ™Š—’œ‘ȱ›˜ —ǰȱ‘˜ ŽŸŽ›ǰȱ˜›ȱ ‘ŠŽŸŽ›ȱ›ŽŠœ˜—ǰȱ ŽŒ•’—Žȱ˜ȱ™žȱŠ—ȱŽ—ȱ˜ȱ’œȱ—˜ȱ•ŽœœȱŒŽ—›Š•ȱ Š›ȱ ’‘ȱ›Š—ŒŽǰŝ and a further 11 years were to ™Šœœȱ‹Ž˜›Žȱ‘’œȱ ŠœȱŠŒ‘’ŽŸŽȱ’—ȱ‘Žȱ›ŽŠ¢ȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ¢›Ž—ŽŽœǯŞ But no peace was concluded between Sweden and Spain, for example, or between the Netherlands and the imperial forces, although in both cases there had been acts of war, without, of course, any explicit ŽŒ•Š›Š’˜—ȱ˜ȱ Š›ȱ‘ŠŸ’—ȱ‹ŽŽ—ȱ–ŠŽȱ‹Ž˜›Ž‘Š—ǯȱ‘Ž›ŽȱŠȱœŠŽȱ˜ȱ Š›ȱŽ¡’œŽȱ’—ȱ›ŽŠ•’¢ȱ but not in law, and where there were no controversial claims, the times, and those involved, ˜‹Ÿ’˜žœ•¢ȱ›ŽŒ˜—’œŽȱ—˜ȱ—ŽŽȱ˜›ȱ›Žž•Š’˜—ǯ

ȱ Žȱ•ŽŠŸŽȱ‘ŽȱVrede van Munster aside for now, it was only some of the European powers who, after interminably protracted negotiations, declared themselves prepared to sign the ™ŽŠŒŽȱ›ŽŠ’Žœȱ’—ȱŒ˜‹Ž›ȱŗŜŚŞDZȱ›Š—ŒŽǰȱ ŽŽ—ǰȱ‘Žȱ–™Ž›˜›ǰȱŠ—ȱŠ••ȱ‘Žȱ™›’—ŒŽœȱŠ—ȱ›ŽŽȱ Œ’’Žœȱ ˜ȱ ‘Žȱ Ž–™’›Žǯȱ ‘Žȱ ŽœŠŽœȂȱ ™Š›’Œ’™Š’˜—ȱ ’—ȱ ‘Žȱ  ˜ȱ Instrumenta Pacis had not been ˜›ŽœŽŽŠ‹•ŽȱŠȱ ‘Žȱ‹Ž’——’—ȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ—Ž˜’Š’˜—œǯȱ ȱ Šœȱ™˜•’’ŒŠ••¢ȱ ’–™˜›Š—ǰȱ‘˜ ŽŸŽ›ǰȱŠœȱ ‘Žȱœ’—Šž›Žœȱ˜ȱ›Ž™›ŽœŽ—Š’ŸŽȱ–Ž–‹Ž›œȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ›’—ŒŽœȱŠ—ȱ’’Žœȱ˜—ȱ‘Žȱ ˜ȱ˜Œž–Ž—œȱ˜ȱ Œ˜‹Ž›ȱŗŜŚŞȱŠ••˜ Žȱ‘Žȱ™ŠŒ’ęŒŠ’˜—ȱ˜ȱŽ—›Š•ȱž›˜™Žǰȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱ ŠœȱœŽŽ—ȱŠœȱ’—’œ™Ž—œŠ‹•Žȱ ˜›ȱ ‘Žȱ œŠ‹’•’¢ȱ ˜ȱ ‘Žȱž›˜™ŽŠ—ȱ œ¢œŽ–ȱŠœȱ Šȱ ‘˜•Žǯȱ’‘ȱž™ȱ ˜ȱ’œ–Š›Œ”Ȃœȱ ’–Žǰȱ ’ȱ Šœȱ Š—ȱ ž— ›’ĴŽ—ȱ •Š ȱ ˜ȱ ž›˜™ŽŠ—ȱ ™˜•’’Œœȱ ‘Šȱ ‘Žȱ ŒŽ—›Žȱ ˜ȱ ž›˜™Žȱ ‘Šȱ ˜ȱ ‹Žȱ ™ŠŒ’ꮍȱ ‹žȱ —˜ȱ ™˜ Ž›Ȭ™˜•’’ŒŠ••¢ȱ ˜ŸŽ›Œ‘Š›Žǯȱ ‘Žȱ œ˜•ž’˜—œȱ ˜ž—ȱ ’—ȱ ŗŜŚŞȱ œŽŽ–Žȱ ˜ȱ ž•ę•ȱ ‘ŽœŽȱ ‹Šœ’Œȱ Œ›’Ž›’Šǯȱȱ ‘Žȱ œŠ–Žȱ ’–Žǰȱ ‘Žȱ™›˜Ÿ’œ’˜—œȱ ˜ȱ ŗŜŚŞȱŠŸŽȱ ’—’Ÿ’žŠ•ȱ™›’—ŒŽœȱ Šȱ Œ‘Š—ŒŽȱ ˜ȱž›˜™ŽŠ—’œŽȱ ‘Ž’›ȱ™˜•’Œ’Žœǯȱ —ȱ ’—’Ÿ’žŠ•ȱŒŠœŽœǰȱ ‘’œȱ–’‘ȱŠ•›ŽŠ¢ȱ‘ŠŸŽȱ‘Š™™Ž—Žǰȱ‹žȱ —˜ ȱ‘Žȱ™›ŠŒ’ŒŽȱ Šœȱ•ŽŠ••¢ȱžŠ›Š—ŽŽǯȱ‘Žȱjus foederis gave them the opportunity to seek ž›˜™ŽŠ—ȱŠ••’Š—ŒŽȱ™Š›—Ž›œȱŠ—ȱ‘žœȱ˜ȱ‹ŽŒ˜–ŽȱŠŒ˜›œȱ‹Ž¢˜—ȱ‘Žȱ‹˜›Ž›œȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱŽ’Œ‘ǯȱ‘Žȱ œ–Š••ȱ™›˜Ÿ’œ˜ȱ‘ŠȱœžŒ‘ȱŠ••’Š—ŒŽœȱ Ž›Žȱ—˜ȱ˜ȱ‹Žȱ’›ŽŒŽȱŠŠ’—œȱ‘Žȱ–™Ž›˜›ȱŠ—ȱ‘ŽȱŽ’Œ‘ȱ —˜ȱ•˜—Ž›ȱŠ–˜ž—Žȱ˜ȱ–žŒ‘ǯȱŠ’—œȱ‘Žȱ™›˜Ÿ’œ’˜—œȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱŽ—Ž›Š•ȱŒ•ŠžœŽǰȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱœ™ŽŒ’ꮍȱ ‘Šȱ‘Žȱ–Ž–‹Ž›œȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱŽ’Œ‘ȱ Ž›Žȱ—˜ȱ™Ž›–’ĴŽȱ˜ȱœž™™˜›ȱŽ’‘Ž›ȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ ˜ȱ™Š›’Žœȱ’—ȱ‘Žȱ Œ˜—’—ž’—ȱŒ˜—Ě’Œȱ‹Ž ŽŽ—ȱ›Š—ŒŽȱŠ—ȱ™Š’—ǰȱŠ›’Œ•Žȱřȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱȱŠ••˜ Žȱ‘Ž–ȱ˜ȱœž™™˜›ȱ ˜—Žȱœ’Žȱ˜›ȱ‘Žȱ˜‘Ž›ȱȁ‹Ž¢˜—ȱ‘Žȱ›˜—’Ž›œȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ ˜•¢ȱ˜–Š—ȱ–™’›ŽȂȱ’—ȱžž›ŽȱŒ˜—Ě’Œœȱ ‹Ž ŽŽ—ȱ‘Žȱ ˜ȱ›˜ —œǯȱ‘ŽȱŠŒȱ‘Šȱ–˜œȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ™›’—ŒŽœȱȮȱ—˜ȱ˜ȱœ™ŽŠ”ȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ›ŽŽȱ’’ŽœȱȮȱ were not really able to make use of, or instrumentalise, this jus foederis, and were hardly capable of positioning themselves on the European stage, does not change the general ™˜’—ǯȱȱ •ŽŠœȱ ‘Žȱ •Š›ŽœȱŽœŠŽœǰȱŽœ™ŽŒ’Š••¢ȱ ‘˜œŽȱ ‘ŠȱŠŒšž’›Žȱ ˜›Ž’—ȱ›˜ —œȱ ǻŠ¡˜—¢ǰȱ Brandenburg, Hanover) were to become active participants in the European interplay of ˜›ŒŽœȱ˜—ȱ‘Žȱ‹Šœ’œȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱŽŠŒŽȱ˜ȱŽœ™‘Š•’Šǯȱžȱ’ȱ ŠœȱŠ•œ˜ȱšž’Žȱ™˜œœ’‹•Žȱ‘ŠȱŠȱȁ–’•’—Ȃȱ ™›’—ŒŽ˜–ȱœžŒ‘ȱŠœȱ•ŽŒ˜›Š•ȱŠ’—£ȱ–’‘ȱŒ˜—Œ•žŽȱŠȱ›ŽŠ¢ȱ ’‘ȱ‘Žȱ—•’œ‘ȱ›˜ —ǰȱ˜›ȱ‘Šȱ ‘Žȱ›Žœ•ŽœœȱŠ—ȱŠ–‹’’˜žœȱ’œ‘˜™ȱ˜ȱû—œŽ›ȱŒ˜ž•ȱŒ˜••ŽŒȱŠȱ—ž–‹Ž›ȱ˜ȱž›˜™ŽŠ—ȱ™˜ Ž›œȱŠœȱ Š••’Žœȱ’—ȱ˜›Ž›ȱ˜ȱŸŽ—ȱ‘’œȱŠ—Ž›ȱ˜—ȱ‘Žȱ—Ž’‘‹˜ž›’—ȱŽ‘Ž›•Š—œǯȱ‘Žȱž›˜™ŽŠ—’œ’—ȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ Ž’Œ‘ȱ ŠœȱŠȱ’›ŽŒȱŒ˜—œŽšžŽ—ŒŽȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱŽŠŒŽȱ˜ȱŽœ™‘Š•’Šǯ

