chapter  3
Pages 18

Formal education is often seen as a channel through which social and economic equity for the general population can be relatively achieved and further, provide a path for future economic and social security. This is demonstrated when examining schools in Toronto which have adopted strong efforts to improve educational opportunities for ethnic minorities by instituting preferential treatment and equal opportunity programs – often working in combination with higher-level government agencies. In order to analyze these initiatives, this chapter will examine the educational process and its subsequent outcomes for ethnic minorities. First, the idea of education as human capital investment will be explored, espousing the reasons why education is an important tool for ethnic minority integration in the short and long term, and the theories of schooling that aid in the interpretation of this discourse. Attention will then turn to examining the educational process in primary and secondary schools, and thereafter university, discussing ethnic minorities’ experiences and the various programs adopted to improve their educational opportunities. The chapter will conclude by presenting the educational outcomes for ethnic minorities in Toronto, including an analysis and discussion of these findings.