chapter  4
Adapting a strong city-state
WithTodd Schenk
Pages 50

Singapore is a city-state with only one level of government, which obviates the issues of coordination and negotiation among levels of government found in most other countries. This chapter introduces various characteristics of Singapore's distinct approach to governance, and explains how they shape the city-state's response to climate change. It briefly introduces the climate threats Singapore faces. The chapter discusses how actors in Singapore currently manage uncertainty and believe it is best managed moving forward. It also discusses what people learned from participating in the role-play simulation exercise that was a key component of the Harboring Uncertainty project. The chapter further explains the semi-authoritarian and pragmatic Singapore model and what it looks like in practice. One reason why the semi-authoritarian features of Singapore, including central planning and limited direct public engagement, are accepted is the invocation of a set of overarching shared values and importance placed on national harmony.