The need for neuropsychological rehabilitation services is underscored by the high prevalence of neurological, mental health, developmental and substance use (NMDS) disorders and the growing global public health problems they represent. Neuropsychological rehabilitation science is generally well developed in most high-income countries, as is service delivery, as its importance for the treatment of the cognitive, emotional, behavioural and psychosocial consequences of NMDS disorders is recognised. This is not the case in most low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) where it is still either conspicuously absent or evolving. The need for accessible and culturally appropriate rehabilitation services is further exacerbated by burgeoning global migration, globalisation and the growth of refugee populations. Taking seriously the cultural resources available in these contexts is important given the long-term neurocognitive, psychosocial and economic consequences of untreated NMDS disorders. Incorporating traditional healing customs into neuropsychological rehabilitation interventions is one important supplementary strategy to address the treatment gap and/or shorten the treatment lag.