None of the European states made use of the opportunity, mentioned at the beginning ˜ȱ‘’œȱŽœœŠ¢ǰȱ˜ȱ‹Žȱ’—Œ•žŽȱ’—ȱ‘Žȱȁž—’ŸŽ›œŠ•ȂȱŽŠŒŽȱ˜ȱŽœ™‘Š•’ŠȱǻŠ—ȱ‘žœȱ˜ȱŠ’—ȱŠȱ‘’‘Ž›ȱ Ž›ŽŽȱ˜ȱ •ŽŠ•ȱœŽŒž›’¢ȱ ˜›ȱ ‘Ž’›ȱ™˜•’¢Ǽǯȱ˜—Ž‘Ž•Žœœȱ ‘Žȱ™ŽŠŒŽȱ›ŽŠ¢ȱ˜ȱŘŚȱŒ˜‹Ž›ȱŗŜŚŞȱ Œ˜ž—œȱŠœȱŠȱȁž›˜™ŽŠ—ȱ˜Œž–Ž—Ȃǰȱ‘Žȱȁ–˜‘Ž›Ȃȱ˜ȱŠ••ȱž›˜™ŽŠ—ȱ™ŽŠŒŽȱ›ŽŠ’Žœǰȱ˜—Žȱ‘Šȱ–Š—¢ȱ subsequent peace treaties of greater than regional relevance referred to regularly until the end of the ancien régimeǯȱ‘ŽœŽȱ›ŽŽ›Ž—ŒŽœȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱŽŠŒŽȱ˜ȱŽœ™‘Š•’Šȱ Ž›Žȱ—˜ȱ‘’Ž—ȱŠ Š¢ȱ ’—ȱ‘Žȱ˜••˜ Ȭž™ȱ˜Œž–Ž—œǰȱ‹žȱ˜ŒŒž››Žȱ’—ȱŠȱ™›˜–’—Ž—ȱ™•ŠŒŽǰȱ–˜œ•¢ȱ’—ȱ‘Žȱę›œȱŠ›’Œ•Žǯȱ ȱœ–Š••ȱœŽ•ŽŒ’˜—ȱ˜ȱŽ¡Š–™•Žœȱ–Š¢ȱ’••žœ›ŠŽȱ‘’œǯȱŠž›Š••¢ȱ‘Žȱ–Š—¢ȱȁ—Š’˜—Š•Ȃȱ›ŽŠ’Žœȱ’—ȱ  ‘’Œ‘ȱ ‘Žȱ ’–™Ž›’Š•ȱŽœŠŽœȱ Ž›Žȱ ’—Ÿ˜•ŸŽǰȱœžŒ‘ȱŠœǰȱ ˜›ȱŽ¡Š–™•Žǰȱ ‘Žȱ˜—ŽŽ›Š’˜—ȱ˜ȱ ‘Žȱ ‘’—Žȱ˜ȱŗŜśŞǰ9ȱ ’••ȱ—˜ȱ‹Žȱ’—Œ•žŽǯ

‘žœȱ‘Žȱ›ŽŠ¢ȱ˜ȱŠ••’Š—ŒŽȱ‹Ž ŽŽ—ȱ ŽŽ—ȱŠ—ȱ‘ŽȱŽ‘Ž›•Š—œȱ˜ȱřŖȱŽ™Ž–‹Ž›ȱȦȱŗŖȱ Œ˜‹Ž›ȱŗŜŞŗǰȱ˜›ȱŽ¡Š–™•Žǰȱ›ŽŽ›œȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱfundamentum ˜ȱ‘Žȱ›ŽŠ’Žœȱ˜ȱŗŜŚŞǯŗŖ This is, however, a relatively isolated case, because treaties without the participation of a partner from the Ž’Œ‘ȱ˜ž—ȱ’ȱ’ĜŒž•ȱ˜ȱŠ”Žȱ›ŽŒ˜ž›œŽȱ˜ȱŗŜŚŞǯȱ‘˜›•¢ȱ‹Ž˜›Žȱ‘’œǰȱ‘Žȱ–™Ž›’Š•–Swedish Š—ȱ‘Žȱ–™Ž›’Š•–›Ž—Œ‘ȱ™ŽŠŒŽȱ›ŽŠ’Žœȱ˜ȱ’“–ŽŽ—ȱ‘Šȱ›ŽŽ››Žȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ›ŽŠ’Žœȱ˜ȱû—œŽ›ȱ Š—ȱœ—Š‹›ûŒ”ȱŠœȱ‘Žȱfundamentum and norma ˜ȱ‘Žȱ—Ž ȱ™ŽŠŒŽǯȱžȱ‘Ž¢ȱ›ŽŽ››Žȱȁ˜—•¢Ȃȱ˜ȱ ‘Žȱȁ›Ž•ŽŸŠ—ȱ™Š›œȂȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ›ŽŠ¢ǰȱ—˜ȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱȁ˜Š•ȱ™ŠŒ”ŠŽȂǯ11ȱ‘ŽȱœŠ–Žȱ‘Š™™Ž—Žȱ’—ȱ‘ŽȱŗŜşŝȱ ›ŽŠ¢ȱ˜ȱ’“œ ’“”ȱ‹Ž ŽŽ—ȱ‘Žȱ–™Ž›˜›ȱŠ—ȱ‘Žȱ›Ž—Œ‘ȱ›˜ —ǯȱ‘’œȱ‹’•ŠŽ›Š•ȱ™ŽŠŒŽȱ›ŽŠ¢ȱ  Šœȱ‘Žȱę›œȱ˜ȱœ™ŽŠ”ȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱPax WestphalicaȱŠœȱœ˜–Ž‘’—ȱ˜ȱ‹Žȱ›ŽȬ’–™˜œŽǯ12 The same basic ™ŠĴŽ›—ȱ˜ȱŠ”’—ȱ›ŽŒ˜ž›œŽȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱŽŠŒŽȱ˜ȱŽœ™‘Š•’Šȱ’œȱ˜ž—ȱ’—ȱ‘Žȱ›Ž—Œ‘––™Ž›’Š•ȱŠ—ȱ ›Ž—Œ‘–Prussian peace treaties which marked the end of the War of the Spanish Succession.ŗř

