The choir (or quire) lies immediately to the east of the crossing, and is where the offices are sung; it also accommodates usually at its east end on the south side the episcopal throne. This chapter examines norms applicable to cathedral clergy, the dean, residentiary canons, and other clergy, and to directors of music, choristers and others associated with cathedral music. The office of dean survived the Reformation. The dean was 'an ecclesiastical governor secular, over the prebendaries, and canons in the cathedral church', and could appoint a deputy. Today, under the Cathedrals Measure 1999, the constitution of a cathedral must: provide for the appointment of canons in Holy Orders and the manner of this and tenure of their office; enable lay canons to be appointed; and specify the maximum number of residentiary canons and non-residentiary canons.