The Participatory Democracy Market in France
This chapter examines the development of a participatory democracy industry in France. In studying the structuring of this industry, it first demonstrates how the creation of the industry was directly tied to the institutionalization of an initial offer of participation from public authorities. It also shows how the professionalization of public participation has been one of the main forces driving the growing standardization of participation practices as well as the very great fragmentation of the industry. The text then analyzes the roles that public participation professionals have played in the construction and legitimization of a social demand for participation.