‘ŽȱŒ˜—ŸŽ—’˜—ȱ ‘Šȱ˜—•¢ȱ™ŽŠŒŽȱ ›ŽŠ’Žœȱ ’—Ÿ˜•Ÿ’—ȱ–Ž–‹Ž›œȱ˜ȱ ‘ŽȱŽ’Œ‘ǰȱ˜›ȱ˜—Žœȱ ‘Šȱ ‘Šȱ œ˜–Žȱ œ˜›ȱ ˜ȱ Œ˜——ŽŒ’˜—ȱ ’‘ȱ ‘ŽȱŽ’Œ‘Ȃœȱ Œ˜—ŒŽ›—œǰȱ ›ŽŽ››Žȱ ˜ȱ ‘Žȱ Instrumenta Pacis ˜ȱ ŗŜŚŞȱ Œ‘Š—Žȱ ž—Š–Ž—Š••¢ȱ ’—ȱ ‘Žȱ Ž’‘ŽŽ—‘ȱ ŒŽ—ž›¢ǯȱœȱ Ž¡Š–™•Žœȱ Žȱ–Š¢ȱ Œ’Žȱ ‘Žȱ ™ŽŠŒŽȱ›ŽŠ’Žœȱ ’‘ȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱ›’Š’—ȱœŽĴ•Žȱ’œȱŒ˜—Ě’Œœȱ ’‘ȱ‘Žȱ ˜ȱ˜ž›‹˜—ȱœŠŽœȱ ’—ȱŗŝŜřȱ Š—ȱ ŗŝŞřǰȱ ‘Žȱ Š›’œȱ ŽŠŒŽȱ›ŽŽ–Ž—œȱ  ‘’Œ‘ȱ‘’Ž‘Š••ȱ Œ˜—Œ•žŽȱ ’‘ȱ ‘Žȱ ›Ž—Œ‘ȱ Š—ȱ ™Š—’œ‘ȱ›˜ —œǰȱ‘Šȱ’œǰȱ ’‘˜žȱŠ—¢ȱ™Š›’Œ’™Š’˜—ȱ‹¢ȱ‘Žȱ’–™Ž›’Š•ȱŽœŠŽœǰȱŠ—ȱ‘ŽȱŽ›œŠ’••Žœȱ ›ŽŠ’Žœȱ˜ȱŗŝŞřǯȱ••ȱ˜ȱ ‘ŽœŽȱ˜Œž–Ž—œȱ—Š–Žȱ‘ŽȱŽŠŒŽȱ˜ȱŽœ™‘Š•’Šȱę›œȱ ’—ȱŠȱ •˜—ȱ •’œȱ of treaties which, as a whole, served as base et fondement à la paix et au présent Traité, and  ‘’Œ‘ȱ Ž›Žȱ‘Ž›Ž˜›ŽȱŒ˜—ę›–ŽȱŠ—ȱ›Ž—Ž Žȱ’—ȱŗŝŜřȱŠ—ȱŗŝŞřǯ14 The partners to the treaty ™›˜–’œŽȱŽŠŒ‘ȱ˜‘Ž›ȱ‘Šȱ‘Ž¢ȱ ˜ž•ȱ˜‹œŽ›ŸŽȱ‘Ž–ȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ•ŽĴŽ›ǰȱŠœȱ’ȱ‘Ž¢ǰȱ‘Šȱ’œǰȱ‘Žȱ ˜ȱ Instrumenta ˜ȱŗŜŚŞǰȱ Ž›ŽȱŠ•œ˜ȱ’—Œ•žŽȱŸŽ›‹Š’–ȱ’—ȱ‘ŽȱŽ¡ǯȱ‘’œȱŽŸŽ•˜™–Ž—ȱ’œȱœ˜ȱŽ¡Œ’’—ȱ ‹ŽŒŠžœŽǰȱŠœȱ’œȱ Ž••ȱ”—˜ —ǰȱ‘Žȱ™ŽŠŒŽȱ›ŽŠ’Žœȱ˜ȱŗŝŜřȱŠ—ȱŗŝŞřȱŒ˜—ŒŽ›—Žȱ™›˜‹•Ž–œȱ˜žœ’Žȱ ž›˜™Žǰȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱ‘Žȱ˜Œž–Ž—œȱ˜ȱŗŜŚŞȱ’ȱ—˜ȱ–Ž—’˜—ȱŠȱŠ••ǰȱŠ—ȱ‹ŽŒŠžœŽȱ˜—•¢ȱ˜—Žȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ ™Š›—Ž›œȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ›ŽŠ¢ȱ‘Šȱ‹ŽŽ—ȱ’›ŽŒ•¢ȱ’—Ÿ˜•ŸŽȱ’—ȱ‘ŽȱŠ›ŽŽ–Ž—œȱ˜ȱŗŜŚŞǯȱ›˜–ȱ‘Žȱ™˜’—ȱ of view of international law, this process has been described as follows:

In the course of the eighteenth century, the Peace of Westphalia and many other peace treaties [were] repeatedly incorporated into sets of agreements … even when the

respective partners had not been involved in these treaties. This changed the status of the treaties of Westphalia. They became … part of Europe’s general legal and peace order, and they were obviously regarded as marking its beginning. But at the same ’–Žȱ ‘Ž¢ȱ •˜œȱ ‘Ž’›ȱ œ™ŽŒ’ęŒȱ Œ‘Š›ŠŒŽ›ǯȱ ‘Žȱ Ž›–œȱ ž—Š–Ž—ž–Ȧ‹ŠœŽȱ Š—ȱ —˜›–ŠȦ norme were no longer used at this level. Thus despite its position as the starting point, the treaty of 1648 was not, in these agreements, recognized as the basis and norm of the European order, but was seen in association with all the other treaties that were ’—Œ˜›™˜›ŠŽȱ ’—ȱŠȱœ’–’•Š›•¢ȱž—œ™ŽŒ’ęŒȱ Š¢ǯȱ —ȱ‘Žȱœ‘Š™’—ȱ˜ȱ™˜œ’’ŸŽȱ •Š ǰȱ ‘Žȱ ’ŽŠȱ seems to have come up that all these treaties together form the European order, the ›˜’ȱ™ž‹•’ŒȱŽȱ•Ȃž›˜™ŽȱȮȱ›ŽŠ›•Žœœȱ˜ȱ‘Ž’›ȱœ™ŽŒ’ęŒȱ™›˜Ÿ’œ’˜—œǯŗś

‘Žȱ ’ŽŠȱ ‘ŠȱŠ••ȱ ‘ŽœŽȱ™ŽŠŒŽȱ ›ŽŠ’Žœȱ˜ȱ œž™›ŠȬ›Ž’˜—Š•ȱ œ’—’ęŒŠ—ŒŽǰȱ ’‘ȱ ‘ŽȱŽŠŒŽȱ˜ȱ Žœ™‘Š•’ŠȱŠȱ‘Ž’›ȱ‘ŽŠǰȱŒ˜—œ’žŽȱ‘Žȱž›˜™ŽŠ—ȱ˜›Ž›ȱŒŠ—ȱ‹Žȱ˜ž—ȱŗśȱ¢ŽŠ›œȱ‹Ž˜›ŽȱŗŝŜřǰȱ’—ȱ ‘ŽȱŠŒ‘Ž—ȱŽę—’’ŸŽȱŽŠŒŽȱ˜ȱŗŞȱŒ˜‹Ž›ȱŗŝŚŞȱ‹Ž ŽŽ—ȱ›Š—ŒŽǰȱ›’Š’—ǰȱŠ—ȱ‘ŽȱŽ‘Ž›•Š—œǯȱ Article III of this document reads:

