chapter  1
Introduction: The State as a Contested Concept in International Relations
Pages 18

Duringthelasttwodecades,politicaltheoristswhohadpreviouslyneglected thestatehavereturnedtoaconsiderationofit.Marxists,pluralists,political economistsandothersortsofsocialbasetheorists-theoristswholong consideredthestatetobeaderivativeofamorerelevantsocialprocess-have shiftedtheirfocusbacktotheinstitutionalapparatus,anapparatus, moreover,separatefromasocialnexus. 1*Theyhavedeclaredthatthestate issomethingmorethanasumofprocesses,aresultantofclassconflictora productofinterestinteraction.Some,indeed,havegonesofarastoholdthat itcanthinkandbeforitself.Whetherthrough'competitiverequisites', 'corporatistintermediation'or'bureaucraticinsulation',thestate,itappears, cannowactindependentlyandonitsownbehalf.