Chapter introduction This chapter initiates the focus of analysing performance management within NPSOs. It provides a robust analysis of the significance and impact of sport in general, as alluded to in the opening chapter, including a discussion identifying the uniqueness of managing these entities when compared with their traditional business counterparts. Following on from this analysis, the extant literature specifically focusing on performance within NPSOs is examined. Given the clear significance and impact of sport and the potential consequences of mismanagement within this sector, it is surprising to find that this area of research within the sport management literature is relatively sparse, highlighting the critical importance of this current book. Moreover, as all the selected NPSOs within this book are solely or partially government-funded entities, it is also imperative to examine the area of governmental sports policy and its relationship with organisational performance, which is addressed towards the end of this chapter.