The nature of the media is partly responsible. The modern press corps requires that advance copies of speeches be available, and the text of televised speeches have to be put into the TelePrompTer in advance of the actual delivery. Both features require a written text (Jamieson, 1988, p. 211). Furthermore, particularly for presidential speeches, carefully prepared speeches, with each word carefully chosen, are necessary to ensure that the speech is not misinterpreted (Bormann, 1960; Campbell & Jamieson, 1990, p. 10). As Noonan (1998) noted, “. . . a president really can’t be winging it a lot because everything he says . . . has implications, sometimes serious ones” (p. 124).