This conclusion presents some closing thoughts on the key concepts discussed in the preceding chapters of this book. The book suggests that improving schools and school systems is a complex, fraught and complicated business. Armstrong suggests that while system leaders can always learn from each other it is always critical to consider the local context and social structure to design problem-solving processes that relate to systemic change. The production paradigm is underpinned by a neo-liberal concern with the development and management of human capital. In contrast, the professional paradigm is concerned with developing professional capital in its most inclusive sense. At the heart of successful educational change and reform, at scale, is the critical task of changing pedagogy and professional practice for the better. The evidence shows that, if implemented properly, PLCs in their various forms have the power and potential to generate teacher agency, teacher leadership and teacher innovation in ways that lead directly to improvement in learner outcomes.