Multi-level, multi-source feedback for appraisal and development
Chapter 5 looked at the issue of who should appraise, and touched on the subject of multi-level, multi-source appraisal, also known as 360° feedback. This generally means an individual being rated by subordinates, peers, superiors and – sometimes – clients or customers, as well as doing a selfassessment. Since the middle of the 1990s, this kind of feedback system has spread with tremendous speed across both public and private sectors and is now in widespread use. The actual percentage of companies applying it is hard to gauge, as ﬁ ndings tend to conﬂ ict. Carruthers (2003) reports that 90 per cent of Fortune 1000 companies in the USA use 360° feedback, and 85 per cent of top Australian corporations do also. On the other hand, an international survey of over 1,000 organisations by Mercer (2013) reported that only 22 per cent used formal 360° feedback systems. However, the balance of evidence suggests that the higher ﬁ gures are closer to the mark. Another international study ( Brutus et al. , 2006 ) suggested not only a continuing increase in use, but also a more diverse range of applications.