Comparative studies: Iran and Egypt
The next two chapters will identify with the limits, potential and practicality of the three Islamic development mechanisms in four different countries relevant to their own domestic issues and the overarching neoliberal paradigm. Policies and interactions will be tested against rigidity and chaos, and an ability to promote adaption to the conditions evident in each case. While it is obvious that none of the examples are perfect models in regard to complex development, each does possess potential within their own locality, and when compared to the main case study they will help draw out the extreme predicaments the oPt faces in trying to promote selforganisation, particularly when using Islamic development methods. This chapter will analyse the cases of Iran and Egypt, useful examples considering they are predominately Muslim states that have attempted to adopt a form of Islamism within their domestic programmes (Egypt more recently and to a lesser extent), albeit from a differing Shia and Sunni approach respectively. In Chapter 3, the diverse populations of Malaysia and Lebanon, for different reasons, are challenged by the prospect of integrating Islamic values within their domestic programmes due to the make-up of their societies. However, while Lebanon teeters on the edge of chaos, Malaysia has shown signs of adaption and self-organisation. The oPt is largely Sunni Muslim and does not contain the same sectarian tensions as Lebanon and Malaysia. However, the chaotic and highly complex environments of the latter show us how domestic mechanisms work under high levels of internal interaction (such as war in Lebanon’s case), and their functionality under international or macroeconomic policies.