Public policy and effective citizen participation for more sustainable transportation: methods and examples
This chapter examines the areas of transportation policy and public participation with a view towards how each of these areas can interact with and help sustainable transportation (ST) efforts. Policy-making, planning and participation can be viewed as intimately entwined processes. Public policy as a field developed as part of the movement towards improved planning, rationalization of governmental processes, and greater accountability and transparency to the public and its officials. The chapter describes many public participation types, techniques, venues and effects and attempts to evaluate them in terms of their relevance for achieving changes in policy in the direction of ST. It aims to survey policy-making range broadly, with more detail about exemplary efforts included in the case studies. The period from 1970 to 1990 saw many public and political reactions against the policy emphasis on roadway expansion in many places, especially in cities, as well as their continued expansion in other places.