Les Traités de Westphalie; ceux de Madrid, entre les couronnes d’Espagne & d’Angleterre, de 1667 & de 1670; les Traités de Paix de Nimègue de 1678 & de 1679; de Ryswick de 1697; d’Utrecht de 1713; de Bade de 1714; le Traité de la triple alliance de la Haye de 1717; celui de la quadruple alliance de Londres de 1718; & le Traité de Paix de Vienne de 1738 , servent de base & de fondement à la Paix générale, & au ™›·œŽ—ȱ›Š’¸Dzȱǭȱ™˜ž›ȱ ŒŽȱ ŽěŽȱ ’•œȱ œ˜—ȱ ›Ž—˜žŸŽ••·œȱ Žȱ Œ˜—ę›–·œȱŠ—œȱ •Šȱ–Ž’••Žž›Žȱ forme, & comme s’ils étoient insérés ici mot à mot.ŗŜ

‘’œȱŽŸ’Ž—ŒŽȱ•ŽŠŸŽœȱ•’Ĵ•Žȱ›˜˜–ȱ˜›ȱ˜ž‹ȱ‘Šȱ’—ȱ‘ŽȱŽ¢Žœȱ˜ȱ‹˜‘ȱ‘ŽȱŽ—Ž›Š•ȱ™ž‹•’ŒȱŠ—ȱ lawyers in pre-modern times, the Peace of Westphalia, along with other documents, had the œŠžœȱ˜ȱŠȱ‹Šœ’Œȱ•Š ȱ˜›ȱž›˜™Žǯȱȱ Šœȱ›Ž™ŽŠŽ•¢ȱ’—Ÿ˜”ŽȱŽŸŽ—ȱ ‘Ž—ǰȱ’—ȱ–ŠŽ›’Š•ȱŽ›–œǰȱ ™Ž˜™•Žȱ‘Šȱ’œŠ—ŒŽȱ‘Ž–œŽ•ŸŽœȱ›˜–ȱ’ȱ–˜›Žȱ˜›ȱ•ŽœœȱŒ•ŽŠ›•¢ǯȱŽȱœ‘˜ž•ȱ—˜ȱŠ’•ȱ˜ȱ–Ž—’˜—ȱ ‘ŠȱŠ•‘˜ž‘ȱ‘Ž¢ȱŒ˜—ŒŽ—›ŠŽȱ˜—ȱ‘Žȱ ˜•¢ȱ˜–Š—ȱ–™’›Žǰȱ’œȱ™ŠŒ’ęŒŠ’˜—ǰȱŠ—ȱ–Š”’—ȱ’ȱ secure, the two Instrumenta ˜ȱŒ˜‹Ž›ȱŗŜŚŞȱŒ˜—Š’—ŽȱŠȱ—ž–‹Ž›ȱ˜ȱœŽŒ’˜—œȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱŠ™™•’Žȱ˜ȱ —˜—Ȭ Ž›–Š—ȱŒ˜—ŒŽ›—œǰȱ‘Šȱ’œǰȱž›˜™ŽŠ—ȱ–ŠĴŽ›œǯȱȱ’œȱ Ž••ȱ”—˜ —ȱ‘Šȱ‘Žȱ ˜ȱInstrumenta Š›Žȱ—˜ȱ•˜’ŒŠ••¢ȱŠ—ȱœ¢œŽ–Š’ŒŠ••¢ȱœ›žŒž›Žǰȱ‘˜ ŽŸŽ›ǰȱœ˜ȱ‘Šȱę—’—ȱ‘ŽœŽȱ—˜—Ȭ Ž›–Š—ȱ ›Žž•Š’˜—œȱ’œȱŠȱŽ’˜žœȱŠœ”ǯ

ȱ •Š›Žȱ™›˜™˜›’˜—ȱ˜ȱ ‘Ž–ȱŒ˜—ŒŽ›—œȱ ‘Žȱ™Ž——’—Žȱ™Ž—’—œž•Šǯȱ‘ŽœŽȱ ’—Œ•žŽȱ’—Ž›˜•˜ȱ ™Šœœ’—ȱ’—˜ȱ‘Žȱœ˜ŸŽ›Ž’—ȱ˜ —Ž›œ‘’™ȱ˜ȱ›Š—ŒŽȱǻȱȗȱŝŘǼǰȱ™Š›’Š••¢ȱŒŠ—ŒŽ••’—ȱ‘Žȱ›ŽŠ¢ȱ ˜ȱ‘Ž›ŠœŒ˜ǰȱŠŽȱŜȱ™›’•ȱŗŜřŗǰȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱ‘Šȱ˜‘Ž› ’œŽȱ‹ŽŽ—ȱ›Š’ꮍȱǻȱȗȱşŘǼDzȱ‘Žȱę—Š—Œ’Š•ȱ Œ˜–™Ž—œŠ’˜—ȱ  ‘’Œ‘ȱ ›Š—ŒŽȱ Š›ŽŽȱ ˜ȱ ™Š¢ȱ ˜ȱ ‘Žȱ ž”Žȱ ˜ȱ Š—žŠȱ ˜—ȱ ‹Ž‘Š•ȱ ˜ȱ ŠŸ˜¢ȱ ǻȱȗȱşŚǼDzȱŠ—ȱ ‘Žȱ™Šœœ’—ȱ˜ȱ˜—Ž››Š˜ȱŠ—ȱ˜‘Ž›ȱž™™Ž›ȱ Š•’Š—ȱ™•ŠŒŽœȱ ’—˜ȱ ‘Žȱ ŽžŠ•ȱ ˜ —Ž›œ‘’™ȱ˜ȱ ‘Žȱž”Žȱ˜ȱŠŸ˜¢ȱ ’—ȱ •’—Žȱ ’‘ȱŠȱ ’•Žȱ˜ȱŠŒšž’œ’’˜—ȱŠŽȱŗŜřŚȱ ǻȱȗȱşśǼǯȱ ž›‘Ž›ǰȱ™˜œœŽœœ’˜—œȱ ’—ȱž™™Ž›ȱ Š•¢ȱ ǻ˜Œ‘ŽŸŽ›Š—Šǰȱ•–’ǰȱŠŽœ˜•ŠǼȱ Ž›Žȱ ›Š—œŽ››Žȱ ˜ȱ ‘Žȱ ownership of the duke of Savoy while the previous feudal relationship of vassalage with the Ž’Œ‘ȱ ŠœȱŠ‹˜•’œ‘ŽȱǻȱȗȱşŜǼDzȱ‘ŽȱŒŠœ•Žœȱ˜ȱŽ’˜•’ȱŠ—ȱž££Š›Šǰȱ™•žœȱ‘ŽȱŽ››’˜›’Žœȱ‘Šȱ ‹Ž•˜—Žȱ˜ȱ‘Ž–ǰȱ Ž›Žȱ’ŸŽ—ȱ‹ŠŒ”ȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱž”Žȱ˜ȱŠ—žŠǰȱ‹žȱ‘Žȱž”Žȱ˜ȱ žŠœŠ••Šȱ Šœȱ Š‹•Žȱ˜ȱ’—œ’žŽȱ•ŽŠ•ȱ™›˜ŒŽŽ’—œȱǻȱȗȱşŝǼǯȱ’—Š••¢ǰȱ‘ŽȱŽœŒŽ—Š—œȱ˜ȱ˜ž—ȱŠŒ‘Ž›Š—˜ȱ  Ž›Žȱ›Žœ˜›Žȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱŽžŠ•ȱŽ—ž›Žȱ˜ȱ˜Œ‘ŠȱŠ—ȱ››Š£’˜ȱǻȱȗȱşŝǼǯ

