Introduction This chapter examines the extant literature related to fundamental areas of performance within an NPSO. Areas of research that have been reviewed in Chapter 2 and Chapter 4 have focused on general performance dimensions impacting upon all types of organisations (both organisational performance management practices and individual performance management practices). Therefore, the focus of this chapter is to identify performance dimensions that are of critical importance to NPSOs in particular and have a somewhat unique significance within these entities. The chapter begins by examining issues within the broad area of ‘sport governance’ focusing on the performance of the board within NPSOs. The competencies and practices of board members in relation to ‘financial management’ are also addressed, as effectively managing the financial component of an NPSO clearly has a direct impact upon overall organisational performance. Following this analysis, the performance dimension of ‘participation’ in sport is thoroughly explored and the practices and processes of NPSOs in relation to this fundamental dimension of performance are examined – this section largely focuses on the interventions that NPSOs adopt to stimulate participation and how these interventions are evaluated to indicate their effectiveness.