Introduction This chapter introduces some of the basic fundamentals of research and sampling. Although this chapter is written to stand alone, it touches on many of the concepts covered throughout the book. While the bulk of this book applies statistical techniques to applications using what is typically known as “secondary data” (i.e., data that has already been collected by someone else and likely exists in published form), the researcher is often confronted with the prospect of developing “primary data” (e.g., data collected by the researcher and usually involves sampling, surveys, questionnaires, or experiments). Even though the techniques and methods of statistical analysis for either are the same, the manner of data collection is different. This chapter briefly touches on some of the elements that are more prominent in primary research. For additional coverage, the reader is urged to consult one of the more detailed texts on research methodology and design in the bibliography at the end of this chapter.