‘ŽȱŽ¡™Š—œ’˜—ȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱŽ››’˜›’Žœȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ›Ž—Œ‘ȱ›˜ —ȱ Šœȱ’–™˜›Š—DZȱ‘’œȱ’—Œ•žŽȱ‘Žȱ ǻę—Š•Ǽȱ›ŽŸŽ›œ’˜—ȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ‹’œ‘˜™›’Œœȱ˜ȱŽĵǰȱ˜ž•ǰȱŠ—ȱŽ›ž—ȱ˜—ȱ‘Žȱ ŽœŽ›—ȱ‹˜›Ž›ȱǻȱ ȗȱ ŝŖǼDzȱ ‘Žȱ ›Š—œ’’˜—ȱ ˜ȱ ›Ž’œŠŒ‘ǰȱ ‘Žȱ Š—›ŠŸ’ŠŽȱ ˜ȱ ž™™Ž›ȱ Š—ȱ •˜ Ž›ȱ •œŠŒŽǰȱ Š—ȱ ‘Žȱ ‹Š’•’ ’Œ”ȱǻŠ—Ÿ˜Ž’ǼȱŸ’Šȱ‘ŽȱŽŒŠ™˜•’œǰȱ‘ŽȱŗŖȱ’–™Ž›’Š•ȱ˜ —œȱ’—ȱ•œŠŒŽȱǻȱȗȱŝřǼ – with their self-governing status intact (IPM § 87); and the imposition of occupation law in the fortress of Philippsburgȱ ǻȱȗȱ ŝŜǼǯȱ‘Ž›ȱ–ŽŠœž›Žœȱ ‘Šȱ Ž›Žȱ ’–™˜›Š—ȱ ˜›ȱ ›Š—ŒŽȂœȱ Ž˜œ›ŠŽ’Œȱ ™˜œ’’˜—ȱ Ž›Žȱ‘Žȱ›Š£’—ȱ˜ȱ˜›’ęŒŠ’˜—œȱ’—ȱ•œŠŒŽȱŠ—ȱ‘Žȱœ›’Œȱ—Žž›Š•’œŠ’˜—ȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ˜ —ȱ ˜ȱŠ‹Ž›—ȱǻȱȗȱŞŘǼǯ

’쎛Ž—ȱ Š››Š—Ž–Ž—œȱ Š™™•’Žȱ ˜ȱ ‘Žȱ ‹˜›Ž›ȱ ›Ž’˜—ȱ ‹Ž ŽŽ—ȱ ‘Žȱ Ž›–Š—ȱ œŠŽœȱ Š—ȱ ‘ŽȱŽ‘Ž›•Š—œǯȱ‘Žȱ›Žœ’ž’˜—ȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱž”Žȱ˜ȱ›˜¢ǰȱŠȱœž™™˜›Ž›ȱ˜ȱ›Š—ŒŽǰȱ Šœȱ˜ȱ’—Œ•žŽȱ ›ž•Žȱ˜ŸŽ›ȱ·—·›Š—Žǰȱ ’‘ȱ‘Žȱ›’‘œȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ ˜•¢ȱ˜–Š—ȱ–™’›Žȱ›Ž–Š’—’—ȱž—˜žŒ‘Žȱǻȱ ȗȱŘŞǼǯ

‘Ž›ȱ ’œ™˜œ’’˜—œȱ ŠŠ’—ȱ Š™™•’Žȱ ˜ȱ ‘Žȱ ’–™Ž›’Š•ȱ ‘Ž›Ž’Š›¢ȱ •Š—œȱ ‘Šȱ Ž›Žȱ —˜ȱ ™Š›ȱ ˜ȱ ‘Žȱ Ž–™’›Žǰȱ ‘Šȱ ’œǰȱ–Š’—•¢ȱ˜‘Ž–’Šǰȱ ‘˜œŽȱ ’—‘Š‹’Š—œȱ Ž—“˜¢Žȱ ‘Žȱ œŠ–Žȱ Š–—Žœ¢ȱ Šœȱ ‘˜œŽȱ ‘˜ȱ•’ŸŽȱ’—ȱ‘ŽȱŽ’Œ‘ȱǻȱȗȱśŘǼǰȱŠ—ȱ ‘˜œŽȱ›˜ŽœŠ—ȱ™Š›ȱ Šœȱ˜ȱ‘ŠŸŽȱ‘ŽȱœŠ–Žȱ •ŽŠ•ȱ œŠžœǰȱ ’—ȱ™›’—Œ’™•ŽǰȱŠœȱ ‘ŽȱŠ‘˜•’Œȱ™Š›ȱ ǻȱȗȱśśǼǯȱ —ȱ’•Žœ’Šǰȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱ Šœȱ ›ŽŠŽȱŠœȱ Šȱ Ž››’˜›¢ȱ Š——Ž¡Žȱ ˜ȱ ‘Žȱ ˜‘Ž–’Š—ȱ›˜ —ȱ ǻŠ—ǰȱ Šœȱ Žȱ ”—˜ ǰȱ Šœȱ —˜ȱ Œ˜ŸŽ›Žȱ ‹¢ȱ ‘Žȱ Œ˜—œ’ž’˜—ȱ˜ŸŽ›—’—ȱ‘Žȱ’–™Ž›’Š•ȱŒ’›Œ•ŽœǼǰȱ‘Žȱ›˜ŽœŠ—œȱ Ž›Žȱ›Š—Žȱœ™ŽŒ’Š•ȱ™›˜ŽŒ’˜—ǯȱ ‘Žȱ˜‹•’Š’˜—ȱ˜ȱ‘˜œŽȱ˜ȱŠȱ’쎛Ž—ȱŽ—˜–’—Š’˜—ȱ˜ȱŽ–’›ŠŽȱ Šœȱ•’Žȱ’—ȱ‘Ž’›ȱŒŠœŽǰȱŠ—ȱ ’—ȱŒ‘ Ž’—’ĵǰȱŠžŽ›ǰȱŠ—ȱ •˜Šžȱ‘Ž¢ȱ Ž›Žȱ™›˜–’œŽǰȱ˜›ȱ™Ž›–’ĴŽȱ˜ȱŽ›ŽŒǰȱ‘›ŽŽȱȁ›ŽŽ˜–ȱ Œ‘ž›Œ‘ŽœȂȱǻȱȗȗȱřŞ-ŚŖǼǯ

ȱ Œ˜ž›œŽǰȱ ‘Žȱ ŒŽœœ’˜—ȱ ˜ȱ ’–™Ž›’Š•ȱ Ž››’˜›’Žœȱ ǻŽœŽ›—ȱ ˜–Ž›Š—’Šǰȱ ’œ–Š›ǰȱ ›Ž–Ž—ǰȱ Š—ȱŽ›Ž—Ǽȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ Ž’œ‘ȱ›˜ —ȱŠœȱŒ˜–™Ž—œŠ’˜—ȱŠ•œ˜ȱŠŒšž’›ŽȱŠȱž›˜™ŽŠ—ȱœ’—’ęŒŠ—ŒŽȱ ‹ŽŒŠžœŽȱ’ȱ–ŽŠ—ȱ‘ŠȱŠȱ˜›Ž’—ȱ›˜ —ȱ‘ŠȱŒ•ŽŠ›•¢ȱœ‘’Žȱ’œȱ‹˜›Ž›œȱœ˜ž‘ Š›œǯȱ‘’œȱ—˜ȱ only allowed it to improve its strategic position and gave it control of important river mouths, ‹žȱŠ•œ˜ȱž›—Žȱ’ȱ’—˜ȱŠ—ȱŠŒ˜›ȱ˜—ȱ‘ŽȱŽ—›Š•ȱž›˜™ŽŠ—ȱœŠŽȱǻȱ›ǯȱǼǯȱ—•’”Žȱ‘Žȱ›Ž—Œ‘ȱ ›˜ —ǰȱ’ȱ Šœȱ™Ž›–’ĴŽǰȱŸ’Šȱ’œȱ’™•˜–Šœǰȱ˜ȱŽȱ˜ĜŒ’Š••¢ȱ’—Ÿ˜•ŸŽȱ’—ȱ‘Žȱ’–™Ž›’Š•ȱ’Žȱ’—ȱ –ŠĴŽ›œȱ™Ž›Š’—’—ȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱŽ’Œ‘ǯ

