Images of America: Persistence and Ambivalence
The first survey data on how non-Americans perceive the United States appears to have been collected in the mid-1930s. The surveys were undertaken in Canada as part of a larger study of Canada-United States relations sponsored by the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. The sample sizes were, for the most part, rather small and were selected in ways that raised questions about their representativeness. At the same time, however, the researchers involved in this project targeted various elites, including religious leaders, businessmen, teachers, university students, and lawyers in the province of British Columbia. In the province of Manitoba, female community leaders were surveyed, as well as editors and publishers of small-town newspapers. A large number of senior high school students across Canada were also surveyed.