This conclusion presents some closing thoughts on concepts discussed in this book. The book discusses the growing complexity of the contemporary era, and the doubled identities with which this is associated. Globalization has been typified as shrinking the world in terms, for example, of reducing the time it takes to travel and communicate with others, but the book have also emphasized how systemic changes in such arenas as digital media and governance make the options and choices confronting people and states operating on the world stage more complicated. The book discusses that how widespread systemic changes have also created conditions in which certain individuals – particularly those with the skills, education and other appropriate resources – can flourish and prosper. It explores the capacity of institutional changes to not only erode existing social relationships but also create space for the emergence of new collective identities that oppose these structural shifts.