’—Š••¢ǰȱ™Ž›‘Š™œȱ ‘Žȱ–˜œȱ ’–™˜›Š—ȱ˜ȱ ‘Žȱž›˜™ŽŠ—ȱŒ˜—ŒŽ›—œȱ ’—ȱ ‘Žȱ  ˜ȱ Instrumenta  Šœȱ‘ŽȱŠ–˜žœȱȱŠ›’Œ•Žȱǰȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱ•Š’ȱ˜ —ȱŠœŽ•ȂœȱŠ—ȱ ’ĵŽ›•Š—ȂœȱŽ¡Ž–™’˜—ȱ›˜–ȱ ‘Žȱ“ž›’œ’Œ’˜—ȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ’–™Ž›’Š•ȱ‘Š–‹Ž›ȱ˜ž›ǰȱŽœŠ‹•’œ‘’—ȱ‘Žȱ ’œœȱ˜—ŽŽ›Š’˜—Ȃœȱ•ŽŠ•ȱ ’—Ž™Ž—Ž—ŒŽǯȱ‘žœȱ‘ŽȱœŠžœȱ’—ȱ’—Ž›—Š’˜—Š•ȱ•Š ȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱŠœœ˜Œ’Š’˜—ȱ˜ȱŒŠ—˜—œǰȱ˜—Žȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱ ‘ŠȱŽ¡’œŽȱ˜›ȱŗśŖȱ¢ŽŠ›œȱŠ—ȱ•˜—Ž›ǰȱ Šœȱ’—’›ŽŒ•¢ȱœŠ—Œ’˜—Žǯ

The European potential of the two Instrumenta Pacis  Šœȱ›˜ž—Žȱ˜ěȱ‹¢ȱ‘Žȱ’—Œ•žœ’˜—ȱ˜ȱ other states in the Peace, or, in the case of the Instrumentum Pacis Monasteriense, by inviting ‘Ž–ȱ˜ȱ“˜’—ǰȱŠœȱŽœŒ›’‹ŽȱŠȱ‘Žȱ‹Ž’——’—ȱ˜ȱ‘’œȱŒ‘Š™Ž›ǯȱȱŒ˜ž›œŽǰȱŠœȱŠ•›ŽŠ¢ȱ–Ž—’˜—Žǰȱ ‘Ž›Žȱ Šœȱ—˜ȱŠȱœ’—•Žȱ’—œŠ—ŒŽȱ˜ȱ‘’œȱ‘Š™™Ž—’—ǯȱ›˜‹Š‹•¢ȱ˜›ȱ‘’œȱ›ŽŠœ˜—ǰȱ‘ŽȱŠ›Œ‘’ŽŒœȱ˜ȱ later peace treaties refrained from turning this inclusion or invitation to third parties into a ›ž•Žȱ˜ȱ‘ž–‹ȱ’—ȱ’—Ž›—Š’˜—Š•ȱ•Š ǯȱ˜ȱ‘’œȱŽ¡Ž—ǰȱ‘ŽȱŽŠŒŽȱ˜ȱŽœ™‘Š•’Šȱ Šœȱž—’šžŽǯ

We shall now return to the point from which this essay started, that is, to the question ˜ȱ ‘Žȱ ȁž›˜™ŽŠ——ŽœœȂȱ ˜ȱ ‘Žȱ ŽŠŒŽȱ ˜ȱŽœ™‘Š•’Šǯȱ ˜‘ȱ ™Š›œȱ ˜ȱ ‘’œȱ ŽŠŒŽǰȱ ’—ȱ ™›’—Œ’™•Žǰȱ ›Žž•ŠŽȱ–Š’—•¢ȱ‘ŽȱŠěŠ’›œȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱŽ’Œ‘ǰȱŠ—ȱ’ȱ‘’œȱ ’‘ȱ›ŽŠȱœžŒŒŽœœȱ˜›ȱŠȱŒ˜—œ’Ž›Š‹•Žȱ •Ž—‘ȱ˜ȱ’–Žǯȱžȱ’—’Ÿ’žŠ•ȱ™›˜Ÿ’œ’˜—œȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱŽŠŒŽȱŒ•ŽŠ›•¢ȱ›ŽŠŒ‘Žȱ‹Ž¢˜—ȱ‘Žȱ‹˜›Ž›œȱ ˜ȱ ‘Žȱ ˜•¢ȱ˜–Š—ȱ–™’›Žȱ ˜ȱ ‘Žȱ Ž›–Š—ȱŠ’˜—ǯȱ ‘’œȱ Š™™•’Žȱ Žœ™ŽŒ’Š••¢ȱ ˜ȱ ‘Žȱ ›Š‘Ž›ȱ Ěž’ȱ•ŽŠ•ȱŒ˜—’’˜—œȱ’—ȱ’–™Ž›’Š•ȱŠ•¢ǰȱ‹žȱŠ•œ˜ȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ ŽœŽ›—ȱŠ—ȱ—˜›‘Ž›—ȱ‹˜›Ž›œȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ Ž’Œ‘ǰȱ˜ȱ ’ĵŽ›•Š—ǰȱŠ—ȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ’–™Ž›’Š•ȱ‘Ž›Ž’Š›¢ȱ•Š—œȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ›˜ —ȱ˜ȱ˜‘Ž–’ŠȱŠ•˜—ȱ  ’‘ȱ’•Žœ’Šǯ

ȱœŽŒ˜—ȱŠŒ˜›ǰȱ‘˜ ŽŸŽ›ǰȱ ŠœȱŽŸŽ—ȱ–˜›ŽȱŒ›žŒ’Š•ǯȱ‘ŽȱŒ˜—œ’ž’˜—ȱŠ—ȱ‘Žȱ—Ž •¢ȱŠ“žœŽȱ œ¢œŽ–ȱ˜ȱŒ‘ŽŒ”œȱŠ—ȱ‹Š•Š—ŒŽœȱ ’—ȱ‘ŽȱŽ’Œ‘ȱ Ž›Žȱœž‹–’ĴŽȱ˜ȱž›˜™ŽŠ—ȱœž™Ž›Ÿ’œ’˜—ȱŠ—ȱ

˜—Žȱ ‘’—DZȱ Šȱ ¢—Š–’Œȱ Œ‘Š›Žǯȱ ‘Žȱ Ž–Ž›’—ȱ ž›˜™ŽŠ—ȱ œ¢œŽ–ȱ Šœȱ ˜Š••¢ȱ Ž™Ž—Ž—ȱ ˜—ȱ ‘ŽȱŒŽ—›Žȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱŒ˜—’—Ž—ȱ‹Ž’—ȱ™ŠŒ’ꮍǯȱœȱȁ™˜ Ž›•Žœœ—ŽœœȂȱ Šœȱ’—Ž—Žȱ˜ȱ‹Š•Š—ŒŽȱ˜žȱ ‘ŽȱŠ–‹’’˜—œȱ˜ȱ’œȱ—Ž’‘‹˜ž›œǯȱ‘Žȱ’™•˜–Šœȱ’—ȱû—œŽ›ȱŠ—ȱœ—Š‹›ûŒ”ȱ‘˜ž‘ȱ’—ȱ‘ŽœŽȱ ˜›ȱ’—ȱœ’–’•Š›ȱŽ›–œȱŠ—ȱ Ž›Žȱž••¢ȱŒŠ™Š‹•Žȱ˜ȱŽŠ•’—ȱ ’‘ȱ‘ŽȱŒŠŽ˜›¢ȱ˜ȱȁž›˜™ŽȂǰȱŠœȱ‘Žȱ indexes to the many volumes of the Acta Pacis Westphalicae œ‘˜ ǯȱ‘Ž›Žȱ’œȱ–žŒ‘ȱ˜ȱœžŽœȱ ‘Šȱ‘Žȱ’™•˜–Šœȱ’—ȱû—œŽ›ȱŠ—ȱœ—Š‹›ûŒ”ȱ Ž›Žȱšž’ŽȱŠ–’•’Š›ȱ ’‘ȱ‘Žȱ–ŽŠ™‘˜›ȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ ȁž›˜™ŽŠ—ȱ‹Š•Š—ŒŽȂǰȱ‘Šȱ’œǰȱ‘’—”’—ȱ’—ȱŠȱœ¢œŽ–Š’ŒȱŒ˜—Ž¡ǰȱŠœȱ Šœȱ’œŒžœœŽȱŒ˜—›˜ŸŽ›œ’Š••¢ȱ Šȱ—ž–‹Ž›ȱ˜ȱ¢ŽŠ›œȱŠ˜ǯŗŝ

