This chapter outlines the formation of and the meaning behind teacher-led initiatives in the context of Taiwan's education reform. Taiwan's educational reforms have moved along two trajectories since the 1990s: first, the deregulation of the educational system; and second, a focus on innovation to meet the demands of the 21st century global economy. Teacher professional development as a form of joint agency emerged in the 1990s. The evolvement of professional learning community (PLC) structure and processes to a certain extent reflects the ever-changing roles and functions of school leaders and teaching professionals to meet the higher expectations of the new education environment. Effective implementation of PLCs can be hampered by an over-emphasis on teacher performance through student assessments or the contrived collegiality oftentimes resulting from enforcement by state-granted programs. A new form of networked learning could be used as a means to encourage teacher-led initiatives that nurtured a pro-change climate and strengthened a culture of professional collaboration.