Programs for each of these design phases should contain the in formation that the designer needs to make informed design deci sions for that phase. Frequently, programming and design for a master plan is completed prior to beginning schematic or detailed programming for specific buildings. Some architects and pro gramming firms advocate that only the information required for schematic design be included in the initial program for a building, so as to avoid confusing the designer with detailed information before it is needed (Pena et al. 1969, 1977, 1986; Duerk 1993). Often, however, a comprehensive architectural program contain ing the information required for all three design phases is pre pared at the beginning of a major project. There are advantages to each approach relative to efficiency and cost of information gath ering that need to be assessed on a project-by-project basis.