‘Žȱ ŠŒȱ ‘Šȱ ‘Žȱ’™•˜–Šœȱ Ž›ŽȱŠȱ ŽŠœŽȱ ’‘ȱ ‘Žȱ ŒŠŽ˜›¢ȱ˜ȱ ȁž›˜™ŽȂȱ ’œȱ ›ŽĚŽŒŽȱ ’—ȱ the history of its immediate reception, as collections of documents on the history of the origins and consequences of the Peace of Westphalia were published all over Europe, in the Ž‘Ž›•Š—œǰȱ‘ŽȱŽ’Œ‘ǰȱ›Š—ŒŽǰȱ ŽŽ—ǰȱ™Š’—ǰȱŠ•¢ǰȱŠ—ȱ ’ĵŽ›•Š—ǯŗŞ And the Peace of Westphalia has remained on the agenda of European historiography since, regardless of all ĚžŒžŠ’˜—œǯȱŽȱŽœ™’Žȱ‘ŽȱŒ•Š’–œȱ˜ȱŸŠ›’˜žœȱ—Š’˜—Š•ȱ‘’œ˜›’Žœǰȱ’ȱ Šœȱ—˜ȱŠŒ”—˜ •ŽŽȱ ŠœȱŠȱž›˜™ŽŠ—ȱŽŸŽ—ȱž—’•ȱ’œȱŠ——’ŸŽ›œŠ›¢ȱ’—ȱŗşŚŞȱǻŠ•œ˜ȱŠ—ȱ’–™˜›Š—ȱŠŽȱ˜›ȱ‘Žȱ™›˜ŒŽœœȱ˜ȱ ž›˜™ŽŠ—ȱž—’ęŒŠ’˜—ǼǯȱœȱŠ—ȱŽ¡Š–™•ŽǰȱȱŒ’ŽȱŠȱžŒ‘ȱ™ž‹•’ŒŠ’˜—ǰȱŠ—ȱŽœœŠ¢ȱ‹¢ȱǯǯȱŸŠ—ȱ Š–Ž•ǰȱ ’••ž–’—Š’—•¢ȱ Ž—’•ŽDZȱ ȁŽȱ Ÿ›ŽŽȱ ŸŠ—ȱž—œŽ›ǯȱ ž—Š–Ž—ȱ Ÿ˜˜›ȱŽŽ›•Š—ǰȱ ž—Š–Ž—ȱ Ÿ˜˜›ȱž›˜™ŠǯȂ19 The fact that the publication of Acta Pacis Westphalicae was initiated in the •ŠŽȱ ŗşśŖœȱ Šœȱ ŒŽ›Š’—•¢ȱ Œ˜——ŽŒŽȱ—˜ȱ ˜—•¢ȱ ’‘ȱ Šȱ ›˜ ’—ȱ Š Š›Ž—Žœœǰȱ ŠŽ›ȱ ‘Žȱ ŽŒ˜—ȱ ˜›•ȱŠ›ǰȱ˜ȱ•Š ȱ’—ȱ‘’œ˜›¢ȱŠ—ȱ‘Žȱ‘Ž–Žȱ˜ȱ™ŽŠŒŽȱŠœȱœžŒ‘ǰȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱ‘ŠȱŠ•›ŽŠ¢ȱœ‘Š™Žȱ›’ĵȱ ’Œ”–Š——Ȃœȱ–Š’œŽ›’Š•ȱœ¢—‘Žœ’œȱ˜ȱŗşśşǰŘŖ but also with the process of Europeanisation,  ‘’Œ‘ȱ Šœȱ‹ŽŠ›’—ȱ’œȱę›œȱ›ž’œȱŠȱ‘Šȱ’–Žǯȱ‘ŽȱŽŠŒŽȱ˜ȱŽœ™‘Š•’Šǰȱ˜ȱœ˜–ŽȱŽ¡Ž—ǰȱŒ˜ž•ȱ ‹ŽȱœŽŽ—ȱŠœȱ‘Žȱ™›˜˜¢™Žȱ˜ȱŠȱž›˜™ŽŠ—ȱ˜›Ž›ǯ

’—Š••¢ǰȱ  Žȱ œ‘Š••ȱ Š”Žȱ Šȱ ‹›’Žȱ •˜˜”ȱ Šȱ Ÿ’œžŠ•ȱ ’–ŠŽœȱ ’—ȱ ™ž‹•’ŒŠ’˜—œȱ ˜—ȱ ‘Žȱ ŽŠŒŽȱ ˜ȱ Westphalia which acknowledge it as a European event, beginning with what is probably the best known, the coloured woodcut of Der Freudenreiche Postillon von Münsterǯȱ—ȱ–Š—¢ȱ›Ž™›’—œǰȱ ‘Žȱ›’˜ȱ˜ȱ’Ž——ŠȦŠ›’œȦ˜Œ”‘˜•–ȱ’—ȱ‘Žȱ‹ŠŒ”›˜ž—ȱŽ¡Ž–™•’ęŽœȱ‘Žȱž›˜™ŽŠ—ȱ’–Ž—œ’˜—ȱ ˜ȱ‘Žȱ™ŽŠŒŽǯ21ȱ‘ŽȱœŽŒ˜—ȱ•’—Žȱ˜ȱŽ¡ȱ’—ȱŠȱžŒ‘ȱŽŒ‘’—ȱ˜ȱŗŜŚŞ-49, Soo slot het Hemel huys syn vreudge poorten open, Ž¡™›ŽœœŽœȱ ‘Šȱ’ȱ’œȱŠ••ȱŠ‹˜žDZȱȁŠ——Ž›ȱŽȱŸ›ŽŽȱ ’Ž›ȱŽœ•˜Ž—ȱŸ˜—ȱ ž›˜™Ž—ǯȂ22 An etching from Nuremberg, Abbildung des hocherwünschten Teutschen Friedens, at least provides a hint of the European dimension in the numerous diplomats surrounding ‘Žȱ‘›˜—Žȱǻ ’‘ȱ‘Žȱ–™Ž›˜›ǰȱ‘Žȱ Ž’œ‘ȱšžŽŽ—ǰȱŠ—ȱ‘Žȱ›Ž—Œ‘ȱ”’—ǼǰȱŠ•‘˜ž‘ȱ‘Žȱ’•Žȱ œ™ŽŠ”œȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱȁ Ž›–Š—ȱ™ŽŠŒŽȂǯŘř A silver medal of the Peace of Westphalia designed with a œ›˜—•¢ȱŠ••Ž˜›’ŒŠ•ȱŽ–™‘Šœ’œȱŠ—ȱœ›žŒ”ȱ‹¢ȱŽ‹Šœ’Š—ȱŠ•Ž›ȱ’—ȱŗŜŚŞǰȱŠ›ŽœœŽœȱ‘Žȱž›˜™Žȱ motif directly in the inscription on its face: Ambiguo pax et bellum luctamine certant, Pax, Europa vovet, laeta Trophaea feratǯ24ȱ—ȱę—Š••¢ǰȱ‘Žȱ’•Žȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ–˜œȱŒ˜–™•ŽŽȱŽ’’˜—ȱǻŗŜşŝǼȱ

