chapter
The City as a Collection of Infrastructures
Pages 18

Infrastructure refers to the fundamental man-made structures, networks, services and facilities that support the essential growth of a country, city or industry and is fully dependent by its communities. Infrastructure is an enabler of socio-economic growth, planning policies and social wellbeing; with coming technological advancement, infrastructure has the ability to adapt landscapes, urban forms and social cultures. There are two major classifications of infrastructure – hard and soft. Hard infrastructures directly contribute to the survival of a community and its ability to respond and recover at the time of extreme events. Soft infrastructures are fundamental to quality of life, promote economic, health, and education programs, and contribute to the day-to-day cultural and social development of a community. With today's continually escalating population, changing expectations and challenging climate change obligations, infrastructure is the means to ensuring sustainable functioning of the city. Infrastructure has always been fundamental to London's urban, social and economic development.