For more than three decades the idea of professional learning communities (PLCs) has been present within education. Zhong indicates that a school learning community is constructed by four major elements: sense of belonging, sense of trust, sense of mutual benefit and sense of sharing. The two PLC characteristics Shared values and vision and Collective responsibility for students' learning were typically seen as very closely aligned by Chinese stakeholders. Policy makers and school staff generally agreed that group learning and collaborations focused on learning were evident in professional development of teachers in China. The process of reflective enquiry was perceived as important but stakeholder views suggested it was often confined to students' academic performance, mainly because this was a key indicator for evaluating teacher performance. In relation to openness, networks and partnerships, national policy makers noted some exchange and co-operation between schools in the same county or district, invariably initiated by LEAs in response to central requirements.