This chapter examines the potential of three newer 'third wave' cognitive and behavioural therapies: Compassion Focused Therapy (CFT), Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) and Positive Psychotherapy (PPT). There is a small number of case studies and one group study which investigate the impact of CFT following ABI in the context of mental health difficulties, and an experimental Randomised Controlled Trial (RCT) investigating the role of CMT in the alleviation of empathy deficits. Hence, standard CBT approaches may need to be adapted and there is an increasing emphasis on transdiagnostic approaches such as 'third wave' cognitive behavioural therapy (CBTs). These approaches target the way the patient relates to their thoughts rather than the thought content to promote the ability to become more aware of and able to accept thoughts in a non-judgemental way. Empirical support for third wave approaches for various adult mental health populations is promising.