chapter
8 Pages

Introduction

Transnational organised crime is a serious international problem that affects every single State either as a source, transit or destination for illicit cash, goods, services and even people. According to the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), global opium production reached 7,554 tons in 2014 alone, and approximately 120,000 hectares of land were used for the cultivation of coca leaf in 2013.1 Human trafficking has also become an important modern issue. Thousands of people are trafficked each year and may often be held in debt bondage, slavery and subjected to forced labour against their will.2 The criminal proceeds generated from these and other forms of organised crime are laundered and reinvested in the licit and illicit economies for the maximisation of long-term profits for criminals. Estimates suggest that between $2.17 and $3.61 trillion is laundered each year, which is equivalent to between 3 per cent and 5 per cent of global GDP.3 These examples amply demonstrate the serious scale of transnational organised crime.