The expulsion of an undesired population from a given territory carries with it forceful, injurious, often brutal treatment and extreme humiliation. It typically involves religious or ethnic discrimination, political or ideological animosities, or a combination of these. Such behavior has occurred throughout human history from antiquity to the present but greatly intensified in the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Recent events in the former Yugoslavia, Rwanda, and Darfur are a repetition of processes that nearly all other parts of the world have undergone in efforts to achieve ethnically distinct territories, group superiority, or control of highly valued resources. Children and adolescents are typically caught up in such horrors, and survivors are often left with permanent disabilities or psychological scars.