˜ȱŸŠ—ȱ ž••ŽȂœȱ™˜››Š’œȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱŽŠŒŽȱŽ—Ÿ˜¢œȱ’—ȱû—œŽ›ȱŠ—ȱœ—Š‹›ûŒ”ȱ›ŽŽ›œȱ’›ŽŒ•¢ȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ ȁž›˜™ŽŠ——ŽœœȂȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱŽŠŒŽȱ˜ȱŗŜŚŞDZȱŠŒ’ęŒŠ˜›Žœȱ˜›‹’œȱŒ‘›’œ’Š—’ȱœ’ŸŽȱ’Œ˜—Žœȱ™›’—Œ’™ž–ȱžŒž–ȱ et legatorum qui Monasterii atque Osnabrugae pacem Europae reconcilaruntǯŘś All this is not to deny that in many places the Peace of Westphalia was linked with a national epithet, or seen in positively biblical terms, for example, Teutscher Friede, the return of the Golden Age, ŽŒǯȱžȱ‘Ž›Žȱ’œȱ—˜ȱ˜ž‹ȱ‘Šȱ˜›ȱ‘˜œŽȱ™›˜žŒ’—ȱ‘Žȱ’–ŠŽœǰȱ‘Žȱž›˜™ŽŠ—ȱ—Šž›Žȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ ™›˜ŒŽŽ’—œȱ Šœȱ›ŽšžŽ—•¢ȱŠȱ•ŽŠœȱŠȱŠŒ˜›ǯ

There is much to suggest, therefore, that the Peace of Westphalia should be regarded —˜ȱ˜—•¢ȱŠœȱŠȱŽ’Œ‘ȱ‹Šœ’Œȱ•Š ȱ‘ŠȱŒ›ŽŠŽȱŠȱ™ŽŠŒŽȱ˜›Ž›ȱ˜ȱŒ˜—œ’Ž›Š‹•Žȱ•˜—ŽŸ’¢ǰȱ‹žȱŠ•œ˜ȱ ŠœȱŠȱž›˜™ŽŠ—ȱ˜Œž–Ž—ǯȱȱ ŠœȱœŽŽ—ȱ‹¢ȱŒ˜—Ž–™˜›Š›’Žœ – artists, designers of medals – as a ž›˜™ŽŠ—ȱŽŸŽ—ǰȱ ‘’•Žȱœž‹œŽšžŽ—ȱŽ—Ž›Š’˜—œȱŒ•Šœœ’ꮍȱ’ȱŠœȱŠȱž›—’—ȱ™˜’—ȱ’—ȱ’—Ž›—Š’˜—Š•ȱ•Š ȱ which gave rise to a European legal order, quite apart from the fact that the two Instrumenta Pacis also contained much of substance that was European, while individual provisions looked far ‹Ž¢˜—ȱ‘Žȱ‹˜›Ž›œȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱŽ’Œ‘ǯ

What the Peace of Westphalia, seen in a European perspective, failed to achieve was ˜ȱ’ŸŽȱ‘ŽȱŒ˜—’—Ž—ȱŠȱŒ˜–™›Ž‘Ž—œ’ŸŽȱŠ—ǰȱŠ‹˜ŸŽȱŠ••ǰȱŠȱ•Šœ’—ǰȱ™ŽŠŒŽǯȱœȱ Žȱ”—˜ ǰȱ’ȱ Šœȱ ‘Žȱ ˜ȱžŠ›Š—ŽŽ’—ȱ™˜ Ž›œȱǻ ŽŽ—ǰȱ›Š—ŒŽǼȱ ‘˜ǰȱ “žœȱŠȱŽ ȱ¢ŽŠ›œȱŠŽ›ȱ‘ŽȱŽŠŒŽȱ Šœȱ œ’—ŽǰȱœŽȱ’ȱŠœ’ŽDzȱŠ—ȱ˜—Žȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱŒŽ—›Š•ȱŒ˜—Ě’Œœǰȱ‘Šȱ‹Ž ŽŽ—ȱ›Š—ŒŽȱŠ—ȱ™Š’—ǰȱ Šœȱ—˜ȱ ›Žœ˜•ŸŽȱŠȱŠ••ȱ’—ȱŗŜŚŞǯȱ‘Žȱ›ŽŠ¢ȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ¢›Ž—ŽŽœȱ˜ȱŗŜśşǰȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱ’œȱœŽŽ—ȱŠœȱŠȱŒ˜–™•Ž–Ž—Š›¢ȱ Š›ŽŽ–Ž—ǰȱ’ȱ—˜ȱ›ŽŒŽ’ŸŽȱŠ—¢‘’—ȱ•’”ŽȱŠœȱ–žŒ‘ȱ™ž‹•’Œ’¢ȱ’—ȱ’œȱŠ——’ŸŽ›œŠ›¢ȱ¢ŽŠ›ȱ˜ȱŘŖŖşȱ Šœȱ‘ŽȱŽŠŒŽȱ˜ȱŽœ™‘Š•’Šȱ’ȱ’—ȱŗşşŞǯȱ‘Žȱ™ž‹•’ŒȱŽŒ‘˜ȱ Šœȱ•Š›Ž•¢ȱ›Žœ›’ŒŽȱ˜ȱŠȱœ™ŽŒ’Š•’œȱ ŠŒŠŽ–’ŒȱŠž’Ž—ŒŽǰȱŠ—ȱ’ȱ—˜ȱ˜ȱ–žŒ‘ȱ‹Ž¢˜—ȱŠȱŽ ȱŒ˜—Ž›Ž—ŒŽœȱǻŠ’—£ǰȱž¡Ž–‹ž›ǰŘŜ Š›’œǰȱ Š—ȱ Š›ŒŽ•˜—ŠȦŽ›™’—Š—Ǽǯȱ ‘Žȱ œŠ–Žȱ ’œȱ ›žŽȱ ˜ȱ ‘Žȱ ŽŠŒŽȱ ˜ȱ •’ŸŠȱ ˜ȱ ŗŜŜŖǰȱ  ‘’Œ‘ȱ ›ŽȬ˜›Ž›Žȱ›Ž•Š’˜—œȱ’—ȱ—˜›‘ȬŽŠœŽ›—ȱž›˜™Žǰȱž•’–ŠŽ•¢ȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ‹Ž—Žęȱ˜ȱ ŽŽ—ǰȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱ Šœȱ Š‹•Žȱ˜ȱŠœœŽ›ȱ’œȱ™›ŽœŽ—ŒŽȱ’—ȱ‘ŽȱŠ•’ŒǯŘŝȱ‘ŽȱŽŠŒŽȱ˜ȱ•’ŸŠȱ–žœȱŠ•œ˜ȱ‹ŽȱœŽŽ—ȱ’—ȱŒ˜——ŽŒ’˜—ȱ  ’‘ȱ‘ŽȱŽ›™ŽžŠ•ȱŽŠŒŽȱ˜ȱŠ›’œǰȱŒ˜—Œ•žŽȱ˜—Žȱ¢ŽŠ›ȱ•ŠŽ›ǰȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱœ’™ž•ŠŽȱ‘Šȱžœœ’Šȱ ‘Šȱ˜ȱ›Žœ˜›Žȱ’œȱŒŠ™ž›Žȱ’Ÿ˜—’Š—ȱŽ››’˜›’Žœȱ˜ȱ ŽŽ—ǯȱȱŒ˜ž•ȱ‹ŽȱœŠ’ȱ‘Šȱ ŽŽ—ȱ˜—•¢ȱ ŠŒ‘’ŽŸŽȱ‘Žȱ‘Ž’‘ȱ˜ȱ’œȱœ’—’ęŒŠ—ŒŽȱ’—ȱ‘ŽȱŠ•’Œȱ’—ȱŗŜŜŖ-61, without this necessarily being assumed to be a permanent state. Sweden’s position as a great power was fragile from the start, given the country’s limited resources.